1. SRI YUKTESWAR GIRI
Sri Yukteswar is considered to be a “Jnanavatar”, an incarnation of wisdom. Born to wealthy parents, he married early and invested his inheritance in property. The death of his wife caused a seachange in his outlook, and he entered the swami order, dividing his time between two ashrams in Puri and Serampore.
2. ALEISTER CROWLEY
In his lifetime he was named “The Wickedest Man in the World”. Aleister Crowley was certainly interested in some unusual areas. Indeed, Crowley is now seen as one of the occultist movement’s most significant writers, and his The Book of the Law is the central text of Thelema. Crowley practised what he preached. He was a serving member of several dark sects, including the Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO), the Argenteum Astrum and the Golden Dawn. He was also a keen chess player, climber, painter, and hedonist.
3. MAE WEST
Mae West was a woman ahead of her time. A Hollywood actress who refused to play by the rules, she frequently found herself in trouble for her bawdy sexual references. She was as game in old age as she had been in youth, surrounding herself with fit young men and rubbing cold cream into her breasts for two hours a day to maintain her youthful appearance.
4. LENNY BRUCE
Some call Lenny Bruce the greatest stand-up ever. He was certainly one of the most offensive. In 1964 he was found guilty of obscenity in a trial that presaged a cultural revolution in America. Bruce was sentenced to four months in the workhouse, and died while on bail during the appeals process.
5. KARLHEINZ STOCKHAUSEN
Widely considered the leading German composer of his generation, he is known particularly for his groundbreaking work in electronic music.
6. WC FIELDS
“I only drink to steady my nerves,” claimed the comedian and actor WC Fields, who died in 1946 from an illness worsened by his alcoholism. “Sometimes I’m so steady I don’t move for months.”
7. CARL JUNG
Carl Jung, the father of analytical psychology, was a friend and great rival of Sigmund Freud. His work is overshadowed by suggestions that he was a Nazi sympathiser.
8. EDGAR ALLAN POE
Edgar Allan Poe was the writer who created crime fiction and mastered the macabre in his short stories; his own mysterious death at 40 has been attributed to drugs, rabies, tuberculosis, brain congestion and other causes.
9. FRED ASTAIRE
Fred Astaire’s song and dance partnership with Ginger Rogers revolutionised the musical movie genre in the 1930s. Hollywood legend has it that the notes for his first studio screen test read: “Can’t sing. Can’t act. Balding. Can dance a little.”
10. RICHARD MERKIN
Richard Merkin shook off his unfortunate surname to become one of the leading artistic chroniclers of 20th-century American life. In his paintings, well-known scenes from urban America – often featuring sports, acting, and literary stars – mingle with his personal experiences.
Merkin has taught at the Rhode Island School of Design since 1963, during which time his work has been shown in the permanent collection of New York’s Museum of Modern Art, and the Smithsonian. Merkin is also a contributing editor to Vanity Fair, and a regular contributor to The New Yorker and The New York Times Magazine.
11. ALBERTO VARGAS
The Sgt Pepper’s cover features one of the Peruvian artist Alberto Vargas’ “Varga Girls”. Vargas came to the US from his homeland having studied painting in Europe before the outbreak of the First World War. He would have to wait until the outbreak of the Second World War, though, for his artistic stock to soar.
Vargas painted stylised nudes and semi-nudes, and became famous in the 1940s for his Esquire magazine pin-ups, which were known as the “Varga Girls”. Indeed, the nose art on American aircraft in the Second World War was often adapted from Vargas’ work. After a dispute with Esquire about the use of the name “Varga”, he was, temporarily, out of work. But, in the 1960s, he started painting again for Playboy, which launched its own “Varga Girls” page. The death of his wife in 1974 destroyed his artistic ambitions, and it was not until the publication of his autobiography in 1978 that Vargas decided to paint again. One of the most famous pieces of this late renaissance is the cover of The Cars’ album, Candy-O.
12. HUNTZ HALL
Henry “Huntz” Hall acted on radio, on stage and in movies, but was best known for his role in the 1938 movie Angels with Dirty Faces. He also played Horace Debussy “Sach” Jones in The Bowery Boys Meet the Monsters.
