The Reminiscences of Carl Schurz
Volume One (1829-1852)
Annotations by Edward Manley [and Robert Burkhardt]


(Frontispiece from Edward Manley's condensed version of the German edition.
This portrait is also used for Speeches, Correspondence and Political Papers of Carl Schurz, Volume I,
where it is reported that it is from “the portrait by Arthur von Ferraris, painted in 1901.”)

Notes to Chapter I

1 see map.

2 it is customary in Germany to measure distances, especially shorter ones, by the time which the ordinary pedestrian needs to traverse them. An “hour” may therefore be considered as the equivalent of a little more than three miles. Liblar is, strictly speaking, ten miles west of the Rhine.

2a [DE inserts here “... and laboriously dragging themselves along ...”]

3 [DE says evening.]

3a [“maneuvers” could be used instead of “evolutions.”]

3b [The original German for his father's rank is Bombardier, which is not what Cassell's German Dictionary (1978) gives as the German equivalent of corporal. The 1905 New International Encyclopædia says it is a “military title used in the British artillery. Acting bombardier is the first rank above gunner or driver, and bombardier the rank immediately higher. It is an appointment of the major commanding the battery, and, unlike the rank of sergeant, which can only be taken away by a regimental court-martial, may be canceled at any time by the commanding officer.” The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica says it was “originally an artilleryman in charge of a bombard; now a non-commissioned officer in the artillery of the British army, ranking below a corporal.” ]

3c [DE appends here “... and the immediate vicinity.”]

3d [DE inserts here “... masonry ...” and omits “that squeaked when moved by the wind” — the latter an AT addition.]

4 Hesse; see map. [Schurz's original German for this inscription is:

Vorhin war ich in Hessenland
Von Guttenberg ein Wolf genannt.
Jetzt bin ich durch Gottes Macht
Graf Wolf Metternich zur Gracht.“

The original inscription is:


5 [DE adds barns to the list of facilities and does not mention the retainers.]

5a [DE says “much more elegant” rather than “more pretentious.”]

5b [DE says “tower” rather than “tall towers.”]

5c [DE omits “and seemed to dominate the other buildings.”]

5d [DE omits “standing apart” — added in AT.]

5e [DE inserts here “... called ‘the English garden’ ...” and gives the measure as sixty Morgen. Cassell's German Dictionary (1978) says this German areal measure varies from place to place, and 1 Morgen can be from 0.6 to 0.9 acre, which would imply a value as low as 35 acres or as much as 55 acres. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th edition) in its article on “Weights and Measures” is more definite and says the unit, used in Norway, Denmark and Prussia, is 0.631 acre, which would imply a value of 38 acres.]

5f [DE doesn't mention the color of the tubs.]

5g [DE inserts here “... breadth of ...”]

5h [DE omits “full lips.”]

5i [DE says “but these were not among his favorite activities, and he had little to do with books” rather than “though with books he had little concern.”]

5j [DE omits “somewhat.”]

5k [DE omits “and worked for him with zeal.”]

5ka [Also kermesse or kermis. Originally the mass said on the anniversary of the foundation of a church and in honour of the patron, the word being equivalent to “Kirkmass.” Such celebrations were regularly held in the Low Countries and also in northern France, and were accompanied by feasting, dancing and sports of all kinds. They still survive, but are now practically nothing more than country fairs and the old allegorical representations are uncommon. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

5m [DE omits “in the Rhineland” and says “dedicated to” rather than “with.”]

5n [DE inserts here “... more intimate ...”]

5o [DE inserts here “... and his family's ...”, omits “perhaps” and adds after this sentence: “He especially enjoyed merry revels with wine and card playing which at that time were the favored festivities among the more well-to-do farmers of the Rheinland.”]

6 [The explanation of the bird-shooting contained in the first four sentences in this paragraph doesn't appear in DE. Only a sentence approximating the first sentence of the four appears, and it only refers to Vogelschießen (bird-shooting), not Schützenfest.]

