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The Opening of the Eyes

- Kaimoku Sho -

Part One [snack three]

Again, because there are certain differences between the Hinayana sutras and the Mahayana sutras mentioned above, we find that in some cases Buddhas appeared in the ten directions, in others great bodhisattvas were dispatched from the ten directions, or it was made clear that the particular sutra was expounded in the worlds of the ten directions, or that various Buddhas came from the ten directions to meet in assembly. In some cases, it was said that Shakyamuni Buddha covered the major world system with his tongue, while in others it was the various Buddhas who put forth their tongues. All of these statements are intended to combat the view expounded in the Hinayana sutras that in the worlds of the ten directions there is only one Buddha.

But in the case of the Lotus Sutra, it differs so greatly from the previous Mahayana sutras that Shariputra and the other voice-hearers, the great bodhisattvas, and the various human and heavenly beings, when they heard the Buddha preach it, were led to think, "Is this not a devil pretending to be the Buddha?"78 And yet those bleary-eyed men of the Kegon, Hosso, Sanron, Shingon and Nembutsu sects all seem to think that their own particular sutras are exactly the same as the Lotus Sutra. That is what I call wretched perception indeed!

While the Buddha was still in this world, there were undoubtedly those who set aside the sutras he had taught during the first forty and more years of his teaching life and embraced the Lotus Sutra. But after he passed away, it must have been difficult to find persons who would open and read this sutra and accept its teachings. To begin with, the sutras preached earlier run to countless words, while the Lotus Sutra is limited in length. The earlier sutras are numerous, but the Lotus Sutra is no more than a single work. The earlier sutras were preached over a period of many years, but the Lotus Sutra was preached in a mere eight years.

Moreover, the Buddha, as we have seen, has been called the great liar, and therefore one can hardly be expected to believe his words. If one makes a great effort to believe the unbelievable, one can perhaps bring oneself to believe in the earlier sutras but not in the Lotus Sutra. The people today appear to believe in the Lotus Sutra, but in fact they do not really believe in it. The reason is this: when someone assures them that the Lotus Sutra is the same as the Dainichi Sutra, or that it is the same as the Kegon Sutra or the Amida Sutra, they are pleased and place their faith in this person. If someone tells them that the Lotus Sutra is completely different from all the other sutras, they will not listen to him, or even if they should listen, they would not think that the person was really speaking the truth.

Nichiren has this to say. It is now over seven hundred years since Buddhism was introduced to Japan79. During that time, only the Great Teacher Dengyo truly understood the Lotus Sutra, but no one is willing to heed this fact which Nichiren has been teaching. It is just as the Lotus Sutra says: "If you were to seize Mount Sumeru and fling it far off to the measureless Buddha lands, that too would not be difficult.... But if after the Buddha has entered extinction, in the time of evil, you can preach this sutra, that will be difficult indeed!"80

The powerful assertions I am putting forward are in complete accord with the sutra itself. But as the Nirvana Sutra, which was designed to propagate the Lotus Sutra, states: in the defiled times of the latter age, those who slander the correct teaching will be as numerous as the specks of dirt in all the lands of the ten directions, while those who uphold the correct teaching will be as few as the specks of dirt that can be placed on a fingernail. What do you think of that! Would you say that the people of Japan can be squeezed into the space of a fingernail! Would you say that I, Nichiren, occupy the ten directions! Consider the matter carefully.

In the reign of a wise king, what is reasonable will prevail, but when a foolish king reigns, then what is unreasonable will have supremacy. One should understand that, in similar fashion, when a sage is in the world, then the true significance of the Lotus Sutra will become apparent.

In my remarks here, I have been contrasting the early sutras with the theoretical teaching of the Lotus Sutra, and it would appear as though the early sutras are in a position to prevail. But if they really win out over the theoretical teaching, then it means that Shariputra and the other persons of the two vehicles will never be able to attain Buddhahood. That would surely be lamentable!

I turn now to the second important teaching of the Lotus Sutra.81 Shakyamuni Buddha, the lord of teachings, was born in the kalpa of continuance, in the ninth period of decrease82, when the span of human life measured a hundred years. He was the grandson of King Simhahanu and the son and heir of King Shuddhodana. As a boy he was known as Crown Prince Siddhartha, or the Bodhisattva All Goals Achieved. At the age of nineteen he left his family, and at thirty he attained enlightenment. At his place of enlightenment, the World-Honored One first revealed the ceremony83 of Vairochana Buddha of the Lotus Treasury World, a Land of Actual Reward, and expounded the ten mysteries, the six forms,84 the perfect interfusion of all things, and the subtle and wonderful great teaching for immediate attainment of the ultimate fruit. At that time the Buddhas of the ten directions appeared on the scene, and all the bodhisattvas gathered about like clouds. In view of the place where Shakyamuni preached, the capacity of the listeners, the presence of the Buddhas, and the fact that it was the first sermon, is there any reason the Buddha could have concealed or held back the great doctrine! Therefore the Kegon Sutra says: "He displayed his power freely and expounded a sutra of perfection and fullness."