13. SIMON RODIA
Sabato “Simon” Rodia was sent from Italy to the United States at the age of 12. In his late teens, Rodia started working in the Pennsylvania coal mines, before moving to the West Coast, getting married, and fathering two children. Rodia is best known for the Watts Towers in the Watts district of Los Angeles, which he began in 1921 and finished in 1954. Using his tile-setting tools, Rodia built the spire-like protrusions on his own, without drawboards or scaffolding.
All told, he built nine towers. They were made of steel, mortar and ceramic tiles, and were covered with pottery shards and broken glass. The largest tower is 100ft tall, and contains the longest slender column of reinforced concrete in the world. After he had finished the towers, Rodia became involved in a fierce debate with his neighbours over their suspected vandalism of the towers. Rodia moved out of Watts and never returned.
14. BOB DYLAN
In 1966, Bob Dylan released Blonde On Blonde, one of the most acclaimed albums of all time, and angered British folkies by going electric. By the time Sgt Pepper’s was released though, he was convalescing following a near-fatal motorcycle accident.
15. STUART SUTCLIFFE
Known as the “Fifth Beatle”, Stuart Sutcliffe played bass in The Beatles for two years. Indeed, it was Sutcliffe and John Lennon – friends from art school – who are credited with naming the band, as an homage to Buddy Holly’s outfit, The Crickets.
Sutcliffe left The Beatles late in December 1960, when, due to a cold, he did not join Lennon on the train back from Hamburg to Liverpool. While in Hamburg, he studied art, and met Astrid Kirchherr, to whom he would become engaged. In 1962, having complained of headaches for months, Sutcliffe died of a brain haemmorhage.
16. AUBREY BEARDSLEY
The illustrator, wit and author, Aubrey Beardsley lived fast and died young. Beardsley, whose erotic illustrations proved a significant influence on later artists in both Britain and France, wished to shock. “I have one aim – the grotesque,” he said. “If I am not grotesque I am nothing.” A friend of Oscar Wilde, Beardsley illustrated Salomé in 1893 for its French print run. He became more famous, though, as an illustrator for The Savoy and The Studio magazines, and as a political cartoonist. Beardsley also wrote an unfinished erotic story entitled Under the Hill.
Beardsley’s sexuality is a moot point among historians. Although a friend of Wilde and the Aesthetic movement, there is no suggestion that Beardsley was himself homosexual. There were, however, rumours that Beardsley had engaged in an incestuous relationship with his elder sister, Mabel. Beardsley was received into the Roman Catholic church in 1895, and died, of tuberculosis, in Menton, in 1898. He was 25.
18. ROBERT PEEL
A Conservative Prime Minister for two terms – the first between 1834 and 1835, and the second between 1841 and 1846 – Peel is responsible for creating the modern police force. He also helped shape a new Conservative party out of the old Tory party, and repealed the Corn Laws, a radical move that would prove the end, and legacy, of his premiership.
19. ALDOUS HUXLEY
The English writer Aldous Huxley’s oeuvre was eclectic, ranging from novels and essays to film scripts, poetry, travel pieces and short stories. In his latter period, when he lived in Los Angeles, he became interested in mysticism and parapsychology, as well as the consciousness-altering effects of hallucinogenic drugs. His LSD-inspired essay, The Doors of Perception, was the inspiration for Jim Morrison’s band, The Doors.
20. DYLAN THOMAS
The great Welsh poet, Dylan Thomas, was also a great Welsh alcoholic. When he collapsed and died while drinking heavily in Manhattan in November 1953, he is said to have remarked to Jack Heliker: “After 39 years, this is all I’ve done.”
21. TERRY SOUTHERN
The American screen writer, novelist, filmmaker, journalist, and lecturer Terry Southern helped forge some of the great aesthetic movements of the mid-Twentieth century.
The acclaimed writer Tom Wolfe claimed that Southern was responsible for creating the New Journalism with his 1962 Esquire piece, “Twirling at Ole Miss”. His screenwriting work on Easy Rider, meanwhile, was integral to establishing the new wave of young American film directors in the 1970s.
22. DION DIMUCCI
Known the world over as Dion, DiMucci is an American doo-wop and R&B star. Born in the Bronx, DiMucci used to accompany his father, a vaudeville performer, as he toured the United States, before developing his own entertaining skills.
DiMucci started his recording life in 1957 with the Belmonts, friends of his from New York, with whom he stayed until going solo in 1960. “Runaround Sue” and “The Wanderer” became hits, and Dion became a big name both in the US and the UK.