6a [DE gives the weight of the ball as eight Lot. According to Cassell's German Dictionary (1978), a Lot is a German unit of weight equivalent to 10 grams which would make the weight of the ball 80/23.35 ounces or about 3½ ounces.]

6b [DE says “strongest” rather than “tallest.”]

6c [DE inserts here “... wooden ...”]

6d [DE inserts here “... of health ...” and also inserts “meek” after “devout.”]

6e [DE omits “onerous.”]

6f [DE characterizes the mouth of the chimney as huge, rather than the hearth.]

6g [DE says “common kitchen” (without quotes) rather than “commons.”]

6h [DE omits “which were arranged along the center of the table within easy reach.”]

6i [DE says merely “There were no plates.”]

6j [DE inserts here “... and fork ...”]

6k [DE says “five or six” rather than “a few.”]

6m [DE says “the majority of which” rather than “of which several.”]

6n [DE inserts here “... when there were a lot of guests ...”]

6o [DE says “lady of the house” rather than “her.”]

7 [DE notes that the apartment that served as the family's living and dining room was referred to as “die Stube” (“the room”). There the spinners' singing is encouraged by the grandmother giving the keynote, but maybe this is what is meant by “setting the tunes.” DE omits “of whom there were a dozen or more.”]

7a [DE inserts here “... resting ,...”]

7b [DE inserts here “..., at most three ,...”]

7c [DE appends here “... of which two or three were quite large with powerful white tusks.”]

7c [DE adds here “She said he was fond of visiting with me and brought me sweets from the house..”]

8 [DE has another memory in a separate paragraph before this one: “Another vivid picture which I see before my eyes: It is evening in the family room, ‘the room.’ A lamp with a green shade is on the table. I am sitting on my grandfather's knee, and he gives me a glass of milk to drink. I ask for more. My grandfather has a large wooden tub filled with milk brought and put on the table. Then he removes my clothes with his own large hands and puts me naked into the tub where the milk almost reaches up to my mouth. Now he tells me I can drink as much as I want. He watches as I open my mouth and let the milk pour in and laughs heartily. After I have drunk enough, I begin to splash my hands into the milk and spray it all over him. He falls back into a chair and laughs more and more boisterously.”]

8a [DE omits “about forty in number.”]

8b [DE says “found much enjoyment” rather than “interested herself.”]

8c [DE says “at that time” rather than “when I was between three and four years old” — an AT change.]

9 [DE says rather “My intentions were therefore entirely honorable, but ...” — an AT change.]

9a [The quince is a fruit tree concerning which botanists differ as to whether or not it is entitled to take rank as a distinct genus or as a section of the genus Pyrus. The fragrance and astringency of the fruit of the quince are well known, and the seeds were formerly used medicinally for the sake of the mucilage they yield when soaked in water, a peculiarity which is not met with in pears. The fruit has a powerful odor, but in the raw state is austere and astringent; it, however, makes an excellent preserve, and is often used to give flavor and poignancy to stewed or baked apples. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

9aa [DE says “few spoons” rather than “small jar.”]

9b [DE inserts here “... stuffed ...”]

9c [DE says “large” rather than “waving.”]

9d [DE omits “probably.”]

9e [DE omits “and cross.”]

10 [i.e. half-timber construction — Fachwerkbau. DE omits “one-story.”]

10a [DE inserts here “... most ...”]

10b [DE omits “with cobblestones.”]

10c [DE says “three” rather than “two.”]

11 [In DE, this phrase is: “Even though I now had a small fifteen-month-old younger brother, named Heribert after my grandfather, ...”]

11a [DE says “When he had nothing better for me to do” rather than “On rainy days.”]

11b [DE gives a lengthier list of game: rabbits, partridges, foxes, deer and wild boar.]

11c [DE appends here “... which disabled both his legs.”]

11d [DE omits “alas!” and “merry” and says “other festivities” rather than “to the kirmess.”]