The work, which consists of sixty volumes, is indeed a sutra of perfection and fullness in its every character and stroke. It may be compared to the wish-granting jewel which, though it is a single jewel, is the equal of countless such jewels. For the single jewel can rain down ten thousand treasures which are equal to the treasures brought forth by ten thousand jewels. In the same way, one character of the Kegon Sutra contains all the meanings encompassed in ten thousand characters. The passage that expounds the identity of "the mind, the Buddha and all living beings" represents not only the core of Kegon teachings, but of the teachings of the Hosso, Sanron, Shingon and Tendai sects as well.

In such a superb sutra, how could there be any truths that are hidden from the hearer! And yet we find the sutra declaring that persons of the two vehicles and icchantikas can never attain Buddhahood. Here is the flaw in the jewel. Moreover, in three places the sutra speaks of Shakyamuni Buddha as attaining enlightenment for the first time in this world. It thus hides the fact that, as revealed in the Juryo chapter of the Lotus Sutra, Shakyamuni Buddha actually attained enlightenment in the remote past. Thus, the Kegon Sutra is in fact a chipped jewel, a moon veiled in clouds, a sun in eclipse. How incomprehensible!

The sutras of the Agon, Hodo and Hannya periods, such as the Dainichi Sutra, since they were expounded by the Buddha, are splendid works, and yet they cannot begin to compare with the Kegon Sutra. Therefore one could hardly expect that doctrines concealed even in the Kegon Sutra would be revealed in these sutras. Thus we find that the Zo-agon Sutra speaks of Shakyamuni Buddha as having attained the way for the first time in his present existence, the Daijuku Sutra says, "It is sixteen years since the Thus Come One first attained the way," and the Vimalakirti Sutra states, "The Buddha first sat beneath the bodhi tree and through his might conquered the devil." Likewise, the Dainichi Sutra describes the Buddha’s enlightenment as having taken place "when I long ago sat in the place of meditation," and the Ninno hannya Sutra refers to it as an event of "twenty-nine years" in the past.

It is hardly surprising that these sutras should speak in this fashion. But there is something that is an astonishment to both the ear and the eye. This is the fact that the Muryogi Sutra also speaks in the same way. In the Muryogi Sutra, the Buddha denies the great doctrines, such as the Kegon Sutra concept of the phenomenal world as created by the mind alone, the concept of the ocean-imprint meditation85 set forth in the sutras of the Hodo period and the Hannya Sutra concept of mutual identification and non-duality, when he declares, "I have not yet revealed the truth." The Muryogi Sutra regards the practices taught in the previous sutras as the practice that requires many kalpas to complete. However, the same sutra says, "In the past I sat upright in the place of meditation for six years under the bodhi tree and was able to gain supreme perfect enlightenment," using the same type of language as the Kegon Sutra, the first sutra Shakyamuni preached after his enlightenment, when it talks of the Buddha having attained enlightenment for the first time in this world.

Strange as this may seem, we may suppose that, since the Muryogi Sutra is intended to serve as an introduction to the Lotus Sutra, it deliberately refrains from speaking about doctrines to be revealed in the Lotus Sutra itself. But when we turn to the Lotus Sutra, we find that, in the sections86 where the Buddha discusses in both concise and expanded form the replacement of the three vehicles with the one vehicle, he says: "The true entity of all phenomena can only be understood and shared between Buddhas,"87 "The World-Honored One has long expounded his doctrines [and now must reveal the truth]," and "[I,] honestly discarding expedient means, [will preach only the unsurpassed way]." Moreover, Taho Buddha testifies to the verity of the eight chapters88 of the theoretical teaching, declaring that these are all true. We would suppose, therefore, that in them there would be nothing held back or concealed. Nevertheless, the Buddha hides the fact that he attained enlightenment countless kalpas ago, for he says: "I first sat in the place of meditation and gazed at the tree and walked around it." This is surely the most astounding fact of all.

In the Yujutsu chapter, a multitude of bodhisattvas who had not been seen previously in the more than forty years of the Buddha’s preaching life suddenly appear, and the Buddha says, "I taught and converted them, and caused them for the first time to set their minds on the way." Bodhisattva Miroku, puzzled by this announcement, says: "[World-Honored One,] when the Thus Come One was crown prince, you left the palace of the Shakyas and sat in the place of meditation not far from the city of Gaya, and there attained supreme perfect enlightenment. Barely forty years or more have passed since then. World-Honored One, how in that short time could you have accomplished so much work as a Buddha?"

