REVIEW POINTS PACKET US HISTORY 2

WWI 1914-1919


CAUSES FOR WWI:

NATIONALISM

MILITARISM

IMPERIALISM (JEOLUSY OF)

ALLIANCES PREWAR TRIPLE ALLIANCE- IT, A-H, GER

TRIPLE ENTENTE- FR, BR, RUS

WWI CENTRAL POWERS- GER, A-H, OTT EMP & BUL

ALLIED POWERS- BR, FR, IT, RUS, US, ETC

*ASSASSINATION- ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND BY GAVRILLO PRINCIP


US NEUTRALITY


ELECTION OF 1916


CAUSES FOR US ENTRY:

UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE- LUSITANIA, ARABIC, SUSSEX

ZIMMERMAN NOTE (JAN 1917), GER RESUMING UNRESTRICTED SUB

US DECLARED WAR, APRIL 1917- MAKE WORLD “SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY”


AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE- GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING


HOMEFRONT:

-SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT, 1917- DRAFT

-COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION, 1917- GEORGE CREEL

-MOBILIZE PUBLIC SUPPORT (PROPAGANDA)

-WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD, 1917- BERNARD BARUCH

-REGULATED WAR INDUSTRIES (PRICE CONTROL & PRODUCTION)

-FOOD ADMINISTRATION- HERBERT HOOVER, VICORY GARDENS

-NATIONAL WAR LABOR BOARD, 1918- SAMUEL GOMPERS

-TRANSPORTATION OF SUPPLIES- WILLIAM MCADOO, SEC OF TREASURY


-ESPIONAGE ACT, 1917- FOR INTERFERING WITH DRAFT & DISLOYALTY

-SEDITION ACT, 1918- FOR INTERFERING WITH LIBERTY BOND SALES &

ANTI-US ACTIONS.


INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC, 1918

GREAT MIGRATION OVER ½ MILLION AA

RED SCARE, 1919 A. MITCHELL PALMER & PALMER RAIDS

MAY DAY 1920



NEW WEAPONS OF WAR:

-POISON GAS -GAS MASK

-TANKS -ZEPPELIN

-MACHINE GUN -AIRPLANES


TRENCH WARFARE- NO MAN’S LAND WESTERN FRONT

BRIDGE TO FRANCE-CONVOY SYSTEM

TOTAL WAR


14 POINTS, 1918 BY WILSON

-OPEN AGREEMENTS B/ NATIONS

-FREEDOM OF THE SEAS

-LOWER TARIFFS

-REDUCTION OF ARMS

-“SELF-DETERMINATION”

-LEAGUE OF NATIONS


PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE, DEC. 1918- FORMED TERMS TO END WAR

BIG 4

BR- DAVID LLOYD GEORGE US- WOODROW WILSON

IT- VITTORIO ORLANDO FR- GEORGES CLEMENCEAU

(RUSSIA W/DREW IN MARCH 1918)


TREATY OF VERSAILLES, 1919- ENDED WWI

-GERMAN WAR GUILT CLAUSE

-GERMAN REPARATIONS

-EST 9 NEW NATIONS (POLAND)

-EST. LEAGUE OF NATIONS

-US SENATE DID NOT RATIFY, HENRY CABOT LODGE



EDDIE RICKENBACKER

ALVIN YORK- CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTOR

ARMISTICE (11 A.M. ON NOV. 11, 1918)





***WWI MAP

ROARING TWENTIES NATIVISM, CONSERVATISM & ISOLATIONISM


ELECTION OF 1920 “RETURN TO NORMALCY”

REPUBLICAN- WARREN G. HARDING, CALVIN COOLIDGE

DEMOCRAT- JAMES COX, FDR


SACCO AND VANZETTI, APR 1920


EMERGENCY QUOTA ACT, 1921


WASHINGTON CONFERENCE, NOV 1921- FEB 1922

FIVE POWER NAVAL TREATY


FORDNEY-MCCUMBER TARIFF, 1922- HIGHEST TARIFF RATES IN US HISTORY


TEAPOT DOME SCANDAL SEC. OF INTERIOR- ALBERT FALL


NATIVE AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP, 1924



ELECTION OF 1924 “CHIEF BUSINESS OF AMERICA IS BUSINESS”

REPUBLICAN- CALVIN COOLIDGE


SCOPES TRIAL, JULY 1925 C. DARROW & W. J. BRYAN

-FUNDAMENTALISM


LINBERGH’S FLIGHT, 1927


KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT, AUG 1927- RENOUNCE THE USE OF WAR


