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One out of every ten people is gay, lesbian, or bisexual. This accounts to about twenty-five million people in the U.S. alone. Homophobia is thought to have begun in the Dark Ages and during the spread of Christianity. One out of every four people is homophobic. Homophobia is defined as the "aversion to gay or homosexual people or their lifestyle or culture" (from the 1992 edition of the American Heritage Dictionary). Although homophobia is identified as a fear, it is not a fear in the clinical sense. It is pure ignorance: Ignorance because of all the misinformation given by the media, "religious" groups, and anti-gay organizations.

This ignorance has given an increase to hate crimes against homosexuals. In 1991, only 8.9 percent of all hate crimes were against homosexuals. In 1995, it increased to 12.8 percent.

In a survey of 2 074 gay and lesbian people in 1983, showed just how much homosexuals were actually discriminated against. One in every five lesbians and one out of two gay men began to be harassed, threatened, and assaulted starting in either junior high or high school. Some even had it at home.

Fifteen percent of les/bi/gay people said they have been spit at. One of ten lesbians and one of five gay males said that they have been physically assaulted. Two out of five lesbians and three out of every ten gay men admitted to being sexually harassed or assaulted. Fifteen percent of lesbians and one out of every five gay men said that they had their property vandalized or been a victim of arson. Three of every five lesbians and two of every five gay men said that they were either chased or followed. One of five lesbians and three of ten gay men said that they have had things thrown at them. One of twenty lesbians and one out of every ten gay men have even been attacked with weapons.

On top of that, discrimination against gays is legal in the U.S. Homosexuals can be denied housing, employment, equal pay, public accommodations, and marriage.

In a survey that ran from 1976 to 1981, 850 companies in the United States were questioned on employers and sexual orientation. Sixty percent of gay employees said that they have had problems, forty-three percent were harassed, twenty-five percent were fired, and thirty three percent had a difficult time finding another job.

In a 1988 survey of 191 employers in Anchorage, Alaska, twenty-seven percent said they would not hire a homosexual, and ten percent admitted that they would fire one.

Another survey of 1989-1991 salaries stated that a gay male's income ran eleven to twenty-seven percent lower and a lesbian's twelve to thirty percent lower when compared to the incomes of their heterosexual counterparts.

Homosexuals are also denied the advantages of marriage. These advantages include heath insurance, tax benefits, and visitation in a hospital. All are given to heterosexual couples. A partner also has no right to funeral arrangements or to assume ownership of property (even when jointly owned).

Obviously, the worst form of hate crime is murder. On October 7, 1998, Matthew Shepard was beaten and left to die in Laramie, Wyoming. He died on October 12, 1998, at 12:53 AM.

However, this is not the only instance in which someone was brutally murdered on account of being les/bi/gay.

Below is a list of American men and women murdered in anti-gay hate crimes between 1992 and 1994. It was taken from OUT magazine.


James Primus, age 35- murdered, set on fire in his car, June 21, 1993

Joseph Charles Holleran- beaten, assaulted, October 24, 1992, died May 1994
Duane Linsley- shot, January 16, 1994
Robert Haines- shot execution-style, April 4, 1994
Michael Despain, age 24- burned, June 6, 1994
Thomas Frazee, age 28- shot, 12 December 1994

Chris Miller, age 23- stabbed and beaten, July 30, 1993
Ronnie Hugh Smith, age 58- bludgeoned, found February 25, 1994

John Garfield- shot, May 30, 1992
Cameron (Tina) Tanner- Fall 1992
Mauricio Bassa- murdered, May 22, 1993
Keith Michael Ogden, age 31- beaten, July 7, 1993
John Duncan O'Friel, age 46- beaten, July 8, 1993
Father Ronald Maupin- multiple stab wounds, August 1993
James Graves- bludgeoned, December 22, 1993
Tony Ray- shot, March 24, 1994
Tommy Wenger, age 24- multiple stab wounds, dismembered, March 28, 1994
Therman Brown, age 50- gunshot wounds, July 4, 1994
Jon Simmons- gunshot to the head, October 17, 1994