In order to dispel this doubt and puzzlement, Shakyamuni Buddha, the lord of teachings, then preaches the Juryo chapter. Referring first to the version of the events presented in the earlier sutras and the theoretical teaching of the Lotus Sutra, he says: "In all the worlds the heavenly and human beings and asuras all believe that the present Shakyamuni Buddha, after leaving the palace of the Shakyas, seated himself in the place of meditation not far from the city of Gaya and there attained supreme perfect enlightenment." But then, in order to dispel their doubts, he says: "But good men, it has been immeasurable, boundless hundreds, thousands, ten thousands, millions of nayutas of kalpas since I in fact attained Buddhahood."89

All the other sutras such as the Kegon, Hannya and Dainichi not only conceal the fact that people of the two vehicles can attain Buddhahood, but they fail to make clear that the Buddha attained enlightenment countless kalpas in the past. These sutras have two flaws. First, because they teach that the Ten Worlds are separate from one another, they fail to move beyond the provisional doctrines and to reveal the doctrine of the three thousand realms in a single moment of life as it is expounded in the theoretical teaching of the Lotus Sutra. Second, because they teach that Shakyamuni Buddha attained enlightenment for the first time in this world, referring only to his provisional aspect, they fail to reveal the fact, stressed in the essential teaching, that the Buddha attained enlightenment countless kalpas ago. These two great doctrines are the core of the Buddha’s lifetime teachings and the very heart and marrow of all the sutras.

The Hoben chapter, which belongs to the theoretical teaching, expounds the doctrine of the three thousand realms in a single moment of life, making clear that persons of the two vehicles can achieve Buddhahood. It thus eliminates one of the two errors found in the earlier sutras. But it nevertheless retains the provisional aspect, and fails to reveal the eternal aspect, of the Buddha’s enlightenment. Thus the true doctrine of the three thousand realms in a single moment of life remains unclear and the attainment of Buddhahood by persons of the two vehicles is not properly affirmed. Such teachings are like the moon seen in the water, or rootless plants that drift on the waves.

When we come to the essential teaching of the Lotus Sutra, then the belief that Shakyamuni first obtained Buddhahood during his present lifetime is demolished, and the effects of the four teachings are likewise demolished. When the effects of the four teachings90 are demolished, the causes91 of the four teachings are likewise demolished. Thus the cause and effect of the Ten Worlds as expounded in the earlier sutras and the theoretical teaching of the Lotus Sutra are wiped out, and the cause and effect of the Ten Worlds in the essential teaching are revealed. This is the doctrine of original cause and original effect. It reveals that the nine worlds are all present in the beginningless Buddhahood, and that Buddhahood is inherent in the beginningless nine worlds. This is the true mutual possession of the Ten Worlds, the true hundred worlds and thousand factors, the true three thousand realms in a single moment of life.

When we consider the matter in this light, we can see that the Vairochana Buddha seated on the lotus pedestal of the ten directions as described in the Kegon Sutra, the little Shakyamuni described in the Agon sutras92, and the provisional Buddhas described in the sutras of the Hodo and Hannya periods such as the Konkomyo, Amida and Dainichi sutras are no more than reflections of the Buddha of the Juryo chapter. They are like fleeting reflections of the moon that float on the surfaces of various large and small bodies of water. The scholars of the various schools of Buddhism, confused as to [the nature of the Buddhas of] their own school and, more fundamentally, ignorant of [the Buddha of] the Juryo chapter of the Lotus Sutra, mistake the reflection in the water for the actual moon, some of them entering the water and trying to grasp it in their hands, others to snare it with a rope. As T’ien-t’ai says, "They know nothing of the moon in the sky, but gaze only at the moon in the pond."93

Nichiren has this to remark. Though the Lotus Sutra teaches that persons of the two vehicles can attain Buddhahood, this view tends to be overshadowed by the opposite view propounded in the sutras that precede the Lotus Sutra. How much more so is this the case with the doctrine that the Buddha attained enlightenment in the remote past! For in this case, it is not the Lotus Sutra as a whole that stands in contradiction to the earlier sutras, but the essential teaching of the Lotus Sutra that stands in contradiction both to the earlier sutras and to the first fourteen chapters of the theoretical teaching of the Lotus Sutra. Moreover, of the latter fourteen chapters of the essential teaching, all of them with the exception of the Yujutsu and Juryo chapters retain the view that the Buddha first attained enlightenment in his present lifetime.

The forty volumes of the Daihatsunehan Sutra, preached by the Buddha in the grove of sal trees just before his passing, as well as the other Mahayana sutras except the Lotus Sutra, have not one single word [to say about the fact that the Buddha attained enlightenment countless kalpas ago]. They speak of the Dharma body of the Buddha as being without beginning and without end, but they do not reveal the true nature of the other two bodies, the reward body and the manifested body.94

How, then, can we expect people to cast aside the vast body of writings represented by the earlier Mahayana sutras, the Nirvana Sutra and the major portion of the theoretical and essential teachings of the Lotus Sutra, and put all their faith simply in the two chapters Yujutsu and Juryo?

If we examine the origins of the school called Hosso, we find that, nine hundred years after the Buddha passed away in India, there was a great teacher of doctrine called Bodhisattva Asanga.95 At night, he ascended to the inner court of the Tushita heaven,96 where he came before Bodhisattva Miroku and resolved his doubts concerning the sacred teachings propounded by the Buddha during his lifetime. In the daytime, he worked to propagate the Hosso doctrines in the state of Ayodhya.97 Among his disciples were various great scholars such as Vasubandhu, Dharmapala, Nanda and Shilabhadra.98 The great ruler, King Shiladitya,99 bowed his head in reverence, and the people of all the five regions of India abandoned their arrogance and declared themselves followers of his teaching.