NATIONAL ORIGINS ACT, 1929



ELECTION OF 1928

REPUBLICAN- HERBERT HOOVER


STOCK MARKET CRASH, OCT 29, 1929


HAWLEY-SMOOT TARIFF, 1930


BOULDER DAM, 1930


RECONSTRUCTION FINANCE CORP., JAN 1932


BONUS ARMY, JULY 1932



ROARING TWENTIES SOCIETY


HARLEM RENAISSANCE- ARTISTIC MOVEMENT BY AA

LANGSTON HUGHES

MARCUS GARVEY- ADVOCATED A RETURN TO AFRICA


CONSUMERISM

INSTALLMENT PLAN


RADIO AND MOTION PICTURES


LEISURE ACTIVITIES AND SPORTS


JAZZ & FLAPPERS


PROHIBITION


AUTOMOBILE FORD-MODEL T


THE LOST GENERATION


THE NEW KKK

GREAT DEPRESSION 1929-1941


CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION

-OLD AND DECAYING INDUSTRIAL BASE

-CRISIS IN THE FARM SECTOR

-AVAILABILITY OF EASY CREDIT

-UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME


BULL MARKET BEAR MARKET

DUST BOWL (MAP) HOOVERVILLES

DIRECT RELIEF ECONOMIC CYCLE (CHART)

INSTALLMENT PLAN BUYING ON MARGIN

OCTOBER 29, 1929 NATIONAL DEBT


HERBERT HOOVER (1929-1933)

FDR (1933-1945)


HOOVER:

-STOCK MARKET CRASH

-BOULDER DAM

-HAWLEY SMOOT TARIFF, 1930

INCREASED TARIFF TO 50% TO PROTECT FARMERS

-GLASS-STEAGALL BANKING ACT, 1932

MADE GOV’T SECURITIES AVAILABLE TO BACK FED. RESERVE NOTES

-REVENUE ACT, 1932

TAX INCREASE TO BALANCE BUDGET

-RECONSTRUCTION FINANCE CORPORATION, 1932

LENT MONEY TO BUSINESSES, TRICKLE DOWN THEORY

-HOME LOAN BANK ACT, 1932

TO ENCOURAGE NEW HOUSE CONSTRUCTION

TOO LITTLE, TOO LATE

BONUS ARMY, 1932 WWI VETS WANT BONUS, CONGRESS- NO





FDR:

1ST HUNDRED DAYS (MARCH 9-JUNE 16, 1933)

SPECIAL SESSION OF CONGRESS, PASS NEW DEAL LEGISLATION

BANK HOLIDAY (MARCH 6, 1933)

4 DAY NATIONAL BANK CLOSING FOR BANK INSPECTION

FIRESIDE CHATS- FDR’S RADIO ADDRESSES


NEW DEAL- FDR’S DOMESTIC AGENDA TO COMBAT GREAT DEPRESSION

3 R’S RELIEF- IMMEDIATE HELP TO POOR & UNEMPLOYED

RECOVERY- BRING BUSINESS BACK

REFORM- LONG RANGE CHANGES TO PREVENT FUTURE DEPR.



FDR

-BRAIN TRUST-

-CABINET- FRANCIS PERKINS (1ST FEMALE), SEC OF LABOR

-BLACK CABINET- MARY MCLEOD BETHUNE

-NEW DEAL COALITION: AA, UNIONIZED WORKERS, SOUTHERN WHITES &

VARIOUS URBAN GROUPS (HELPED DEM.S DOMINATE POLITICS)


1ST NEW DEAL, 1933-1934

2ND NEW DEAL, 1935-1936

3RD NEW DEAL, 1937-1938 *DEFECIT SPENDING ISSUE



COURT PACKING” BILL, 1937

-SUPREME COURT DECLARED AAA AND NIRA UNCONSTITUTIONAL

-ALLOW FDR TO APPOINT 6 NEW JUSTICES

-DID NOT PASS, FDR OVERSTEPPED HIS BOUNDARIES


FDR & NEW DEAL CRITICS:

WENT TOO FAR-

AMERICAN LIBERTY LEAGUE

NOT FAR ENOUGH-

HUEY P. LONG- LA SENATOR, “SHARE OUR WEALTH”

FATHER CHARLES COUGHLIN, DETROIT, ANNUAL INCOME

DR. FRANCIS TOWNSEND, CA, PENSION PLAN FOR ELDERLY


***SEE NEW DEAL ADMINISTRATIONS HANDOUT***



GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY- FDR INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, LATIN AMERICA

1933, NATIONS SHOULD NOT INTERFERE WITH MATTERS OF ANOTHER


IMPACT OF THE NEW DEAL- DID NOT END GREAT DEPRESSION, BUT DID PREVENT

FURTHER DECAY OF THE ECONOMY.