After four years as a bona fide pop star, Dion started to explore other areas, including the blues, and a more acoustic singer-songwriting style. Last year, Dion released Bronx in Blue, a collection of blues and country standards, which was nominated for a Grammy award.
23. TONY CURTIS
Matinée idol Tony Curtis was a star of some of the best-loved films of the 20th century, among them Some Like it Hot and The Sweet Smell Of Success. In 1967 he featured alongside Claudia Cardinale and Sharon Tate in romantic comedy Don’t Make Waves.
24. WALLACE BERMAN
Had Peter Blake not been given the commission, Wallace Berman might have been a decent substitute for the Sgt Pepper’s cover. Much like his contemporary Andy Warhol, Berman assembled the world in his artwork as much as represented it.
Berman was born in New York, but moved to Los Angeles with his family in 1930. Having been expelled from his high school for gambling, he became interested in the worlds of art and jazz. He enrolled in a course at Jepson Art School, but did not finish his course, choosing instead to work in an antique furniture factory.
Berman would go on to make sculptures out of the scraps he found at the factory. He also founded SEMINA, a publication printed on “found material” such as coloured paper and photographs which featured the work of, amongst others, William Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg.
Berman exhibited his work in his own space, the Semina Art Gallery, which was founded in 1960, in Larkspur, California. He also made one film in his life, entitled Aleph. Berman died in a car crash in 1976.
25. TOMMY HANDLEY
Thomas Reginald Handley was an old-fashioned radio star, most famous for his work on the BBC’s It’s That Man Again. Born in Toxteth Park, Liverpool, Handley served in the army during the First World War, before moving onto the variety circuit.
It’s That Man Again made Handley a huge star. Featuring spoof news reports and a host of familiar characters, the show was credited with boosting the morale of British troops in the Second World War. When Handley died, of a brain haemmorhage in 1949, the BBC decided that ITMA must die with him.
At the funeral, the Bishop of London said that “he was one whose genius transmuted the copper of our common experience into the gold of exquisite foolery. His raillery was without cynicism, and his satire without malice.”
26. MARILYN MONROE
Marilyn Monroe was at the peak of her fame during The Beatles’ teenage years, in the 1950s and early 1960s. She died in 1962, a year before the release of their first LP, Please Please Me.
27. WILLIAM S BURROUGHS
A founder member of the Beat movement, avant-garde author William S Burroughs is best remembered for Naked Lunch, his controversial (and nigh-unreadable) novel published in 1959.
28. SRI MAHA-VATAR BABAJI
Mahavatar Babaji is the name given to a spectral yogi, whom many holy men claimed to have met, and who appears in the Hindu literature of the period. He is said to have been the guru of Lahiri Mahasaya.
29. STAN LAUREL
Stan Laurel made up half of the enduring comedy duo Laurel and Hardy, and was one of the first Brits to break Hollywood.
30. RICHARD LINDNER
Richard Lindner was born in Germany, but moved to Paris in the 1930s where served in the French army during the Second World War. He then relocated to America where he became an artist at the age of 40. His work is testament to his peripatetic biography, and features, in the words of Claus Clemeent: “exciting and powerful images of robot-like figures, amazons and heroines, harlequinades of self-styled heroes”.
31. OLIVER HARDY
Oliver Hardy was Stan Laurel’s American comedy partner. Their career straddled the eras of silent film and the talkies of the 1930s and 1940s.
32. KARL MARX
Karl Marx, author of The Communist Manifesto, is buried in Highgate Cemetery, not too far from the London studio where Blake’s iconic album cover was captured by the photographer Michael Cooper.
33. HG WELLS
HG Wells, the author responsible for seminal science fiction novels such as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds and The Island of Doctor Moreau, was also a committed socialist, historian and social commentator.
34. SRI PARAMA-HANSA YOGANANDA
An Indian yogi and guru who helped to bring meditation and yoga to the West. He died in 1952, though some of his followers claimed that his body was immune to decay.
35. TE LAWRENCE
TE Lawrence was better known as Lawrence Of Arabia. Like fellow cover star Bob Dylan, he was the victim of a motorcycle accident. Unlike Dylan, he did not survive.
36. SIGMUND FREUD
Sigmund Freud famously created the dominant branch of psychology known as psychoanalysis. His numerous books were enthusiastically burned by the Nazis.
38. A PETTY GIRL
The Petty Girls were a series of paintings of pin-up girls, created for Esquire magazine between 1933 and 1956 by American artist George Petty.