The Tripitaka Master Hsuan-tsang of China journeyed to India, spending seventeen years visiting 130 or more states in India. He rejected all the other teachings of Buddhism, but brought back the doctrines of the Hosso school to China and presented them to the wise sovereign, Emperor T’ai-tsung. Hsuan-tsang numbered among his disciples such men as Shen-fang, Chia-shang, P’u-kuang and K’uei-chi.100 He preached his teachings in Ta-tz’u-en-ssu temple and spread them through more than 360 districts of China.

In the reign of Emperor Kotoku, the thirty-seventh sovereign of Japan, Doji, Dosho101 and other priests went to China and studied these doctrines, and on their return preached them at Yamashina-dera temple.102 In this way, the Hosso sect was regarded as the leading sect of Buddhism throughout all three lands of India, China and Japan.

According to this sect, in all the teachings of the Buddha, from the Kegon Sutra, the earliest of the sutras, to the Lotus and Nirvana sutras that were preached last, it is laid down that those sentient beings who do not possess the innate nature of any enlightenment and those predestined for the two vehicles103 can never become Buddhas. The Buddha, they say, never contradicts himself. Therefore, if he has once declared that these persons will never be able to attain Buddhahood, then, even though the sun and moon may fall to the earth and the great earth itself may turn upside down, that declaration can never be altered. In the earlier sutras those sentient beings who do not possess the innate nature of any enlightenment or those predestined for the two vehicles were said to be incapable of attaining Buddhahood. Therefore, even in the Lotus or Nirvana Sutra it is never said that they can in fact do so.

"Close your eyes and consider the matter," the members of the Hosso sect would say. "If it had in fact been plainly stated in the Lotus and Nirvana sutras that those who do not possess the innate nature of any enlightenment or those predestined for the two vehicles can actually attain Buddhahood, then why would not the great scholars such as Asanga and Vasubandhu or the Tripitaka masters and teachers such as Hsuan-tsang and Tz’u-en have taken notice of this fact? Why did they not mention it in their own writings! Why did they not accept the belief and transmit it to later ages! Why did not Asanga question Bodhisattva Miroku about it! People like you, Nichiren, claim that you are basing your assertions on the text of the Lotus Sutra, but in fact you are simply accepting the biased views of men like T’ien-t’ai, Miao-lo and Dengyo and interpreting the text of the sutra in the light of their teachings. Therefore you claim that the Lotus Sutra is as different from the earlier sutras as fire from water."

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Gosho background information

Translated into Serbian by Mića Mijatović 07/24/2002 in Belgrade
Source: Major Writings of Nichiren Daishonin; Vol. 2. Page 86.

Otvaranje očiju

- Kaimoku Šo -

Prvi deo [treće parče]

Opet, pošto postoje izvesne razlike između gorepomenutih hinajana i mahajana sutri, nalazimo da se u nekim slučajevima Buda pojavio u deset pravaca, ili je razjašnjeno da je neka određena sutra bila izložena u svetovima deset pravaca, ili da su razne bude došle iz deset pravaca da se sretnu na skupu. U nekom slučajevima, kaže se da je Šakjamuni Buda pokrio glavni sistem svetova svojim jezikom, dok su u drugim to bile razne bude koje su isturile jezike. Sve ove tvrdnje imaju svrhu da pobiju poglede u hinajana sutrama da u svetovima deset pravaca postoji samo jedan buda.

Ali u slučaju Lotos sutre, ovo se toliko razlikuje od ranijih mahajana sutri da su Šariputra i drugi slušači-glasa, velike bodisatve i razna ljudska i nebeska bića, kada su čuli Budu da je propoveda, bili povedeni da pomisle: "Zar nije to đavo koji se pretvara da je Buda?"78 A uz to ti kratkovidi ljudi Kegon, Hoso, Sanron i Nembutsu sekti su svi mislili da su njihove sutre potpuno iste kao Lotos sutra. To ja zovem doista bednim opažanjem!

Dok je Buda još uvek bio u ovom sveti, nesumnjivo je bilo onih koji su ostavili na stranu sutre kojima su podučavali tokom prvih četrdeset i više godina svog učiteljskog života i prihvatili su Lotos sutru. Ali nakon što je preminuo, mora da je bilo teško naći nekog ko bi otvorio i čitao tu sutru i prihvatio njena učenja. Kao prvo, sutre propovedane ranije protežu se do bezbrojnih reči, dok je Lotos sutra ograničena u dužini. Ranije sutre su brojne, a Lotos sutra je ne više do jedno jedino delo. Ranije sutre su bile propovedane tokom perioda od mnogo godina, a Lotos sutra je bila propovedana samo osam godina.