James Holman, age 36- multiple stab wounds, February 13, 1992
David Stewart- stabbed, June 2, 1992
Benjamin Zesch, age 61- multiple stab wounds, July 16, 1992
*Robert Ferrell, age 57- multiple stab wounds, September 15, 1992
*Anthony Carr, age 33- stabbed, December 26, 1992
Randy Gonzales, age 26- multiple stab wounds, January 22, 1993
Steven R. Heyman, age 47- bludgeoned, November 2, 1993
*Bruce Hutchinson, age 31- raped, bludgeoned May 8, 1994
*Paul Anderson, age 54- gunshot to the head, found May 23, 1994

James Maile, age 25- bludgeoned, December 10, 1993

Sanford "Sam" Swift, age 31- puncture wound to the head, June 11, 1992
Jack Cowles, age 74- stabbed and bludgeoned, December 21, 1992
Kenneth Love, age 42- head caved in, December 21, 1992
Ana Maria Rosales, age 24- shot in the face, January 7, 1993
Alan Haskell, age 30- strangled, February 3, 1993
Ricky Godbolt, age 33- bound, gagged, and stabbed, September 16, 1993
Rogers Donahue, age 25- bound, gagged, and stabbed, September 16, 1993
Eric Moore, age 22- shot at point-blank range, body hung from a hook, January 3, 1993
Charles Logan, age 47- multiple gunshot wounds, January 8, 1994
Paul McClure, age 47- strangled, February 5, 1994
Frank W. White, age 56- multiple gunshot wounds, March 18, 1994
*David A. Jarman, age 38- strangled, April 4, 1994
Andrew Rowe, age 53- multiple stab wounds, found May 9, 1994
Marvin Greenwell, age 55- multiple stab wounds, found May 10, 1994
Stuart Jerome Moses, age 33- multiple gunshot wounds, May 17, 1994
Shelton Thigpen, age 74- strangled, found June 23, 1994

James Flaherty, age 52- stabbed, bludgeoned, and strangled, February 14, 1993
Michael Cooper- multiple gunshot wounds, March 11, 1993
Craig Duncan, age 20's- stabbed, March 1994
*Albert Alcie Morris, age 37- bludgeoned and shot, May 19, 1994
*Walter Jammell Hinton, age 43- murdered, November 20, 1994
*John Hardy Roberts, age 59- murdered, March 15, 1994

*Unidentified male transvestite, shot, December 1992
Elizabeth Kelle Davidson, age 25- shot, January 14, 1993
Milton Bradley, age 72- strangled and beaten, May 5, 1994
*Unidentified gay man- killed by serial killer Gary Ray Bowles, May 1994

Robert Harris- bludgeoned, February 2, 1993
Dennis Johnson- throat slit, October 31, 1993
Unidentified gay man, age 70's- beaten, December 1993
Unidentified transvestite- multiple stab wounds, December 18, 1993
Unidentified male prostitute- multiple stab wounds, December 31, 1993
William Lemke- multiple stab wounds, April 9, 1994
Unidentified gay man- multiple stab wounds, April 22, 1994 <>
Leta Dains- stabbed, November 8, 1992
Pamela Agee- stabbed, November 8, 1992
*Unidentified gay man, age 22- murdered, May 31, 1993
*Unidentified gay man, age 50- gunshot wound, June 1994

Unidentified gay man, age 20's- bludgeoned, found October 29, 1994

Jack Gilman- shot in the head, May 9, 1993

Unidentified gay man, age 51- beaten, April 24, 1993
Joe Balogg, age 22- heterosexual man stabbed by five men shouting antigay epithets, November 12, 1993

Joey H. Jordan, age 31- gunshot wound to the head, July 6, 1992
Marvin Johnson, age 29- multiple stab wounds, January 2, 1994

Thomas Carey, age 39- gunshot wounds, May 14, 1993

Susan Pittman, age 56- shot at point-blank range by neighbor, May 1992
Christine Puckett, age 39- shot at point-blank range by neighbor, May 1992
Bruce Andrews, age 28- multiple stab wounds, October 1992
Jeffrey Dansby- stabbed, March 1993
David Converse, age 51- stabbed, July 16, 1994
Gary Rocus, age 41- beaten and strangled, November 1994

Howard Liebhaber, age 34- beaten and stabbed, October 25, 1992
Terry Oliver, age 27- beaten and strangled, found January 29, 1993
Duane Swalve, age 23- beaten and strangled, April 29, 1993
Craig Green, age 34- beaten, May 26, 1993
Johnnie Williams, age 48- beaten and strangled, July 15, 1994
Steven Fox, age 25- bludgeoned, neck broken, July 20, 1994

