US History Course Review
US History 1870 to Present
Grade 11
HHS

1901 - 1920

1901
McKinley killed in 1901 and Teddy Roosevelt becomes president
1901-1909-Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt (R) President

1902
National Reclamation Act--provided for the building of dams on federal land for water and hydroelectric power
Anthracite Coal Strike--Roosevelt mediated a dispute between mine owners and the United Mine Workers--workers received a wage increase but the union was not recognized

1903
Northern Securities v. U. S.--reestablished the power of the government to fight monopolies and trusts under the Sherman Antitrust Act
Elkins Act--gave the government the power to end railroad rebates to selected customers
First powered airplane flight--Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk, NC

1904
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine--US will police the Western Hemisphere
Progressive/Square Deal
Conservation movement
Development of the Panama Canal
National Parks
Big Stick foreign policies

Progressivism
Urban middle class who wanted better conditions for everyone and for government to do more and be less corrupt
Many of the issues the Populists had in their campaign platform were adopted by the Progressives

Muckrakers (1)
Looked for corruption and wrote about it or took pictures of it
Lincoln Steffens--Shame of the Cities--1904--slums, unsafe condition, and political corruption
Ida Tarbell--History of Standard Oil--1904—Rockefeller’s business practices

Muckrakers (2)
Upton Sinclair--The Jungle—1906--the meat packing industry
Frank Norris--The Octopus—1901--railroads
Jacob Riis--How the Other Half Lives--1890—photographs of immigrant life in the tenements

1905
Niagara Conference--meeting of civil rights activists--W.E.B. Du Bois
International Workers of the World (I.W.W.) Union--"Wobblies“--open to unskilled industrial workers including African Americans, women, and immigrants, involved in protests against American military policy during WWI

1906
Meat Inspection Act
Pure Food and Drug Act
Hepburn Act--gave the I.C.C. more power to regulate railroads

1907-08
"Gentleman's Agreement"-Japan limits immigration to the US
Muller v. Oregon--Supreme Court upholds maximum hour work day law in Oregon  (for women and children)

1909
NAACP founded
Payne-Aldrich Tariff
1909-1913--William H. Taft (R) President
Picked by Roosevelt as a Progressive
Dollar Diplomacy in Latin America

1910
Mann-Elkins Act--allowed the I. C. C. to regulate telephone, telegraph, and cable companies

1911
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

1912
Presidential Election
Taft (R)
Roosevelt (Progressive, Bull Moose)
Wilson (D)

1913
16th Amendment--legalizes a national income tax
17th Amendment--direct election of senators
Underwood Tariff
Federal Reserve Act
1913-1921 Woodrow Wilson (D) President

1914 (1)
Henry Ford develops the assembly line
Clayton Antitrust Act
Federal Trade Act
US Military invades Mexico; bombards Vera Cruz
WWI begins in Europe—Allies (England, France, Italy, Russia) v. Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire)

1914 (2)
U. S. has an isolationist policy
Banks can loan money and businesses sell to combatants
Farmers and industry expand production and borrow money
Civilian technology--tractors, cultivators
Military technology--machine gun, airplane, poison gas, gas masks, tanks, Zeppelins, trench warfare (”No Man's Land“), convoy system

1915
Lusitania sinks with the loss of 123 American lives
US government warns Germany about following the Law of the Sea
Essex Pledge

1916
US Military invades Mexico chasing Pancho Villa

1917 (1)
Germany restarts unrestricted submarine warfare
Zimmerman note
U. S. declaration of war against the Central Powers; joins war on the side of the Allies (April)
Selective Service Act (the draft)

1917 (2)
Wilson's Fourteen Points (basis of Versailles Treaty)
National War Labor Board, War Industries Board, and other governmental agencies regulate business and labor during the war; opportunities for women and African Americans increase

1917 (3)
Russian Czar forced from power; provisional Kerensky government and Bolsheviks(Communists) begin a power struggle which turns into a war (Red vs. White Russians); the US, France, and Britain send soldiers in 1918-1920 to fight with the White Russian forces, but they are withdrawn when it is clear that the "Reds" will win

1918
US Army fights the Battle of Chateau Thierry
Marines at the Battle of Belleau Wood
WWI ends (Armistice 11-11-1918 at 11:00 a.m.)

1919
18th Amendment—Prohibition--no legal sale or possession of alcohol

1919-1920 (1)
Treaty of Versailles fails to pass Senate:  "irreconcilables" led by Henry Cabot Lodge in the Senate
In Europe, the amount of reparations (money to be paid by Germany especially leads to long term problems and WW II)

1919-1920 (2)
Wilson's ideal of "self-determination" for people in places like the former Ottoman Empire as Britain, France, Japan, the US, and other nations receive the Central Powers’ foreign territories as "mandates” or "protectorates"

1919-1920 (3)
U. S. fails to join the League of Nations
First Red Scare (A. Mitchell Palmer)
Fear of communism leads eventually to the formation of the FBI under J. Edgar Hoover

1920
19th Amendment-Women's suffrage (right to vote)
Volstead Act--the law which enforces Prohibition
Census shows that most Americans live in cities (urban areas) for the first time
Sacco and Vanzetti--anarchists convicted of murder and executed in 1927

Roaring 20s/Jazz Age (1)
Prohibition, mass consumption society; "Lost Generation"
F, Scott Fitzgerald and The Great Gatsby
“New” KKK-based in the Midwest
Nativist March on Washington
Flappers

Roaring 20s/Jazz Age (2)
The idea of “retirement”
Technology-radio, movies, automobiles (Ford Model "T"), refrigerators, electric washing machines
Anything you couldn't afford you could finance--buy on the "installment" plan

Harlem Renaissance
African-American artists, writers, and performers
Langston Hughes—”My People”
Louis Armstrong--jazz musician
Marcus Garvey—UNIA--advocated a “Back to Africa” movement—Black Star Line--Jamaica