A Trip to the Moon(1902) was the first film to tell a definite story (10:29) --View Entire Film

The Great Train Robbery (1903) It is 12 minutes, typical of film at this time--View entire film

D. W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation (1915) caused riots when it was shown.  Its huge impact helped move the center of movie-making from Europe to Hollywood. 

The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1919) is a nightmarish story of a hypnotized murderer--an example of German Expressionism View

The Kid (1921) Charlie Chaplin, a petty criminal, adopts a street kid and they must evade the cops.  parts

Nosferatu (1922) an illegal version of Dracula--another example of German Expressionism View

The General (1926) a Southerner rejected by the Confederate army must save a train to keep the woman he loves View

Wings (1927) the only silent film to win Best Picture Academy Award--trailer

The Jazz Singer (1927) was the first movie to include sections with sound.  It signaled the end of the silent film era--view clip

The Wind (1928) a woman is left alone in a desert cabin during a sandstorm with a killer outside--view montage

Sunrise: Song of Two Humans (1927 ) A seductress lures a man into the murder of his wife. 

Metropolis (1927) in the future, the rich live above ground while the workers live below, slaves to the industrial machines view

The Battleship Potemkin (1927), a Soviet propaganda / history piece with some marvelous editing.  View the  scene in which the Czar's soldiers shoot at civilians on the Odessa Steps until the crew of the Potemkin save them.

The Earliest Films (1890s-1915) 

Intro to the class
The class must choose two films from each of the pages above.  Due to time constraints, we must chose a film of 145 minutes or less.  Note-taking will be required in this class; have one.  Films will generally be shown Tue-Thurs.  Quizzes will be generally on Fridays. 
Vocabulary: Vaudeville, slapstick, feature vs. one-reeler, cross-cutting

FEATURE FILM THIS WEEK: Birth of a Nation.  1915.    (See list of characters at right)
D.W. Griffith is considered the father of film; he created much of the editing and cinematography used even today.  Before Griffith, the best films came from Europe.  American films were cheap, and stage actors looked down on film.  His success with
Birth of a Nation moved the center of the film industry from Europe to America. 

Some terms and historical background
: Reconstruction , carpetbagger, Radical. 
Ben Cameron becomes a Civil War hero, the war ends, and he returns home.  Under Lincoln, the South is recovering from the war, but Lincoln is killed.  Stoneman, a northern Radical senator, wants equality.  He sends Lynch, a half-White/half African-American, to the South to manage things.  Lynch starts by registering African-Americans for the election (1:01). 

Stoneman is successful in getting African-Americans elected to the state legislature  (3:05) and he himself becomes lieutenant governor.  They abuse their power and in response.
Whites form the Klan.  Cameron gets the idea to use white sheets to inflict terror.  (3:03)
Flora Cameron, the naïve and ditzy little sister to Ben, is walking in the woods when she is chased by Gus, a former slave who is in love with her.  She runs from him in a panic (4:45).  Ben Cameron, her brother, arrives just in time to see her die. 
Gus hides and is discovered.  (5:59).  When found, Gus shoots a man.  The men of the town chase Gus and kill him.  The Klan dumps Gus's body on Lieutenant Governor Lynch's steps.  Lynch makes the owning of a Klan costume punishable by death. 
Dr. Cameron, father to the Ben and Flora, is falsely accused of having such an outfit and is arrested.  His friends and family help him escape.  The local militia, manned by former slaves, chases them.  The wagon on which they are escaping breaks down and they hide in a cabin.  Ben Cameron has long been in love with Elsie Stoneman, the daughter of Senator Stoneman.  The Cameron family asks her to intervene with Lynch.  She goes to him, unaware that Lynch desires her.  He proposes and she refuses.  Lynch locks her in a room.  At this time, riots are going on in the streets.  Stoneman arrives at the house and Lynch tells him he wants to marry his daughter.  He refuses. 
The Klan arrives just in time, both to rescue the Camerons at their cabin (6:34) and Elsie and her father in Lynch's house. 