Štaviše, Buda, kao što smo videli, nazivan je velikim lažovom, te prema tome teško bi se moglo očekivati da neko veruje njegovim rečima. Ako se učini veliki napor da se poveruje u neverovatno, može se verovatno doći do toga da se poveruje u ranije sutre ali ne u Lotos sutru. Izgleda da ljudi danas veruju u Lotos sutru, ali u stvari ne veruju doista u nju. Razlog je ovaj: kada ih neko ubedi da je Lotos sutra isto što i Dainiči sutra, ili da je isto što i Kegon sutra ili Amida sutra, njima je milo poklanjaju svoju veru toj osobi. Ako im neko kaže da je Lotos sutra potpuno drugačija od svih drugih sutri, neće ga slušati, ili čak ako bi ga slušali ne bi mislili da ta osoba doista govori istinu.

Ničiren ima ovo da kaže. Sada je više od sedam stotina godina otkako je budizam uveden u Japan.79 Tokom tog vremena jedino je Veliki Učitelj Dengjo doista shvatio Lotos sutru, ali niko nije voljan da obrati pažnju na ovu činjenicu kojoj je Ničiren podučavao. Baš kao što Lotos sutra kaže: "Da ste spopali planinu Sumeru i bacili je daleko u neizmerne Budine zemlje, to takođe ne bi bilo teško... Ali ako, nakon što je Buda stupio u ukinuće, u doba zla, možete propovedati ovu sutru, to će svakako biti teško!"80

Ove moćne tvrdnje koje iznosim, u potpunom su skladu sa samom sutrom. Ali kao što Nirvana sutra, čija je namena da propagira Lotos sutru, tvrdi: u uprljanim vremenima potonjeg doba, onih koji klevetaju ispravno učenje biće brojni kao čestice prljavštine u svim zemljama deset pravaca, dok će onih koji podržavaju ispravno učenje biti koliko i česticâ prljavštine koje se mogu staviti na nokat! Šta misliš o tome! Da li bi rekao da narod Japana može biti stisnut na prostor jednog nokta! Bi li rekao da ja, Ničiren, zauzimam deset pravaca! Razmotri ovu stvar pažljivo.

Tokom vladavine mudrog kralja, ono što je razumno će prevagnuti, ali kada blesavi kralj vlada, onda nadmoć ima ono što je nerazumno. Treba shvatiti, na sličan način, da kada mudrac boravi u svetu, onda pravi značaj Lotos sutre postaje očigledan.

U mojim napomenama ovde, poredio sam rane sutre sa teorijskim učenjem Lotos sutre, a izgledalo bi da su rane sutre u poziciji da prevladaju. Ali ako stvarno preovladaju nad ovim teorijskim učenjem, onda to znači da Šariputra i ostali dvaju vozila nikada neće biti sposobni da dostignu budastvo. Ovo bi sigurno bilo žalosno!

Vaćam se sada drugom važnom učenju Lotos sutre.81 Šakjamuni Buda, gopsodar učenjâ, bio je rođen u kalpi produženja, u devetom periodu opadanja,82 kada je dužina ljudskog života iznosila sto godina. Bio je unuk kralja Simhahanua i sin i nalsednik kralja Šudodane. Kao dečak bio je poznat kao Prestolonaslednik Sidarta ili Bodisatva Koji Je Postigao Sve Ciljeve. Kada je imao devetnaest napustio je porodicu, a u tridesetoj je dostigao prosvetljenje. Na mestu njegovog prosvetljenja, Svetski Uvaženi je prvi otkrio ceremoniju83 Bude Vairočane Sveta Lotosovog Blaga, Zemlju Stvarne Nagrade, i izložio je deset misterija, šest oblika,84 savršeno međuspajanje svih stvari i suptilno i čudesno veliko učenje za neposredno dostizanje krajnjeg ploda. Tada su se bude deset pravaca pojavile na sceni, a sve su se bodisatve okupile naokolo kao oblaci. S obzirom na mesto gde je Šakjamuni propovedao, na kapacitet slušalaca, prisustvo budâ i na činjenicu da je to bila prva propoved, ima li ijednog razloga da bi Buda mogao skrivati ili zadržavati veliku doktrinu! S toga Kegon sutra kaže: "Prikazao je slobodno svoju moć i izložio sutru savršenstva i punoće."

Ovo delo, koje se sastoji od šest tomova, doista je sutra savršenstva i punoće u svakom svom karakteru i potezu. Može se uporediti sa draguljem koji ispunjava želje, koji, mada je to samo jedan jedini dragulj, jednak je bezbrojnim takvim draguljima. Zbog jednog jedinog dragulja može pasti kiša deset hiljada blaga koja su jednaka blagu koje daju deset hiljada dragulja. Na isti način, jedan karakter Kegon sutre sadrži sva značenja obuhvaćena u deset hiljada karaktera. Odeljak koji izlaže identitet "uma, Bude i svih živih biča" predstavlja ne samo jezgro Kegon učenjâ, već i učenja Hoso, Sanron, Šingon i Tendaj sekti takođe.

U takvoj jednoj veličanstvenoj sutri, kako bi moglo biti bilo kakvih istina koje su skrivene od slušaoca! A ipak nalazimo sutru koja izjavljuje da oni dvaju vozila i ičantike nikada neće moći da dostignu budastvo. Ovde je mrlja na dragulju. Štaviše, na tri mesta sutra govori o tome kako je Šakjamuni Buda po prvi put dostigao prosvetljenje u ovom svetu. Tako prikriva činjenicu, kao što je otkriveno u poglavlju Đurjo Lotos sutre, da je Šakjamuni Buda zapravo dostigao prosvetljenje u dalekoj prošlosti. Na ovaj način, Kegon sutra je u stvari okrnjen dragulj, mesec zaklonjen oblacima, pomračeno sunce. Kako neshvatljivo!