39. MAX MILLER
On stage, Max Miller was a wisecracking popinjay known all over Britain for his innuendo-laden music hall act and his gaudy suits. Off stage, Miller was quite the reverse. He married well, kept parrots, and would not allow bad language in his presence. As an old man he said, “me, Max Miller, I’m nothing. But the Cheeky Chappie, he’ll live forever.”
40. ANOTHER PETTY GIRL
41. MARLON BRANDO
The American Film Institute named Brando the fourth greatest male star of all time, but many would have him higher. Best known for his 1950s work in A Streetcar Named Desire and On The Waterfront and his 1970s Godfather collaborations with Francis Ford Coppola. Died a reclusive eccentric, but was always regarded as Hollywood royalty.
42. TOM MIX
Without Tom Mix, there would have been no John Wayne, no Gary Cooper and no Clint Eastwood. The man who was the first superstar of the silent Western defined the Hollywood version of the cow-boy.
43. OSCAR WILDE
A month before his death, Wilde said of his predicament:
“My wallpaper and I are fighting a duel to the death. One or other of us has got to go.” The wallpaper survived, bringing to an end Wilde’s brief, sparkling career as a playwright, novelist, poet and wit.
44. TYRONE POWER
Tyrone Power’s good looks betrayed an impressive acting talent. Not only was he the star of swashbucklers such as The Mark of Zorro and The Black Rose, but an engaging stage actor who was comfortable playing a range of characters.
Indeed, after 1950, he limited the number of films he would star in, believing that he should spend more time on the stage. He was right. Power saved his best performances for the theatre.
45. LARRY BELL
Larry Bell began life as an abstract expressionist but is now more often associated with the Californian Light and Space movement. After 40 years of seeing his work in gallery spaces all over the world, Bell is still active, and works out of his studio in Taos, New Mexico.
46. DAVID LIVINGTONE
“Dr” David Livingstone, Scottish missionary and explorer, was the first European to see Mosi-Oa-Tunya (“The Smoke That Thunders”), which he promptly renamed Victoria Falls, after the Queen.
47. JOHNNY WEISSMULLER
Five-time Olympic gold medallist swimmer and star of 12 Tarzan films, Weissmuller was born in Timisoara, Romania, a fact that led him to switch identities with his American older brother in order to join the US Olympic team.
48. STEPHEN CRANE
Stephen Crane was an American writer famous for his novel of the Civil War, The Red Badge of Courage. Crane did-n’t fight in the war himself, but pieced together a vivid account from his interviews with battle-scarred veterans.
49. ISSY BONN
Issy Bonn was a popular music hall comedian who graced the BBC’s airwaves and the silver screen in the 1930s and 1940s, but later retired to become a theatrical agent.
50. GEORGE BERNARD SHAW
An Irish playwright, novelist and critic, Shaw was awarded a Nobel Prize for his contribution to literature in 1925 and an Ocscar in 1938 for the film adaptation of his play, Pygmalion.
51. H C WESTER-MANN
Westermann was a craftsman and artist who created compelling three-dimensional forms. The most famous, perhaps, are his series of death ships – work which was related to his experiences in the Pacific in the Second World War, when Wester-mann was a gunner on the USS Enterprise. Indeed, the man who would go on to create his ghostly death ships once shot down a Japanese kamikaze pilot who was heading straight for his aircraft carrier.
52. ALBERT STUBBINS
It was strange that a man born in the North-east, and raised in the US, could ever be a Liverpudlian darling. But that is precisely what Albert Stub-bins, one of English club football’s greatest ever centre forwards, became.
He made his debut for Newcastle in 1937, appearing in 30 games and scoring six goals before the onset of war in 1939. During the war, Stubbins scored 188 goals in 231 appearances, and, after the conflict in Europe had ended, he became an obvious target for other clubs in the first division.
In 1946, Stubbins was approached by both Liverpool and their hated rivals Everton. He settled the decision by the toss of a coin, and joined Liverpool for a then-record £12,500. When injuries forced him to retire in 1953, Stubbins had scored 83 goals in 178 appearances, at a rate of one every 2.1 games. Despite this impressive record, Stubbins only played once for England, in a 1-0 defeat by Wales.
