US History Course Review
US History 1870 to Present
Grade 11

1920 - 1940

Emergency Quota Act restricts immigration
Washington Naval Conference--Five Power Naval Treaty
1921-1923--Warren Harding (R) President

Fordney-McCumber Tariff--highest tariff rate in US history

1923-1929--Calvin Coolidge (R) President
“The chief business of America is business.”

Scopes "Monkey" Trial in TN--John Scopes is convicted of teaching evolution

Charles Lindberg:  "Lucky Lindy“
First solo flight across the Atlantic

1929-1933--Herbert Hoover (R) President
1929--Black Tuesday, Oct. 29th---stock market crash

Great Depression
New Deal
Alphabet Soup agencies
Dust Bowl
Good Neighbor Policy

Hawley-Smoot Tariff
Makes the Depression worse
Construction on the Boulder Dam starts

Japan invades Manchuria, established "Manchuko" with a puppet ruler

1932 (1)
Reconstruction Finance Corporation begins to loan government money to businesses--too little too late
“Bonus Army” March on Washington to collect veteran's pension benefits due in the 1940s--driven out of Washington by order of President Hoover by the Army under Douglas MacArthur--”Battle of Anacostia Flats”

1932 (2)
Glass-Steagall Act--allowed the sale of government bonds to back currency
Federal Home Loan Bank Act—created discount banks for home mortgages—loans to savings and loans

1932 (3)
Revenue Act--tax increase to balance the budget
Stimson Doctrine--the U. S. government refused to recognize changes in international governments or territory effected by force
Election of 1932:  Hoover (R) vs. FDR (D)

1933-34--First New Deal
"Brain Trust" of political advisers
"Black Cabinet" included Mary McLeod Bethune--helped the president deal with civil rights issues
New Deal Coalition--unionized workers, African Americans, southern whites, and urban groups
Roosevelt critics: Huey P. Long (Share Our Wealth), Father Charles Coughlin (Annual Income), Dr. Francis Townsend (Monthly Pension for elderly)

1933-1945--Franklin Delano Roosevelt (D) President
20th Amendment--changed the term of office from March to January;  established a presidential succession
21st Amendment--repealed prohibition

Bank Holiday
FDR begins "Fireside chats“
3 R's--Relief, Recovery, Reform
Good Neighbor Policy--nonintervention in Latin America

Nye Committee-investigates munitions sales during WWI
Leads to reinforcement of isolationism

Dust Bowl on the Great Plains; most acute in southern Plains (Oklahoma & northern Texas)
John Steinbeck writes The Grapes of Wrath

Social Security Act—OASDI (Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance)-- taxes begin in 1937 with payments to begin in 1942
Italy attacks Ethiopia--Emperor Haile Selassie appeals to the League of Nations for help, but is turned down

1935-36--2nd New Deal
1935-1937,1939 Neutrality Acts—1937 (Cash and Carry)
1937-38--3rd New Deal

"Court Packing" Act--fails to win majority--"switch in time saves nine“--one justice begins to vote in favor of New Deal programs changing the court from 5-4 against to 5-4 for Roosevelt's plans
Japan invades China--"Rape of Nanking"--an estimated 250,000 civilians killed

Austria reunited with Germany (Anschluss)
Munich Pact gives Germany part of Czechoslovakia

German/Russian Non-Aggression Pact
Germany invades Poland (Sept. 1)
Russia invades Poland
Russia invades Finland and initially loses but eventually wins the war

1940 (1)
Russia invades Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania
Sitzkrieg--"Phony war" period with no fighting in the West
Blitzkrieg--"Lightning War" period where Germany overruns most of Western Europe; France surrenders in June

1940 (1)
Britain escapes when Germany cannot establish air supremacy during the "Battle of Britain"
A. Phillip Randolph threatens to lead strike by Pullman Porters Union
Selective Service Act
Election of 1940: FDR (D); Wilkie (R)
“Your boys are not going to fight in a foreign war”