Robert Walters, age 34- gunshot wound to the head, October 8, 1994
Joseph Shoemaker, age 24- gunshot wound to the head, October 8, 1994
Stanley King, age 24- shot, December 15, 1994

William Childs, age 27- beaten, stabbed, throat slit, April 22, 1993
Craig Johnson, age 23- gunshot wound to the head, June 27, 1993

Brandon Teena, age 21- execution-style shooting, December 31, 1993

William Metz- multiple stab wounds, July 8, 1994
Anton Walker, age 54- bludgeoned, induced heart attack, August 1994

James Septimphelter- strangled, March 5, 1994
Harold Draper, age 29- multiple stab wounds, May 30, 1992
*Thomas Mulcahey, age 57- dismembered, July 13, 1992

Julio Prado, age 39- multiple stab wounds, January 11, 1992
Jesus Santiago, age 24- beaten, February 2, 1992
Bernie Walsh, age 28- bludgeoned and stabbed, April 12, 1992
Marsha P. Johnson (Malcolm Michaels, Jr.), age 46- drowned, July 6, 1992
Victor Bones, age 20's- gunshot wound to the head, July 27, 1992
Vanathan Pleasant, III, age 21- multiple gunshot wounds to the head, July 19, 1992
Brian Burke, age 36- bludgeoned, found October 25, 1992
David Schwartz, age 55- multiple stab wounds, found November 9, 1992
Salvatore Caggiano, age 50's- strangled and burned, December 26, 1992
Stephan "Stephanie" Chapman, age 20- gunshot wound to the head, December 1992
Lawrence Andrews, age 44- strangled and stabbed, March 11, 1993
George "Joe" Ortiz, age 40- multiple stab wounds, bludgeoned, March 27, 1993
Roosevelt "Terry" Lewis, age 30's- strangled and burned, found April 3, 1993
Charles Lee- multiple stab wounds, April 17, 1993
*Anthony Marrero, age 44- stabbed and dismembered, May 16, 1993
Milton Setzer, age 60- throat slit, June 29, 1993
Eric Price, age 25- throat slit, June 29, 1993
Dwight Greene, age 44- bludgeoned, July 8, 1993
James Seward, age 42- multiple stab wounds, July 28, 1993
*Michael Sakara, age 56- dismembered, July 31, 1993
Jimmy Hawkins, age 50- multiple stab wounds, found August 15, 1993
Mervin Wallace, age mid-50's- strangled, found September 30, 1993
Jeannie Fenmore, age 48- gunshot wound to the head, December 23, 1993
Pauline Campbell, age 34- multiple stab wounds, February 23, 1994
Bernard Friedman, age 56- multiple stab wounds, April 20, 1994
John Stella, age 33- gunshot wounds, May 1, 1994
Javier Munsuri, age 40- gunshot wound to the head, found May 28, 1994
Richard Whitesell, age 32- multiple stab wounds, June 13, 1994
Martin Parian, age 20's- gunshot wound to the head, July 13, 1994
Nelson Rawlins, age 48- stabbed, found July 30, 1994
*Benjamin Rosario, age 45- dismembered, August 3, 1994
Robert Kase, age 44- October 16, 1994

Carlos Stoner, age 33- stabbed and beaten, May 27, 1992
Gerald Taylor, age 66- multiple stab wounds, July 20, 1992
James Buchanan, age 52- gunshot wound to the head, burned, October 2, 1994
Jerry Lee Dowdy, age 50- bludgeoned, October 2, 1994

Unidentified gay man- gunshot wounds, October 13, 1992
George S.- bludgeoned, mutilated, January 10, 1993
Eric Farrow (a.k.a. Ashley-Ann Summers)- gunshot wounds, found November 20, 1993

Unidentified gay man, shot, March 1993

Hattie Mae Cohens, age 25- smoke inhalation due to firebombing, September 26, 1992
Brian Mock, age 45- smoke inhalation due to firebombing, September 26, 1992

Robert Hagan- throat slashed, found August 9, 1993
Paul Steekman, age 47- beaten, April 3, 1994
Robert Harris- strangled, October 5, 1994