12 [DE adds here “since he was only something over sixty years old and from a very long-lived family.” With this addition, “bursting with” rather than “proud of his.” DE omits “was obliged” and “still.”]

12a [DE says “the chair” rather than “his great armchair” (“the leather armchair” was mentioned in the previous sentence).]

13 [DE notes that the younger brother is unmarried and named “Uncle Michel” and that this arrangement was only temporary until the grandfather's youngest son, George, who was in Berlin serving out his time with the dragoons, could return home and take over the business. The other sons (who will be discussed later in the story) were all married and already set up in other businesses. DE starts this sentence with “At first ...”, says “business affairs” rather than “affairs” and omits “in this way.”]

13a [DE inserts here “..., and he looked it over well, ...”]

13b [DE omits “for hours” and “now and then giving the table a terrible whack” and notes the sugar is powdered.]

13c [DE says “strong” rather than “useful.”]

13d [DE omits “to entertain him with my boyish prattle and.”]

13e [DE says “the war years” rather than “those terrible years of war and pillage.”]

13f [DE inserts here “..., scruffy ...”

Sans-culottes is French for “without knee-breeches.” During the early years of the French Revolution, the term was given to the ill-clad and ill-equipped volunteers of the Revolutionary army, and later applied generally to the ultra-democrats of the Revolution. They were for the most part men of the poorer classes, or leaders of the populace, but during the Terror public functionaries and persons of good education styled themselves citoyens sans-culottes. The distinctive costume of the typical Sans-culotte was the pantalon (long trousers) — in place of the culottes worn by the upper classes — the carmagnole (short-skirted coat), the red cap of liberty and sabots (wooden shoes). The influence of the Sans-culottes ceased with the reaction that followed the fall of Robespierre (July 1794). — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

13g [DE says “Uncle Michel” rather than “the castle people.”]

13h [DE says “the building's inhabitants hit upon the ruse” rather than “my grandmother hit upon the happy idea” and “they” rather than “she.”]

13i [DE omits “With all their devilishness.”]

13j [DE omits “so closely complicated with the future history of Germany, and laid a foundation for my future political opinions and sympathies.”]

13k [DE omits “winter” and inserts here “... with some member of the family ...”]

13m [DE says “dark clouds of worry and misfortune” rather than “clouds.”]

Notes to Chapter II

0a [DE omits “of which he was the teacher” — added in AT.]

0b [DE omits “very.”]

0c [DE says “outside of school” rather than “which my father gave me.”]

0d [DE omits “about $90 a year” — added in AT.]

1 [DE gives the sisters' names as Anna and Antoinette.]

1a [DE inserts here “small,” omits “gradually” and says “for certain ambitious plans for the future” rather than “for the family need.”]

1b [DE says “Since I was years away from being old enough for the gymnasium” rather than “For the time being.”]

1c [DE omits “in various directions” — added in AT.]

1d [DE appends here “..., me first.”]

1e [DE says “an aged and small” rather than “a queer little.”]

1f [DE appends here “..., and I looked upon it with a certain reverence.”]

1g [DE inserts here “... for masses and Vespers ...”]

2 [DE omits “my father” and notes that the town organist was only consulted after a meeting of the extended family decided, since he was a distant relative, he could not be honorably ignored.]

2a [A town in the Prussian Rhine province, 8 miles southwest from Cologne on the main railway to Coblenz. Pop. (1900) 5000. Its pleasant situation at the foot of one of the spurs of the Eifel range and the beautiful grounds surrounding the royal palace render it a favourite resort of the inhabitants of Cologne. The palace, built in 1728, was from 1809 until 1813 in the possession of the French, and in 1842 was restored by King Frederick William IV. of Prussia. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

2b [DE notes that the name of the forest was “die Ville.”]

3 [DE gives the organist's name as Herr Simons and characterizes him as an excellent teacher. It also characterizes the parish priest as a “strict looking ‘clerical gentleman’.”]

3a [DE inserts here “..., delights ...”]