Sutre Agon, Hodo i Hanja perioda, kao što je Dainiči sutra, otkako ih je Buda bio izložio, izvrsna su dela, a ipak se ne mogu ni početi porediti sa Kegon sutrom. Prema tome, teško bi se moglo očekivati da bi doktrine koje su skrivene čak i u Kegon sutri bile otkrivene u ovim sutrama. Tako nalazimo da Zo-Agon sutra govori da je Šakjamuni Buda dostigao put po prvi put u svojoj sadašnjoj egzistenciji. Daiđuku sutra kaže: "Šesnaest je godina otkako je Tatagata prvi put dostigao put", a Vimalakirti sutra tvrdi: "Buda je prvo seo pod bodi drvo i pomoću svoje moći pokorio đavola." Slično, Dainiči sutra opisuje Budino prosvetljenje kao zauzimanje mesta "gde sam davno sedeo u položaju za meditaciju", a Nino hanja sutra se na ovo poziva kao na događaj od pre "dvadeset devet godina".

Teško da je iznenađujuće da bi ove sutre trebalo da govore na ovaj način. Ali ima nešto što zapanjuje i uvo i oko. To je činjenica da i Murjogi sutra takođe govri na isti način. U Murjogi sutri Buda poriče velike doktrine, kao što je pojam pojavnog sveta stvoren od uma sâmog, u Kegon sutri, pojam meditacije okeanskog {u|o}tiska.85 iznetog u sutrama Hodo perioda i koncept Hanja sutre o uzajamnoj identifikaciji i ne-dualnosti, gde izjavljuje: "Još uvek nisam otkrio istinu." Murjogi sutra gleda na prakse podučavane u prethodnim sutrama kao na praksu koja zahteva mnogo kalpi da se dovrše. Međutim, ista sutra kaže: "U prošlosti sam sedeo uspravno u položaju meditacije tokom šest godina pod bodi drvetom i bio sam sposoban da steknem vrhunsko prosvetljenje", koristeći isti tip jezika kao i Kegon sutra, prva sutra koju je Šakjamuni propovedao posle svog prosvetljenja, kada govori o Budi kako je dostigao prosvetljenje po prvi put u ovom svetu.

Neobično kao što može izgledati, možemo pretpostaviti da se, pošto je Murjogi sutri namenjeno da služi kao uvod i Lotos sutru, namerno uzdržava od govorenja o doktrinama koje se otlrivaju u samoj Lotos sutri. Ali ako se vratimo Lotos sutri, nalazimo da, u odeljcima86 gde Buda diskutuje i na koncizan i na opširan način zamenu tri vozila jednim, on kaže: "Pravu suštinu svih fenomena mogu razumeti jedino bude i ovo razumevanje se može podeliti jedino mežu budama."87 "Svetki Uvaženi je dugo izlagao svoje doktrine [i sada mora otkriti istinu]"; i "[Ja,] iskreno odbacujući svrsishodna sredstva, [ću propovedati samo nepreveziđen put]." Štaviše, Taho Buda svedoči o tačnosti osam poglavlja88 teorijskog učenja, izjavljujući da su sva ona tačna. Pretpostavili bismo, prema tome, da u njima nema ničega zadržanog ili skrivenog. Pri svemu tome, Buda skriva činjenicu da je dostigao prosvetljenje pre bezbrojnih kalpi, zato što kaže: "Prvo sam zauzeo položaj meditacije i piljio u drvo i šetao oko njega." Ovo je sigurno činjenica koja zapanjujuje više od svih.

U poglavlju Juđutsu, mnoštvo bodisatvi, koje ranije nisu bile viđene tokom više od četrdeset godina Budinog propovedničkog života, naprasno se pojavljuje, a Buda kaže: "Podučavao sam ih i preobratio i učinio da po prvi put dovedu u red svoj um." Bodisatva Miroku, pometen ovim saopštenjem, kaže: "[Svetski Uvaženi,] kada je Tatagata bio prestolonaslednik, napustio si Šakja palatu i zauzeo meditativni položaj nedaleko od grada Gaje, i tamo dostigao vrhunsko savršeno prosvetljenje. Jedva da je četrdeset ili više godina prošlo od tada. Svetski Uvaženi, kako si mogao da za tako kratko vreme završiš tako mnogo posla kao Buda?"