Roger Oliver, age 23- beaten, near-decapitation May 2, 1994

Andre Jones, age 33- bludgeoned, run over by car, July 23, 1994

Unidentified gay man- bludgeoned, July 21, 1994

Jose Rubio- multiple stab wounds, July 1, 1992
*Leopoldo "Paul" Quintanilla, 29- multiple stab wounds, throat and genitals cut, June 23, 1993
Nicholas West, age 23- multiple gunshot wounds, November 30, 1993
*Larry Leggett- multiple stab wounds, January 25, 1994
*Joe Trevino, strangled and bludgeoned, March 3, 1994
Michael Benishek- bludgeoned and throat slit, January 1994
Tommy Musick, age 48- multiple gunshot wounds, February 1994
John Anthony Burwell, age 26- multiple gunshot wounds, April 2, 1994
Michael Burzinski, age 29- gunshot wound to the head, July 30, 1994
Larry David Allen- multiple stab wounds, August 18, 1994

Doug Koehler, age 31- gunshot wound to the head, August 15, 1993

*Unidentified gay man, age 27- strangled, June 28, 1993
*Unidentified gay man, age 24- strangled, September 3, 1993
Gary Watts, 34- multiple gunshot wounds, June 10, 1994
*Henry Weatherford Jr., age 50- shot, June 13, 1994
*Garland LeRoy Taylor, age 24- strangled, September 17, 1994
Harold Coon- beaten and stabbed, December 17, 1994

Bradley Wantdler- multiple stab wounds, June 20, 1993

Roger Melner, age 60's- bludgeoned, Fall 1994

* Murder committed or suspected to have been committed by an antigay serial killer.

One of the most common double-standards people thinking a same-sex couple is gross or immoral when showing affection in public. However, most people do not tend to feel that way towards opposite-sex couples.

Many people who are homophobic make many ignorant stereotypes: Poor parenting causes a person to be les/bi/gay, les/bi/gay people lack morals and religious views, les/bi/gay people are perverted, gays try to recruit others, les/bi/gay people are most likely to get AIDS, les/bi/gay people are more likely to commit sex crimes etc.

Too many people out there assume they know what causes a person to be gay. Some people say it is because of childhood rape, poor parenting, lack of religious views, or a bad experience with the opposite sex. Some say it is a mental or emotional disorder, and some even say it is a choice. These, however, are nothing more than false assumptions. One person could grow up being rapped, be raised by bad parents, have no religious views whatsoever, and grow up to be heterosexual. Another person could grow up with a perfect childhood (without being rapped, grow up in an upper-middle class family, and go to church every week) and end up being gay/les/bi. Sexuality is not caused by experiences with the opposite sex either. One person could have many horrible experiences with the opposite sex and still end up being heterosexual just like another person could have no bad experiences and turn out to homosexual. Sexuality also has no connection with mental or emotional health. Scientists have been doing many tests to prove this. Why would any person in the right state of mind want to choose to be a controversial person in the society of today? Homosexuals do not choose their sexuality just as a heterosexual person does not choose theirs. In 1983, Doctor Lee Ellis and Doctor Ashley Ames did a three-year study on the causes of homosexuality. They concluded that sexual orientation is determined between the second and fifth months of pregnancy, and it is neither learned nor can it be changed.

Many people think that gay/les/bi people have no morals. However, sexual orientation cannot determine the amount of morals one has. Les/bi/gay people come from a variety of religious backgrounds and beliefs. Many hetero people lack morals just like there are les/bi/gay people without morals. A person's sexual orientation has absolutely nothing to do with morality.

Some people also assume that gays, lesbians, and bisexuals are perverted and obsessed with sex. Many les/bi/gay people wish to stay with a single partner in a monogamous relationship, wish to get married, and raise a family (i.e. Melissa Etheridge and Julie Cypher) like many hetero people do. However, there are some gay/les/bi people do not settle down and have many lovers, but many heterosexual people also do this.

Homosexuals cannot recruit anyone. Just as you cannot make a gay person heterosexual, you cannot make a heterosexual gay. Scientists believe (with the information they have) that a person's sexuality is determined before or shortly after birth. So, if someone is les/bi/gay, it was meant to be.

Many people also assume that the homosexual male is the most likely to get AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) through sex. However, seventy percent of all people that have AIDS received it through heterosexual sex. Sharing needles and male homosexual sex take up about the next twenty-five percent of the AIDS population. Lesbians are the least likely to get AIDS through sex and take up only five percent of the people with AIDS.