3b [DE inserts here the name of the estate, “... Buschfeld, ...”]

3c [DE says “those who had been especially helpful during the funeral” rather than “friends.”]

3d [DE says “develop” rather than “degenerate.”]

3e [DE makes a firm causal connection between the factors in the next sentence and the consequence in this sentence.]

3f [DE omits “unfortunate.”]

3g [DE says “the unfortunate young brothers” rather than “we.”]

3h [DE qualifies her rectitude as “unwavering.”]

3i [DE says “others” rather than “those around her” and “around her” rather than “she loved.”]

3j [DE says “very old” rather than “nearly eighty years old.”]

3k [DE says “soft and wavy” rather than “curly.”]

3m [DE says “grace” rather than “sunshine.”]

3n [DE says “educated” rather than “great,” omits “of course,” says “a” rather than “the rare grace of” and “education” rather than “social training.”]

3o [DE omits “what is commonly called” (added in AT) and appends here “... and the intellectual development which proceeds from it.”]

3p [DE inserts here “... mounted in handsome frames ...”]

3q [Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (1750-1805) German poet, playwright, historian and philosopher. He wrote many plays which have remained essential components of the German repertoire. Among them are Die Räuber, Kabale und Liebe, Don Carlos, the Wallenstein trilogy, Die Jungfrau von Orleans and Wilhelm Tell. He also produced masterpieces of reflective poetry which have not their equal in German literature. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

3r [Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) German poet, dramatist, philosopher and scientist. With Die Leiden des jungen Werthers, Goethe succeeded in attracting, as no German had done before him, the attention of Europe. The crowning achievement of Goethe's literary life was the completion of his drama Faust. Comparatively early in life he had found in Spinoza the philosopher who responded to his needs; Spinoza taught him to see in nature the “living garment of God,” and more he did not seek or need to know. We marvel at the obstinacy with which he, with inadequate mathematical knowledge, opposed the Newtonian theory of light and color. Of far-reaching importance was, on the other hand, his foreshadowing of the Darwinian theory in his works on the metamorphosis of plants and on animal morphology. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

3s [Christoph Martin Wieland (1733-1813) German poet and man of letters. Without creating a school in the strict sense of the term, Wieland influenced very considerably the German literature of his time. The qualities which distinguish his work, his fluent style and light touch, his careless frivolity rather than poetic depth, show him to have been in literary temperament more akin to Ariosto and Voltaire than to the more spiritual and serious leaders of German poetry; but these very qualities in Wieland's poetry introduced a balancing element into German classical literature and added materially to its fullness and completeness. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

3t [Karl Theodor Körner (1791-1813) German poet and soldier, is often called the German “Tyrtaeus.” Tyrtaeus, who lived at Sparta about the middle of the 7th century B.C., was a Greek elegiac poet who also served in the military and whose works were popular with soldiers. The abiding interest in Körner is patriotic and political rather than literary. His fame as a poet rests upon his patriotic lyrics, which were published under the title Leier und Schwert. He was also remarkably prolific as a dramatist, but his comedies hardly touch the level of Kotzebue's and his tragedies, of which the best is Zriny (1814), are rhetorical imitations of Schiller's. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

3u [Torquato Tasso (1544-1595) Italian poet. At the age of 31 the Gerusalemme Liberata, an epic poem, was accomplished. The world too was already ringing with the music of his pastoral drama Aminta. More than this Tasso had not to give to literature. But those succeeding years of derangement, exile, imprisonment, poverty and hope deferred endear the man to us. Elegiac and querulous as he must always appear, we yet love Tasso better because he suffered through nearly a quarter of a century of slow decline and unexplained misfortune. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

3v [William Shakespeare (1564-1616) English playwright, poet and actor. His plays are essential components of the repertoire of western civilization and have made significant inroads into other cultures as well. His sonnets are also well respected.]

3w [DE inserts here “... and after them ...”]