Crosscutting examples https://youtu.be/7c0B5lzBa0A
Crosscutting example
Return of the King https://youtu.be/N3qrhhMCJlI

Characters of Birth of a Nation
Ben Cameron "The Little Colonel" --Southern
XXX   war hero, the main character
Flora Cameron, sister to the Little Colonel, naïve
XXX  and ditzy, but cheerful and playful
Dr. Cameron--father to the Little Colonel and his sister; he is falsely accused 
XXX of belonging to the Klan. 
Stoneman a northerner who wants equality.  He is
XXX  a Radical, the antagonist. 
Elsie Stoneman--daughter of Stoneman; the
XXX  Little Colonel is in love with her. 
Silas Lynch -the half-African-American who is
XXX  in love with Elsie; Stoneman is teaching
XXX him to be a politician. 
Gus--a former slave who is in love with Flora

Several toys pre-dated film but simulated the effect, such as the zoetrope or praxinoscope.  In 1878, the first-ever film was made: a horse galloping (0:19).  The film consisted of only 12 frames.  The first films were of very ordinary scenes.  Veiw Edison kinetoscope films 1894 -1896 (4:25) and The Lumiere Brothers' first films Exiting the Factory (1895) & Arrival of a Train (3:11).  Most early films focused on special effects or variety acts.  Make your own zoetrope

Friday Assessment: Early Film
Know these terms: Vaudeville, slapstick, feature and one-reeler, cross-cutting
When did movies begin? 
What were early films like? 
Where were most early movies made?   
What was the name of the first movie to tell a definite story?
What film changed how people viewed film from a mere new tech curiosity to a valued art form. 
What film helped cause the center of filmmaking move from Europe to Hollywood? 
What silent film sparked riots across America? 

Compare these two early films:

A Trip to the Moon.  (1902).  Retrieved from YouTube:mittenscat1
XXX http://youtu.be/7JDaOOw0MEE
The Great Train Robbery.  (1903).  Retrieved from YouTube:
XXX Ravenwood2008http://youtu.be/epBaB727Xkg.  (9:39). 
With this scene from a later film:
Eisenstein, S.  (1925).  Stair scene from Battleship Potemkin. 
XXX Retrieved from YouTube:Thibault Cabanas.   
XXX https://youtu.be/Ps-v-kZzfec   (11:52)
Why is the
Potemkin so much better than Trip to the Moon or Great Train Robbery?  Discuss. 

Golden Age of Silent Film (The 1920s) 

The Week's Vocabulary: talkies, United Artists, German Expressionism
Silent movies were international.  Only about 5% of the world spoke English, but silent filmmakers could sell their films to all countries. 
Music was  important.  Sound effects were present.  "Silent" film was never really silent.  Theatres were ritzy.  Silent film was different that either stage or sound. 

100 Years of Cinema. "1925: How Sergei Eisenstein Used Montage To Film The Unfilmable."

XXX YouTube.  https://youtu.be/g5WbeoP_B8E  (6:23). 

Every Frame a Painting.  "Buster Keaton and the Art of the Gag." 

XXX YouTube.   https://youtu.be/UWEjxkkB8Xs  (8:35). 

Now find some short Buster Keaton films and watch them! 

View excerpts from German Expressionism:
No Film School.  "Video Essay: German Expressionism, Explained."  YouTube.
XXX https://youtu.be/ecuQdkBx1ic (3:46).
Sem Lei.  "Tim Burton: A German Expressionism Influence." 
XXX https://youtu.be/HcuhSC51QsI (3:00).
yayap001. "Tenets of German Expressionism (Video Essay)" 
XXX https://youtu.be/x2woRI5AykQ (41:03). 

"Greatest" Film Compilations:
WatchMojo. "Top 10 Movies of the 1920s." YouTube.  https://youtu.be/pXmpg7Cb-4E (9:51). 
"10 Silent Movies You Must See Before You Die."  https://youtu.be/fU5_7E2jka4
View trailers from the 1930s and choose a film for next week. 