Another common misconception about les/bi/gay people is that they are more likely to commit sex crimes. What they do not know it that the heterosexual male is the most likely to commit a sex crime. The acts are usually not about the sex, but about the power that they obtain behind it. Lesbians are the least likely to commit a sex crime.

People also assume that all gay men are non-athletic, sissy, and feminine. This is not always true. There have been many gay men to play professional sports and work at "macho" jobs. Dave Kopay played in the NFL for ten years with the Packers, Greg Louganis has won gold medals at the Olympics (although some people don't really consider diving a real "man sport"), Joe Steffan was a high ranked naval officer, Bob Jackson is a former Mr. Universe, and there are many gay police officers. There is no such thing as "Sissy-Boy Syndrome." Sure, some gay men are very effeminate. However, not all effeminate guys are gay, and not all "macho" guys are hetero. You cannot judge a person like that.

Many people also assume that lesbians hate men, all female athletes are lesbians, and all lesbians are macho. This is not always true either. Just because lesbians do not have sex with men, that does not necessarily mean that they hate men. Also, a woman's athletic inclination has no link to her sexuality and not all lesbians are necessarily macho. There are many hetero women that are very athletic, and there are many non-athletic lesbians. Not all lesbians listen to Melissa Etheridge, chop their hair short, and watch endless repeats of Ellen on Lifetime. My mom listens to Melissa Etheridge and thinks Ellen is hilarious, but she's not a lesbian! These are just ignorant stereotypes.

Heterosexism is everywhere. Heterosexism is defined as the "discrimination or prejudice against gay or homosexual people by heterosexual people" (definition was taken from the 1992 edition of the American Heritage Dictionary).

Heterosexism is basically the belief that heterosexuality is superior to bisexuality and homosexuality. For example, when you pick up a magazine and it gives women advice how to talk to and meet Mr. Right (or men advice on how to treat a woman). Although that magazine is assuming that everyone is hetero, not everyone is. Some women are in search of Ms. Right, and some men are in search of Mr. Right.

Many studies on homosexuality and the cause of it have been done in the past. Many thought it could be "cured" or "fixed." However, Sigmund Freud knew that it could not be classified as a mental illness nor could it be "cured."

In 1992, Simon Levay studied human cadavers. If this study, he found out that homosexual men had a slightly smaller hypothalamus than heterosexual men. A heterosexual female's hypothalamus is smaller than a heterosexual male's.

Another study also shows that gay men have less testosterone than they do XY hormones. Lesbians tended to have more testosterone than they had XX hormones. Homosexuals also tended to have different blood chemistry, brain cells, aging, and sleep patterns.

There is much new evidence that points to a biological cause of homosexuality. Many people, however, fear the finding of a biological cause. Some people think that it may be able to be found before birth, causing parents to either kill their unborn babies or to inject it with hormones to "fix" it.

This ignorance is destroying the future: Our children. Seven million two hundred thousand Americans under the age of twenty are gay/les/bi (I am one of them). A total of eighty percent of these teens and young adults feel utter isolation and are two to six times more likely to commit suicide than heterosexual teens and young adults. This is also why lesbian youth are secretive and afraid. Thirty percent of all completed suicides are by homosexuals.

Gay/bi/les teens receive a lot of abuse, especially during high school. Of all the anti-gay violence, most of it is at school. Their peers in high school physically or verbally abuse forty-five percent of homosexual boys and twenty percent of lesbians. Young men are the most common to commit anti-gay violence, and only twelve percent of males between the ages of fifteen and nineteen said that they could befriend a homosexual.

Because of this abuse and discrimination, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered teens are five times more likely to miss school out of fear. Twenty-eight percent drop. These children are also more likely to abuse drugs (including alcohol), suffer from depression, and run away.

Of all the victims, 80 percent do not report the violence because they fear being "outed." It does not help much when 85 percent of teachers oppose les/bi/gay themes in their curricula. Forty-two percent of all homeless youth say that they are les/bi/gay. Most likely, they either ran away from the problems that may have developed with coming out to their parents, or they were kicked out.

The Fight for Equality
Famous Les/Bi/Gay People throughout History
Lesbian Poetry
Same-Sex Marriage
Homophobia and Hate Crimes
Links for Parents Trying to Deal with Their Teen's Homosexuality
Links for Teens Trying to Deal with Their Own Homosexuality
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Copyright © 1999 D.E. Wojo