3x [DE says “had a predilection for telling me” rather than “told me” and adds after this sentence “Even though the school in his home village, and later the teaching seminary, had not taught him a lot, his drive to learn spurred him on, and he had eagerly read many things of varying usefulness. In fact, ...”]

3y [DE inserts here “... also gave me every opportunity and encouragement to read outside of my classes. He ...”]

3z [DE inserts here “... cheap editions of ...”]

3aa [François Marie Arouet de Voltaire (1694-1778) French philosopher, historian, dramatist and man of letters. Incomparably the most remarkable and most absolutely good fruit of his genius were his prose romances. These were usually composed as pamphlets, with a purpose of polemic in religion, politics, or what not. Examples are Candide, Zadig and L'Homme aux quarante écus. It is in these works more than in any others that the peculiar quality of Voltaire — ironic style without exaggeration — appears. If one especial peculiarity can be singled out, it is the extreme restraint and simplicity of the verbal treatment. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

3ab [Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) the French philosopher. It is as a literary man pure and simple — that is to say, as an exponent rather than as an originator of ideas — that Rousseau is most noteworthy, and that he has exercised most influence. The first thing noticeable about him is that he defies all customary and mechanical classification. He is not a novelist, for, though his two chief works except the Confessions are called novels, Émile is one only in name, and La Nouvelle Héloïse is as a story diffuse, prosy and awkward to a degree. He was without command of poetic form, and he could only be called a philosopher in an age when the term was used with such meaningless laxity as was customary in the 18th century. If he must be classed, he was before all things a describer — a describer of the passions of the human heart and of the beauties of nature. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

4 [DE notes that the lending library was run by a book binder.]

4a [DE: vier Heimonskinder.

Ein schöne und lüstige Histori von den vier Heymonskindern was a popular German romance which appeared at Cologne in 1604. It was largely an adaptation of a version current in the Netherlands and based on a French original in which Haimon, or Aymon, is the surname of four brothers — Alard, Richard, Guiscard, and Renaud — sons of Haimon, Count of Dordogne. The brothers are heroes of the chivalry poetry of the Middle Ages. Huon de Villeneuve, a French poet, tells the story in his poem entitled Les quatre fils Aymon, and they also appear in Ariosto's Orlando furioso. Ludwig Tieck edited and published a version of the story. — “Haimonskinder” and “Aymon” in New International Encyclopædia, 1905.]

4b [“horned Siegfried,” is the literal translation of the phrase hörnernen Siegfried from DE. A more explanatory translation would be “Siegfried and his invulnerability coating derived from dragon horn.” Richard Wagner used a variation on this idea in his opera Götterdämmerung, but there Siegfried gets his protection via a magic spell from Brünhilde. In both cases a spot on his back is left out which proves his undoing. Ref:]

4c [DE gives the author of the knight-stories as “the author of Easter Eggs, a popular children's author.”

This was Christoph von Schmid (1768-1854), a Catholic priest who worked in Bavaria — he died in Augburg. His first work was a bible history for children (1801). He continued with his calling as a writer of children's books throughout his long life, one of his most noted stories being Die Ostereier (Easter Eggs, 1816) due to its popularity and also that he started signing himself as “author of Easter Eggs.” Along with biblical stories, he wrote fantasy tales and knight stories for children. His works were internationally popular and were translated into just about every living language. He also wrote poems which are scattered here and there in his work. His stories usually center around a disturbance to the happiness of good people which God's righteousness finally fixes, the goal of the writer being to awaken a practical piety in his youthful readers. The action in the stories was fairly predictable, and dramatic tension was lacking. Too much was frequently conceded to the miraculous. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 31, pp. 657-659. Among Schmid's stories was Genovefa which was perhaps the basis of Schurz's favorite puppet theater production whose plot is outlined later in this chapter.]

