REVIEW POINTS PACKET US HISTORY 1

WESTWARD EXPANSION (1862-1890)


NATIVE AMERICANS GREAT PLAINS PLAINS INDIANS

POLICY- ASSIMILATION

TREATY OF FORT LARAMIE, 1851

TREATY OF MEDICINE LODGE, 1867

TREATY OF FORT LARAMIE, 1868 (2ND)

DAWES SEVERALTY ACT, 1887


CONFLICTS-

SAND CREEK MASSACRE, 1864

FETTERMAN MASSACRE, 1866

LITTLE BIGHORN (CUSTER’S LAST STAND), 1876

NEZ PERCE, 1877

GHOST DANCE, 1889

WOUNDED KNEE, 1890



SETTLERS, RANCHERS, RAILROADS


HOMESTEAD ACT, 1862

PACIFIC RAILWAY ACT, 1862

MORRILL LAND GRANT ACT, 1862


COMPROMISE OF 1877

EXODUSTERS, 1879 (BEN SINGLETON)

OK LAND RUSH, 1889

DRY FARMING

NEW INVENTIONS



CATTLE BOOM

CATTLE TRAILS

DECLINE



CENTRAL PACIFIC AND UNION PACIFIC MAY 10, 1869

PROMONTORY, UTAH

C. F. DOWD TIME ZONES






MAPS: GREAT PLAINS, NATIVE AMERICAN CONFLICTS, RAILROADS, CATTLE TRAILS, AND TIME ZONES.

POPULISM (A FARMERS MOVEMENT- POOR, DIRTY & ANGRY)


NATIONAL GRANGE OF THE PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY (NATIONAL GRANGE)

FOUNDER- OLIVER KELLEY 1867- LATE 1870S

PROMOTED- NEW SCIENTIFIC FARMING TECHNIQUES AND SOCIALIZATION

GRANGER LAWS

-MUNN V. ILLINOIS, 1877 (INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT, 1887)



FARMERS’ ALLIANCES 1873- LATE 1880S

GOALS- PROMOTE EDUCATION AND SOCIAL GATHERINGS

ORGANIZE FARMERS AGAINST ABUSES

EST. COOPERATIVES

EXERT POLITICAL PRESSURE ON LOCAL AND NATIONAL LEVELS



POPULIST PARTY 1891

OMAHA CONVENTION, 1892

PLATFORM: FREE AND UNLIMITED COINAGE OF SILVER

GOV’T OWNERSHIP OF RXR, TELEGRAPH & TELEPHONE

LOWER TARIFF

GRADUATED INCOME TAX

POPULAR ELECTION OF SENATORS

INITIATIVE, REFERENDUM AND RECALL

8 HOUR WORK DAY

IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS


1892 PRES. ELECTION RAN JAMES B. WEAVER (LOST)


PANIC OF 1893 (20% UNEMPLOYMENT)


COXEY’S ARMY (JACOB COXEY) WANTED FED. PUBLIC WORKS PROGRAM


1896 PRES. ELECTION RAN WILLIAM J. BRYAN (LOST)

CROSS OF GOLD SPEECH


POPULIST PARTY DISAPPEARED B/C

DIDN’T RECEIVE ENOUGH SUPPORT FROM LABORERS

POLITICAL OBJECTIVES ADOPTED BY DEMOCRATS AND REPUBLICANS

SUPPORT OF FARMERS DECLINED AS SITUATION IMPROVED IN LATE 1890S

INDUSTRIALIZATION


INVENTORS AND INVENTIONS

THOMAS EDISON

ORVILLE & WILBUR WRIGHT

HENRY FORD

GEORGE EASTMAN

ALEXANDER BELL

GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE

HENRY BESSEMER AND WILLIAM KELLY



BUSINESS LEADERS

ANDREW CARNEGIE CARNEGIE STEEL

JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER STANDARD OIL COMPANY

CORNELIUS VANDERBILT RAILROAD CONSOLIDATION

J. P. MORGAN BANKING


HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION (CONSOLIDATION)

VERTICAL INTEGRATION

CORPORATIONS

MONOPOLY


TRUSTS

SOCIAL DARWINISM (ORIGIN OF SPECIES, 1859 BY CHARLES DARWIN)

THE GOSPEL OF WEALTH, 1901 BY ANDREW CARNEGIE


ROBBER BARONS OR CAPTAINS OF INDUSTRY?


SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT, 1890


TARIFFS

WORKERS, UNIONS AND STRIKES

WORKERS WANT: HIGHER WAGES

BETTER BENEFITS

BETTER WORKING CONDITIONS

FEWER HOURS


KNIGHTS OF LABOR (1869)

FOUNDER- URIAH STEPHENS

OPEN TO SKILLED AND UNSKILLED WORKERS

KEY LEADER- TERENCE V. POWDERLY (EXPANDED MEMBERSHIP)

KEY STRIKE- HAYMARKET RIOT (1886)


AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR (1881)

FOUNDER- SAMUEL GOMPERS

OPEN TO SKILLED WORKERS

ADVOCATED COLLECTIVE BARGAINING & STRIKES IF NECESSARY

KEY STRIKE- HOMESTEAD STRIKE (1892)

-CARNEGIE STEEL, CLAY FRICK & PINKERTON DETECTIVES

AMERICAN RAILWAY UNION

PRESIDENT- EUGENE V. DEBS (A SOCIALIST)

KEY STRIKE- PULLMAN STRIKE (1894)


INDUSTRIAL WORKERS OF THE WORLD, IWW OR WOBBLIES (1905)

LEADER- WILLIAM “BIG BILL” HAYWOOD

OPEN TO UNSKILLED INDUSTRIAL WORKERS


*RAILROAD STRIKE OF 1877- FIRST MAJOR STRIKE


*TRIANGLE FIRE, 1911 TRIANGLE SHIRTWAIST FACTORY, NEW YORK CITY

IMMIGRATION AND URBANIZATION


1920 CENSUS- MAJORITY OF AMERICANS LIVED IN CITIES (1ST TIME)


AMERICAN CITIES BECAME CENTERS OF ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL

LIFE. CITIES EMBODIED NEW TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRY.


POLITICAL MACHINE- GRAFT, CORRUPTION IMMIGRANTS

MOST NOTORIOUS- TAMMANY HALL, NEW YORK CITY, BOSS WILLIAM TWEED



PENDLETON ACT, 1883 EST. CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION

-EST. COMPETITIVE EXAMS TO DETERMINE MERIT FOR CIVIL SERVICE JOBS



OLD IMMIGRANTS

NEW IMMIGRANTS

ELLIS ISLAND, NEW YORK HARBOR

ANGEL ISLAND, SAN FRANCISCO HARBOR


NATIVISM

AMERICAN PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION (EST. 1887) ANTI-CATHOLIC

IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE (EST. 1894) ANTI-NEW IMMIGRANT

-I.R.L. WANTED LITERACY TESTS FOR IMMIGRANTS


CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT, 1882

GENTLEMEN’S AGREEMENT, 1907-1908 (JAPAN)



URBANIATION- GROWTH OF CITIES

PROBLEMS: HOUSING, TRANSPORTATION, FIRE, WATER, SANITATION, CRIME


SOCIAL GOSPEL MOVEMENT

SETTLEMENT HOUSES

JANE ADDAMS- HULL HOUSE, CHICAGO (1889)


AMERICANIZATION & ASSIMILATION

IMPERIALISM AND EXPANSION


DURING THE 1890S, THE US BEGAN TO ACQUIRE TERRITORIES BEYOND ITS CONTINENTAL BORDERS. SOMETIMES CALLED THE NEW MANIFEST DESTINY.


THEORIES BEHIND THE PURPOSES BEHIND US IMPERIALISM:

-CLOSING OF THE AMERICA’S FRONTIER. (FREDERICK JACKSON TURNER)

-THE NEED FOR NEW MARKETS FOR AMERICAN PRODUCTS.

-COMPETITIVE SPIRIT—EUROPEAN NATIONS ARE DOING IT.

-IMPROVEMENTS IN TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION.

-RELIGIOUS REASONS.

-DARWIN’S THEORIES OF SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST.


JOSIAH STRONG- CLERGYMAN, ADVOCATED OVERSEAS MISSIONARY WORK.

CLAIMED ANGLO-SAXON RACE “DIVINELY COMMISSIONED” TO EXPAND.


ALFRED T. MAHAN- ADMIRAL OF NAVY & STRONG ADVOCATE FOR EXPANSION.

NEED FOR NEW MARKETS & INCREASE SIZE OF THE NAVY.


HAWAII- REVOLT LED BY SANFORD B. DOLE AGAINST QUEEN LILIUOKALANI, 1893

ANNEXED AUG. 12, 1898 MAIN REASON- STRATEGIC LOCATION


SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR, 1898

JOHN HAY (SEC. OF STATE) “A SPLENDID LITTLE WAR”

CUBA:

DE LOME LETTER

USS MAINE

JOSE MARTI

TELLER AMENDMENT

TR & THE ROUGH RIDERS SAN JUAN HILL, KETTLE HILL

ADMIRAL WILLIAM T. SAMPSON BATTLE OF SANTIAGO


PHILIPPINES:

COMMODORE GEORGE DEWEY BATTLE OF MANILLA BAY

EMILIO AGUINALDO


TREATY OF PARIS, 1898 END S-A WAR

  1. CUBA GAINED INDEPENDENCE

  2. SPAIN CEDED PUERTO RICO AND GUAM TO US.

  3. PHILIPPINES PURCHASED BY US FOR $20 MILLION. (GIVE US INTERESTS IN ASIA—TO OPEN CHINA)


ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE, 1898 OPPOSSED ANNEXATIONS, ESP. PHILIPPINES.