-EST. SAFETY NET FOR VARIOUS GROUPS WHO SUFFERED ECONOMICALLY

-ENCOURAGE FARMERS & WORKERS TO CHALLENGE THE POWER OF BIG B


NEW DEAL LEGACY

-INCREASED POWERS OF THE FEDERAL GOV’T

-EXPANDED PRESIDENTIAL POWER

-INCREASED GROWTH OF THE FEDERAL BUREAUCRACY

-CREATED AMERICAN WELFARE STATE



PROGRAM:

DESCRIPTION:

OUTCOME:

Emergency Banking Act/Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

On March 6, 1933 he shut down all of the banks in the nation and forced Congress to pass the Emergency Banking Act which gave the government the opportunity to inspect the health of all banks. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) was formed by Congress to insure deposits up to $5000.

These measures reestablished American faith in banks. Americans were no longer scared that they would lose all of their savings in a bank failure. Government inspectors found that most banks were healthy, and two-thirds were allowed to open soon after. After reopening, deposits had exceeded withdrawals.

Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)

Led by Harry Hopkins, a former social worker, this agency sent funds to depleting local relief agencies. Within two hours, $5 million were given out. Mr. Hopkins believed that men should be put to work and not be given charity. His program also funded public work programs.

Revitalized many deteriorating relief programs.

Civil Works Administration (CWA)

This public work program gave the unemployed jobs building or repairing roads, parks, airports, etc.

The CWA provided a psychological and physical boost to its 4 million workers.

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

This environmental program put 2.5 million unmarried men to work maintaining and restoring forests, beaches, and parks. Workers earned only $1 a day but received free board and job training. From 1934 to 1937, this program funded similar programs for 8,500 women.

The CCC taught the men and women of America how to live independently, thus, increasing their self esteem.

Indian Reorganization Act of 1934

This act ended the sale of tribal lands and restored ownership of unallocated lands to Native American groups.

The outcome was obviously positive for the Native Americans.

National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) of June 1933

The decline in the industrial prices in 1930s caused business failures and unemployment. The NIRA was formed in order to boost the declining prices, helping businesses and workers. The NIRA also allowed trade associations in many industries to write codes regulating wages, working conditions, production, and prices. It also set a minimum wage.

The codes stopped the tailspin of prices for a short time, but soon, when higher wages went into effect, prices rose too. Thus, consumers stopped buying. The continuous cycle of overproduction and underconsumption put businesses back into a slump. Some businesses felt that the codes were too complicated and the NRA was too rigid. Declared unconstitutional later on.


Public Works Administration (PWA)


The PWA launched projects such as the Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River.


One of the best parts of the NIRA.



Federal Securities Act of May 1933/ Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)



This act required full disclosure of information on stocks being sold. The SEC regulated the stock market. Congress also gave the Federal Reserve Board the power to regulate the purchase of stock on margin.





Not pleasing for businesses.

Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) / Agriculture Adjustment Administration (AAA)

In order to help people keep their houses, the HOLC refinanced mortgages of middle-income home owners. The AAA tried to raise farm prices. It used proceeds from a new tax to pay farmers not to raise specific crops and animals. Lower production would, in turn, increase prices.

Farmers killed off certain animals and crops as they were told to by the AAA. Many could not believe that the federal government was condoning such an action when many Americans were starving. Declared unconstitutional later on.

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) (May 1933)

The TVA helped farmers and created jobs in one of America s least modernized areas.

Reactivating a hydroelectric power plant provided cheap electric power, flood control, and recreational opportunities to the entire Tennessee River valley.

Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1935-1943

This agency provided work for 8 million Americans. The WPA constructed or repaired schools, hospitals, airfields, etc.

Decreased unemployment.

Farm Security Administration (FSA)

The FSA loaned more than $1 billion to farmers and set up camps for migrant workers.


National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) 1935

It legalized practices allowed only unevenly in the past, such as closed shops in which only union members can work and collective bargain. The act also set up the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to enforce its provisions


Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938

This banned child labor and set a minimum wage.

This law was a long awaited triumph for the progressive-era social reformers.

Social Security Act

1935

This act established a system that provided old-age pensions for workers, survivors benefits for victims of industrial accidents, unemployment insurance, and aid for defendant mothers and children, the blind and physically disabled.

Although the original SSA did not cover farm and domestic workers, it did help millions of Americans feel more secure.