5 [DE notes that “we” (the children of the castle presumably) called the old gardener “Herr Gardener,” and that he gave Schurz the Campesche edition of Robinson Crusoe. After this sentence DE adds: “I enjoyed this happiness in great gulps.” The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe was first published in 1719 by Daniel Defoe (c. 1659-1731). Schurz's enthusiasm for Robinson Crusoe prompted me to read it through for the first time. While it is a book which, even for an adult reader, has compelling passages, I can only wonder if Schurz, rereading the book as an adult (which, from the way he describes things, it seems doubtful that he did), would really recommend it as a book for young readers given Crusoe's enthusiastic embrace of slave ownership as a career option.]

5a [DE inserts here “... printed amidst the text ...”]

5b [DE inserts here “..., 1814 and 1815 ...” Der Landwehrmann (The Militiaman) is the first book in Eduard Breier's (1811-1886) 1809 trilogy. It has the right name and theme, but it was published in Leipzig in 1847 which would seem to be little late for Schurz to have read it during these years. No other candidates were located. — Background information from a page entitled “Berühmte Jüdische Persönlichkeiten aus Südmähren” at (March 25, 2008).]

6 [DE inserts a sentence here: “In addition, much entertaining and worth knowing was found in penny magazines that my father made comprehensible to me with his explanations.”]

6a [DE inserts here “... and he still needed to watch the room ...”]

6b [DE appends here “... outside of this narrowest circle.”]

6c [DE notes the estate was called the Münchhofe, and says “a half hour's walk from” rather than “near.”]

6d [DE inserts here “... the most among the brothers ...”]

6e [DE inserts here “... and maneuvers ...”]

6f [DE inserts here “..., at that time there were no spiked helmets, ...”]

6g [An international fraternal organization reputed to derive from associations of the builders of the great cathedrals of Europe. In its internal organization, the working of Freemasonry involves an elaborate system of symbolic ritual, as carried out at meetings of the various lodges. Members are classified in numerous degrees, each class of which, after initiation, can only be attained after passing a prescribed ordeal or examination. For many years the craft has been conducted without respect to clime, colour, caste or creed, although it does exclude atheists. Papal bulls have been issued against the craft, the first being in 1738; and other organizations, religious and governmental, have discriminated against it, but sometimes sanctioned it as well. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

7 [DE inserts a sentence here: “His wife, a woman of excellent character and a capable housekeeper, had an odd passion for the detailed study of the personal lives and fates of the European royal families, and we often listened to the astonishing clarity with which she explained the intricate family relationships and related noteworthy happenings among the ‘big bosses’”]

7a [DE gives the distance as a seven hours' walk from Liblar.]

7b [DE says “flawless” rather than “great.”]

7c [DE says “noteworthy people” rather than “remarkable men.”]

7d [DE inserts here “..., as already mentioned, ...”]

7e [DE says “group of rare stateliness” rather than “stately group.”]

7ea [Abd-el-Kader (c. 1807-1883), amir of Mascara, was the great opponent of the conquest of Algeria by France. He later discouraged attempts at liberation. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

7eb [Shamyl (c. 1797-1871), Caucasian spiritual and military leader in opposition to Russia. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

7ec [The extreme clericals (apostólicos) among the Spaniards were the partisans of despotism because they rightly considered it as most favorable to the church. When King Ferdinand, who seemed wanting to the clericals, showed his intention to alter the law of succession in order to secure the crown for his daughter Isabella, the clericals banded to protect the rights of his younger brother, Don Carlos, who was known for the rigid orthodoxy of his religious opinions, the piety of his life, and his firm belief in the divine right of kings to govern despotically. If Don Carlos had been disposed to place himself at the head of an insurrection, he would have been followed, and might have put Ferdinand under restraint. But Don Carlos held his principles honestly. He considered rebellion as a sin in a prince as much as in other men, and as wicked when made by clericals as by liberals. His wife and her sister, the princess of Beira, widow of his first cousin the infante Pedro, were less scrupulous. They were actively engaged in intrigues with the clericals. When Don Carlos was called upon by the king to swear allegiance to the infanta Isabella, afterwards queen, he refused to renounce his rights and those of his sons.