IMPERIALISM AND EXPANSION


CUBA PLATT AMENDMENT, 1901 -NO LIMITING INDEPENDENCE

-US CAN INTERVENE

-NO CUBAN DEBT

-US NAVAL STATIONS


PUERTO RICO FORAKER ACT, 1900

INSULAR CASES, 1901

JONES ACT, 1917


PHILIPPINES INSURECTION, 1899-1902

TAFT

USS THOMAS


CHINA- BOXER REBELLION, 1900 SPHERES OF INFLUENCE

OPEN DOOR POLICY, JOHN HAY


SAMOA, 1889 GERMANY, BR & US BY 1899, US & GER CONTROL


PANAMA CANAL

HAY-PAUNCEFOTE TREATY, 1901 US & BR

HAY-HERRAN TREATY, 1903 US & COLOMBIA

PANAMANIAN REVOLUTION, 1903

HAY-BUNAU VARILLA TREATY, 1903 US & PANAMA


CANAL OPENED IN 1914.


ROOSEVELT COROLLARY, 1904 EXTENSION TO MONROE DOCTRINE

-GIVE US INTERNATIONAL POLICE POWER IN WESTERN HEMISPHERE.


DOLLAR DIPLOMACY, TAFT LATIN AMERICA

-PROMOTED BUSINESS INTERESTS OVERSEAS.

-ALLOWED FOR DIPLOMATIC AND MILITARY PROTECTION.


MEXICO INCIDENT 1913-1915 WOODROW WILSON

FRANCISCO MADERO DEPOSED 1913

GEN. VICTORIANO HUERTA- DICTATOR

VERA CRUZ, 1914

ABC POWERS, 1914

VENUSTIANO CARANZA, 1915

FRANCISCO “PANCHO” VILLA, 1916

JOHN J. “BLACKJACK” PERSHING IN MEXICO 1916-1917







PROGRESSIVE ERA (1890-1920)

-AN URBAN MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENT AIMED AT RENOVATING OR RESTORING AMERICAN SOCIETY, ITS VALUES AND ITS INSTITUTIONS.


BELIEFS:

-END ABUSE OF POWER BY BUSINESS AND GOVERNMENT.

-GROWTH AND ADVANCEMENT OF AMERICA.

-APPLY PRINCIPLES OF SCIENCE AND EFFICIENCY TO ALL ECONOMIC,

SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS.

-GOVERNMENT WOULD BE A KEY PLAYER IN IMPROVING SOCIETY.


SOCIAL GOSPEL AND SETTLEMENT HOUSE MOVEMENTS


MUCKRAKERS- WRITERS WHO ATTACKED SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ILLS.

IDA TARBELL THE HISTORY OF THE STANDARD OIL COMPANY

LINCOLN STEFFENS THE SHAME OF THE CITIES

JACOB RIIS HOW THE OTHER HALF LIVES

UPTON SINCLAIR THE JUNGLE

RAY S. BAKER FOLLOWING THE COLOR LINE


THEODORE ROOSEVELT -SQUARE DEAL -TRUST BUSTER


1902 NATIONAL RECLAMATION ACT-

1902 ANTHRACITE COAL STRIKE-

1902 NORTHERN SECURITIES V. UNITED STATES (RXR, SHERMAN ANTI-TRUST)

1903 ELKINS ACT-

1905 NIAGARA CONFERNCE-

1906 MEAT INSPECTION ACT-

1906 PURE FOOD AND DRUG ACT-

1906 HEPBURN ACT-

1908 MULLER V. OREGON



WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT -TRUST BUSTER


1909 PAYNE-ALDRICH TARIFF-

1909 NAACP ESTABLISHED-

1910 MANN-ELKINS ACT-

1913 16TH AMENDMENT


ELECTION OF 1912:

REPUBLICAN-

DEMOCRAT-

SOCIALIST-

PROGRESSIVE-

PROGRESSIVE ERA


WOODROW WILSON -NEW FREEDOM


1913 17TH AMENDMENT-

1913 UNDERWOOD TARIFF-

1913 FEDERAL RESERVE ACT-

1914 CLAYTON ANTITRUST ACT-

1914 FEDERAL TRADE ACT-

1919 18TH AMENDMENT-

1920 19TH AMENDMENT-



STATE GOVERNMENT REFORM

ROBERT M. LAFOLLETTE WISCONSIN


-INITIATIVE

-REFERENDUM

-RECALL

-DIRECT PRIMARY (FIRST ADOPTED BY MS IN 1902)


TEMPERENCE MOVEMENT

CARRY NATION

WOMEN’S CHRISTIAN TEMPERENCE MOVEMENT, 1873 (FRANCES WILLARD)

ANTI-SALOON LEAGUE, 1893

-LOBBIED FOR PROHIBITION BY AMENDMENT

18TH AMENDMENT, 1919

VOLSTEAD ACT, 1920

21ST AMENDMENT, 1933


SUFFRAGE MOVEMENT

ELIZABETH CADY STANTON & SUSAN B. ANTHONY

NATIONAL AMERICAN SUFFRAGE ASSOCIATION, 1890

CARRIE CHAPMAN CATT, PRES. 1915

PUSHED FOR FEDERAL SUFFRAGE AMENDMENT

CONGRESSIONAL UNION, 1913 & NATIONAL WOMAN’S PARTY, 1916

ALICE PAUL

MORE MILITANT APPROACH

19TH AMENDMENT, 1920