U cilju da rastera ovu sumnju u pometenost, Šakjamuni Buda, gospodar učenja, propoveda tada poglavlje Đurjo. Pozivajući se prvo na verziju događaja predstavljenih u ranijim sutrama i teorijskom učenju Lotos sutra, on kaže: "U svim svetovima nebeska i ljudska bića i asure veruju da je prisutni Šakjamuni Buda, posle napuštanja Šakja palate, zauzeo položaj za meditaciju nedaleko od grada Gaje i tu dostigao vrhunsko savršeno prosvetljenje." Ali zatim, u cilju da rastera njihovu sumnju, on kaže: "Ali dobri ljudi, prošlo je neizmerno, bezgranično stotina, hiljada, desetina hiljada, miliona najuta kalpi otkako sam zapravo dostigao budastvo."89

Sve te druge sutre kao što su Kegon, Hanja i Dainiči ne samo da kriju činjenicu da ljudi dvaju vozila mogu da dostignu budastvo, već nerazjašnjavaju da je Buda dostigao prosvetljenje pre bezbroj kalpi. Ove sutre imaju dva nedostatka. Prvi, pošto podučavaju da je Deset Svetova odvojeno jedan od drugog, ne uspevaju da se odmaknu dalje od privremenih doktrina i da otkriju doktrinu tri hiljade područja u jednom jedinom trenutku života kako je izloženo u teorijskom učenju Lotos sutre. Drugi, pošto podučavaju da je Šakjamuni Buda po prvi put dostigao prosvetljenje u ovom svetu, odnoseći se samo na njegove privremene aspekte, ne uspevaju da otkriju činjenicu, naglašenu u esencijalnom učenju, da je Buda dostigao prosvetljenje pre bezbroj kalpi. Ove dve velike doktrine su jezgro Budinih životnih učenja i sâmo su srce i srž svih sutri.

Poglavlje Hoben, koje pripada teorijskom učenju, izlaže doktrinu tri hiljade područja u jednom jedinom trenutku života, razjašnjavajući da oni dvaju vozila mogu da dostignu budastvo. Ovo tako eliminiše jednu od dve greške koje se nalaze u ranijim sutrama. Ali pri svemu tome ovo zadržava privremeni aspekt, i ne uspeva da otkrije večni aspekt Budinog prosvetljenja. Tako prava doktrina tri hiljade područja u jednom jedinom trenutku života ostaje nejasna i dostizanje budastva od onih dvaju vozila nije valjano potvrđeno. Ovakva učenja su kao mesec koji se vidi u vodi, ili biljke bez korena koje plove na talasima.

Kada dođemo do esencijalnog učenja Lotos sutre, onda je verovanje da je Šakjamuni prvo stekao budastvo tokom sadašnjeg života srušeno, a posledice četiri učenja su isto tako srušene. Kada su posledice četiri učenja90 razrušene, uzroci91 četiri učenja su takođe razrušeni. Tako su uzrok i posledica Deset Svetova, kako je izloženo u ranijim sutrama i teorijskom učenju Lotos sutre izbrisani, a uzrok i posledica Deset Svetova u esencijalnom učenju su otkriveni. Ovo je doktrina izvornog uzroka i izvorne posledice. Ovo otkriva da je svih devet svetova prisutno u bezpočetnom budastvu, a da je budastvo inherentno u bespočetnih devet svetova. Ovo je pravo uzajamno posedovanje Deset Svetova, tri stotine svetova i hiljadu faktora, pravih tri hiljade područja u jednom jedinom trenutku života.

Kada razmotrimo stvar u ovom svetlu, možemo videti da je Vairočana Buda koji sedi na lotosovom postolju deset pravaca kao što je opisano u Kegon sutri,mali Šakjamuni opisan u Agon sutrama,92 i privremene bude opissne u sutrama Hodo i Hanja perioda kao što su Konkomjo, Amida i Dainiči sutre, ništa drugo do odbljesci Bude poglavlja Đurjo. Oni su kao prolazni odbljesci meseca koji plove na raznim velikim i malim vodama. Učenici raznih škola budizma, zbunjeni u vezi sa [prirodom budâ] njihovih vlastitih škola i, temeljnije, ne znajući za [Budu iz] poglavlja Đurjo Lotos sutre, brkaju odbljesak u vodi sa pravim mesecom, neki od njih ulaze u vodu i pokušavaju da ga ščepaju rukama, drugi da ga uhvate konopcem. Što reče Tjen-tai: "Ne znaju ništa o mesecu koji je na nebu, već samo pilje u mesec u bari."93

Ničiren ima ovo da zapazi. Mada Lotos sutra podučava da oni dvaju vozila mogu da dostignu budastvo, ovaj nazor ima tendenciju da bude zakriljen suprotnim nazorom istaknutom u sutrama koje prethode Lotos sutri. Koliko je mnogo više ovo slučaj sa doktrinom da je buda dostigao prosvetljenje u dalekoj prošlosti! Zato što u tom slučaju, ne stoji Lotos sutra u celini u kontradikciji sa ranijim sutrama, već je esencijalno učenje Lotos sutre to koje stoji u kontradikciji i sa ranijim sutrama i sa prvih četrnaest poglavlja teorijskog učenja Lotos sutre. Štaviše, kod potonjih četrnaest poglavlja esencijalnog učenja, sva ona sa izuzetkom Juđutsu i Đurjo poglavlja zadržavaju stanovište da je Buda prvo dostigao prosvetljenje u svom sadašnjem životu.