Friday Assessment: Golden Age of Silent Film (The 1920s) 
Was silent film truly silent?  What sound was provided in silent movies? 
What is a Buster Keaton movie like? 
What was the only silent film to win an Oscar for best picture? 
What term was used to describe the new sound films?
What was the first successful movie with recorded sound in it? 
Why did major actors of the 1920s form the United Artists? 
Describe German Expressionism. 

"20 silent films you watched without knowing it."   

XXX https://youtu.be/nGSW2kL0B2k

Chaplin, C. (1936).  Modern Times.  YouTubehttps://youtu.be/HAPilyrEzC4 
XXX (1 hr 23 min)
WORLD FILMS.  "Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans | F.W. Murnau (1927)." 
XXX  https://youtu.be/6NayFytQeBE  (1 hr 34 min).  Start at 5 minutes. 

Period Films: 1915-1929

1915 Birth of a Nation this film changed how people viewed film--no longer just a new tech curiosity, it was now an art form.  Its racist themes caused riots --film by D.W. Griffith.

One Hundred Years of Cinema.  “1915: The Birth of a Nation - Hollywood's first motion picture.”  YouTube.  Published on May 10, 2016.  https://youtu.be/nvG0K5AdKiM  (5:19). 

1915 The Golem  a Jewish wizard calls up a spirit to inhabit a body of clay --film by Paul Wegener and Henrik Galeen

1919 The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari  Directed by Robert Wiene

Uncletim.  “The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari.”  Youtube.  Published on Nov 22, 2007.  https://youtu.be/T9WjHEKLMbc  (2:55). 

One Hundred Years of Cinema.  “1920: How The Cabinet of Dr Caligari (1920) was the first psychological horror.”  YouTube.  Published on Jun 13, 2016.  https://youtu.be/yIx-D47Mp_A   (5:53). 

1920 Dr. Jeckyll and Mr. Hyde

1921 The Kid film by Charlie Chaplin, a petty criminal adopts a street kid and together they pull off capers and evade the cops.

Carles capin.  “The kid - Charlie Chaplin - best scenes.”  YouTube.  Published on Apr 2, 2013.  https://youtu.be/RUMDfIaCEu8  (4:12). 

1922 Dr. Mabuse, the Gambler --film by Fritz Lang

1922 Nosferatu: Symphony of Horror - a twisted love triangle between a couple and a vampire--creepy even by today's standards --film by F.W. Murnau

Murnau, F.W.  Nosferatu: Symphony of Horror.  YouTube.  Timeless Classic Movies.  Published on Jul 9, 2012.  https://youtu.be/FC6jFoYm3xs  (1hr 20 min). 

One Hundred Years of Cinema.  “1922: How Nosferatu laid the groundwork for gothic cinema.”  YouTube.  Published on Jun 27, 2016.  https://youtu.be/8vP2whYFAKI  (4:40). 

1923 The Hunchback of Notre Dame

1924 The Hands of Orlac - a concert pianist's life turns dark after he loses his hands in an accident and receives transplant hands from a recently executed murderer--film by Robert Wiene

1924 The Last Laugh - the shaming of an aging yet proud doorman and the despair that follows--film by F.W. Murnau.  The film tried to avoid those title cards that characterize most silent films, in the belief that the visuals themselves should carry most of the meaning.

Murnau, F.W.  The Last Laugh.  Published on YouTube by Full Cinema Channel on Jul 14, 2016.  https://youtu.be/W7yiZM-SlwI  (1 hr. 27 Min). 

1924 Die Nibelungen a German warrior of ancient days--film by Fritz Lang

1925 Gold Rush film by Charlie Chaplin--the film he wished most to be remembered for

1925 The Phantom of the Opera

1926 Faust --film by F.W. Murnau  - the familiar tale of the man that sold his soul to the Devil. 

Azgorh.  “Apparition - Faust (Preview 2018/1926)”.  YouTube.  Published on Sep 19, 2018.  https://youtu.be/OqRUuLlIw-I  (8:24). 