53. SRI LAHIRI MAHASAYA
An Indian yogi, and disciple of Mahavatar Babaji, Lahiri revived the lost art of Kriya yoga. But he was an unusually urbane holy man. While dispensing wisdom and spiritual guidance, Lahiri became a householder. He married, had children, and worked for the British government.
54. CHARLES LUTWIDGE DODGSON [LEWIS CARROLL]
Lewis Carrolle was a mathematician, lecturer and author of the hugely successful Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass, it is widely believed that the character of Alice was actually based on his colleague’s young daughter, Alice Liddell.
55. SONNY LISTON
Sonny Liston had a hard childhood. One of 17 children in a small Arkansas home, he fought constantly, and was physically abused by his father. As a teenager, he worked as a bonebreaker for the mob, and was eventually sent to jail for taking part in a gas station robbery.
While in jail, a Roman Catholic priest discovered Liston’s prodigious talent for boxing. In 1952, he left to embark upon an amateur career as a fighter, and, 10 years later, he had a shot at the world heavyweight title. Liston knocked Floyd Patterson out in the first round. A year later, he did it again. Two back-to-back defeats to Cassius Clay, though, saw him lose both the belt and his poise.
On 5 January 1971, Liston was found dead by his wife at their home in Las Vegas, but the police put his time of death at 30 December. Although the police found nothing suspicious at the crime scene, many believe that Liston was murdered.
56. WAXWORK OF GEORGE HARRISON
The first ex-Beatle to achieve a number one single, with “My SweetLord”,andalbum, AllThings MustPass, Harrisonwastheband’s lead guitarist. He died of lung cancer on 29 November 2001.
57. WAXWORK OF JOHN LENNON
Ranked No 8 in a BBC poll of the 100 greatest Britons, Lennon was murdered by a fan on the way back from the recording studio on 8 December 1980.
58. WAXWORK OF RINGO STARR
The last to join the band, Ringo Starr was The Beatles’ drummer. He later narrated the first two seasons of Thomas The Tank Engine and Friends. He remains the only Beatle not inducted into the Rock ‘n’ Roll Hall of Fame for his solo career.
59. WAXWORK OF PAUL MCCARTNEY
The other half of the hugely influential Lennon/McCartney songwriting duo, he is listed in The Guinness Book of Records as the most successful musician and composer in popular music history. The Beatles’ song “Martha My Dear” was written by McCartney about his sheepdog, Martha.
60. ALBERT EINSTEIN
Awarded the 1921 Novel Prize for Physics, he is best known for his theory of relativity and mass-energy equivalence e=mc2. He wrote over 50 scientific pa-pers and collaborated with Sigmund Freud in 1933 to co-author the non-scientific text Why War?.
61, 62, 63 & 64.
SGT PEPPER’S LONELY HEARTS CLUB BAND (AKA THE BEATLES)
65. BOBBY BREEN
A cherubic child star, Bobby Breen appeared in nine RKO films between 1936 and 1942,including Let’sSingAgain and Make a Wish. At 15, Breen gave up movies to become a nightclub singer.Hemarriedthreetimes,and now lives in Tamarac, Florida.
66. MARLENE DIETRICH
Ranked No.9 in the American Film Institute’s greatest female stars of all time, she enjoyed stints as a cabaret singer, chorus girl and Hollywood actress, among others. During the war she recorded several anti-Nazi records and was later awarded the Medal of Freedom.
67. LEGIONNAIRE FROM THE ORDER OF THE BUFFALO
68. DIANA DORS
Considered the British Marilyn Monroe, Dors landed her first film role at age 16. Usually playing curvaceous sirens, she took Hollywood by storm.
69. SHIRLEY TEMPLE
She was the quintessential child star of the 1930s. After retiring from performance, she went into politics, and has been US ambassador to both Ghana and Czechoslovakia, where she witnessed the Velvet Revolution.
70. JAPANESE FUKUSUKE DOLL
Said to bring good luck
71. FIGURINE OF DISNEY’S SNOW WHITE
72. STATUE FROM THE HOME OF JOHN LENNON
74. A DOLL WEARING A SWEATER IN TRIBUTE TO THE ROLLING STONES
75. FIGURINE OF LAKSHMI, HINDU GODDESS OF WEALTH AND BEAUTY
In these pics from alternate shots of the cover photo, you can still see Leo Gorcey, who was removed because he requested a fee, next to his fellow Bowery Boy pal Huntz Hal, and Ghandi, who was removed because EMI felt his inclusion might offend record buyers in India.