Četrdeset tomova Daihatsunehan sutre, koju je Buda propovedao u šumici salovog drveća, baš pre nego će da premine, kao i druge mahajana sutre osim Lotos sutre, nemaju ni jedne jedine reči [da kažu o činjenici da je Buda dostigao prosvetljenje pre bezbroj kalpi]. One govore o Darma telu Bude kao nečemu što postoji bez početka i kraja, ali ne otkrivaju pravu prirodu druga dva tela, telu nagrade i manifestovanom telu.94

Kako, onda, možemo da očekujemo da ljudi odbace na stranu vaskoliko telo spisâ predstavljeno ranijim mahajana sutrama, Nirvana sutru i glavni deo teorijskih i esencijalnih učenja Lotos sutre, te da svu njihovu veru prosto stavimo u dva poglavlja Juđutsu i Đurjo?

Ako ispitamo lozu škole zvane Hoso, nalazimo da je, devet stotina godina nakon što je Buda preminuo u Indiji, postojao jedan veliki učitelj doktrine koji se zvao Bodisatva Asanga.95 Noću, pojavio bi se u unutrašnjoj palati Tušita neba,96 gde je došao pre Bodisatve Mirokua i razrešio mu sumnje u pogledu tajnih učenja koje je Buda predložio tokom svog života. Danju, radio je na propagiranju Hoso doktrina u državi Ajodhja.97 Među njegovim učenicima behu razni veliki učenjaci kao što su Vasubandu, Darmapala, Nanda i Šilabhadra.98 Veliki vladar, kralj Šiladitja,99 klanjao mu se s poštovanjem, a narodi svih pet oblasti Indije napustili su svoju aroganciju i izjasnili se kao sledbenici njegovog učenja.

Majstor Tripitake, Hsuan-tsang iz Kine, putovao je u Indiju, utrošivši sedamnaest godina posećujući 130 ili više indijskih država. Odbio je sva druga budistička učenja, ali je doneo nazad u Kinu doktrine Hoso škole i predstavio ih mudromvladaru, caru T'ai-tsungu. Hsuan-tsang je imao među svojim učenicima takve ljude kao što su Šen-fang, Čia-šang, P'u-kuang i K'uei-či.100 Propovedao je svoje učenje u hramu Ta-c'u-en-su i širio ih u više od 360 kineskih atara.

Za vladavine cara Kotokua, trideset sedmog vladara Japana, Dođi, Došo101 i drugi sveštenici su otišli u Kinu i studirali ove doktrine, a na povratku su ih propovedali u hramu Jamašina-dera.102 Na taj način, Hoso sekta je bila držana za vodeću budističku sektu u sve tri zemlje Indije, Kine i Japana.

Prema ovoj sekti, u svim Budinim učenjima, od Kegon sutre, najranije od svih sutri, do Lotos i Nirvana sutre koje su poslednje bile propovedane, ustanovljeno je dogmatski da ona bića koja osećaju koja ne poseduju urođenu prirodu ikakvog prosvetljenja i ona predodređena za dva vozila103 nikada neće postati Bude. Buda, kažu, nikada nije sebi protivrečio. Prema tome, ako je jednom izjavio da ove osobe nikada neće biti sposobne da dostignu budastvo, onda, čak i ako sunce i mesec mogu da padnu na zemlju i da se velika zemlja sama izvrne naopako, ova izjava nikada se ne bi promenila. U ranijim sutrama za ova bića koja osećaju koja ne poseduju urođenu prirodu ikakvog prosvetljenja ili oni predodređeni za dva vozila se kaže da su nesposobna da dostizanje budastva. Prema tome, čak ni u Lotos ili Nirvana sutri nikada nije rečeno da ona to u stvari mogu.

"Zatvori oči i razmotri stvar", rekli bi pripadnici Hoso sekte. "Ako je bilo zapravo jasno izloženo u Lotos ili Nirvana sutri da oni koji ne poseduju urođenu prirodu ikakvog prosvetljenja ili da oni koji su predodređeni za dva vozila zapravo ne mogu da dostignu budastvo, onda zašto ne bi veliki učenjaci kao što su Asanga i Vasubandu ili majstori Tripitake i učitelji kao Hsuang-tsang i C'u-en zapazili ovu činjenicu? Zašto je nisu pomenuli u svojim vlastitim spisima! Zašto nisu prihvatili verovanje i preneli ga kasnijim pokoljenjima! Zašto Asanga nije priupitao Bodisatvu Mirokua o tome! Ljudi kao što si ti, Ničiren, tvrde da zasnivaju svoje izjave na tekstu Lotos sutre, ali u stvari vi prosto prihvatate pristrasna gledišta ljudi kao što su Tjen-tai, Miao-lo i Dengjo i tumačite teskt sutre u svetlu njihovih učenja. Otuda tvrdite da se Lotos sutra razlikuje od ranijih sutri kao vatra od vode."

prethodno parče sledeće

Podaci o poreklu gošoa

Preveo Mića Mijatović 24. 07. 2002. u Beogradu
Izvor: Major Writings of Nichiren Daishonin; Vol. 2. Page 86.


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