Murnau, F.W.  Faust.  Domestic version 1926 edited to fit the Brockscore.  Published by Pieter deRooij Holland on Jul 28, 2012.  https://youtu.be/xO4tSCvoCaE  (1 hr 55 min). 

1926 The General --film by Buster Keaton

Every Frame a Painting.  "Buster Keaton and the Art of the Gag."  YouTube.  https://youtu.be/UWEjxkkB8Xs  (8:35).

1927 The Battleship Potemkin a Soviet propaganda / history piece with some marvelous editing, shows the Czar's men shooting at civilians until the crew of the Potemkin save them.  .

Harry Steiman.  “Battleship Potemkin (1925) Full Movie in HD English Subtitles.”  Youtube.  Posted Dec 8, 2016.  https://youtu.be/mCR44ihk6C8  (1:11:37). 

100 Years of Cinema. "1925: How Sergei Eisenstein Used Montage To Film The Unfilmable."  YouTube.  Published on Aug 8, 2016.  https://youtu.be/g5WbeoP_B8E  (6:23).

1927 The Jazz Singer was the first movie to include sections with sound.  It signaled the end of the silent film era.

One Hundred Years of Cinema.  “1927: The Jazz Singer - How The Movies Learnt To Talk.”  YouTube.  Published on Oct 4, 2016.  https://youtu.be/ZlAt2lcg5ZM  (7:50). 

1927 Metropolis in the future, the rich live above ground while the workers live below, slaves to the industrial machines--film by Fritz Lang

Viral Film.  “Metropolis (1927) - Official Trailer.”  YouTube.  Published on Oct 7, 2014.  https://youtu.be/on2H8Qt5fgA  (1:56). 

One Hundred Years of Cinema.  “1927: Metropolis - How Cinema Changed the Way We See the Future.”  YouTube.  Published on Sep 21, 2016.  https://youtu.be/vLxe92EgT9Y  (5:55). 

Lang, Fritz.  Metropolis.  The New Pollutants Metropolis Rescore soundtrack to the 2010 Restoration Version.  Published on YouTube by New Pollutants on Nov 3, 2017.  https://youtu.be/fCDQzGTBA3E (2 hrs 27 min). 

Lang, Fritz.  Metropolis.  The Complete Metropolis, 1927, Silent Movie, German, Public Domain Movie.  Published on YouTube by Public Domain Movies TV series on Jan 29, 2018.  https://youtu.be/-I9FD21k7Cs  (2 hrs 28 min). 

1927 Sunrise: Song of Two Humans A seductress lures a man into the murder of his wife--film by F.W. Murnau

Murnau,  F.W. (1927).Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans.  Posted by World Films.  YouTube. https://youtu.be/6NayFytQeBE  (1 hr 34 min). 

1927 Wings the only silent film to win Best Picture at the Academy Awards

OldSchoolTrailers.  “Wings (1927) – Trailer.”  YouTube.  Published on Oct 31, 2010.  https://youtu.be/GFRas2-x_OQ  (0:59). 

1928 The Passion of Joan of Arc

One Hundred Years of Cinema.  1928: The Passion of Joan of Arc - The Powerful Psychology of the Close Up.”  YouTube.  Published on Dec 10, 2016.  https://youtu.be/Ydfbz_oocRk  (6:30). 

1928 The Wind

Magicalmotionmuseum.  “1928 Victor Sjöström - "The wind" (visual highlights).”  YouTube.  Published on Feb 23, 2012.  https://youtu.be/PHipr_iPNbA  (1:44). 

1929 Broadway Melody 

1929 Man with a Movie Camera 

One Hundred Years of Cinema. (1936).  “1929: Man With A Movie Camera - What makes something "Cinema"? .  YouTube. Published on Jan 16, 2017. https://youtu.be/fhdPmsoSHo0   (5:31).

Chaplin, C. (1936).  Modern Times.  YouTube.  https://youtu.be/HAPilyrEzC4   (1 hr 23 min)