The death of his brother in 1833 gave Don Carlos an opportunity to vindicate his claims without offense to his principles, for in his own opinion and that of his partisans, he was now king. But he was entangled in the civil war of Portugal and was shut off from Spain. He did nothing to direct the Spaniards who rose on his behalf. In 1834, when the partisans of Don Miguel, his wife's brother, were beaten in Portugal, Don Carlos escaped to England and shortly passed over to France, where he was actively aided by the legitimist party, and he was able to join his partisans in the Pyrenees. He was deprived of his rights as infante by a royal decree. Don Carlos remained in Spain till the defeat of his partisans, and then escaped to France in 1839. Carlist efforts continued later, on behalf of the sons of Don Carlos, in 1846, 1848 and 1860.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition. Chapter VI of the second volume of Schurz's Reminiscences finds Schurz, at the beginning of the Civil War, serving as ambassador of the United States to Spain with Isabella as queen.]

7ed [Clemens August, Baron von Droste-Vischering, (1773-1845) was born in Münster. He was educated in his native town and entered the priesthood in 1798; in 1807 the local chapter elected him vicar-general. This office he resigned in 1813 through his opposition to Napoleon, but assumed it again after the battle of Waterloo (1815) until a disagreement with the Prussian government in 1820 led to his abdication. He remained in private life until 1835, when he was appointed archbishop of Cologne. Here again his zeal for the supremacy of the church led him to break the agreement between the state and the Catholic bishops which he had signed at his installation, and he was arrested by the Prussian government in 1837. He was released in 1840 when Frederick William IV ascended the throne. After his arrest, a battle of pamphlets raged for some time; Droste was not re-installed but was obliged to accept a coadjutor. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

7f [DE says “Uncle Ferdinand” rather than “my uncles.”]

7g [DE says “battles” rather than “affairs” and adds after this sentence: “And this interest stayed with me from that time on.”]

7h [DE inserts here “... vividly ...”]

8 [DE omits “particular,” inserts here “... from a neighboring village ...” and appends to this sentence “..., and where one of their sons became a prominent man.”]

8a [DE inserts here “..., especially the German, ...””]

9 [DE doesn't mention the emigration of Schurz's family to America in this last sentence, but instead says: “Although the resolution was not taken in a hurry, America always remained a favorite topic of conversation with them, which through the arrival of letters from the Trimborns and Kribbens — longingly awaited and eagerly read — always won new interest.”]

9a [Actually Georg van Bürck and “Master Jurges.”]

9b [DE appends here “... though he had a wife and children of his own with whom he lived in a small house in our village.”]

9c [DE says “narrow, friendly” rather than “haggard and sallow but pleasant.”]

9d [DE says “printed matter” rather than “books.”]

9e [DE omits “Rhine” and “my own family included” — added in AT.]

9f [DE appends here “..., therefore one could appropriately discuss such things with me.”]

9g [DE inserts here “... or ghost stories ...”]

9h [DE inserts here “... still fresh and pure ...” and says “amazing” rather than “supernatural” and “supernatural” rather than “awful.”]

9i [DE inserts here “... high ...”]

9j [DE gives the first part of this sentence as “Very many of them believed firmly that there were witches who were in intimate league with the devil” and omits “even.”]

9k [DE appends here “... and in these circumstances I gave free reign to my imagination and thought up all sorts of marvelous stories.”]

9m [DE inserts here “... that rested on four wooden pillars ...”]

9n [DE inserts here “... and the entrance had no door ...”]

9o [DE inserts here “... old ...”]

10 [DE gives the older brother's name as Theodor, and notes he was popularly known as “Krupps Duhres.”]

10a [DE omits “through the village street.”]

10b [DE omits “true.”]

10c [DE inserts here “..., who also knew of Krupps Duhres and confirmed everything Master Jurges had said, ...”]

11 [DE has a more extended introduction to what follows than this one sentence: “My friend Master George had at times impulses that made a deep impression on me. It happened now and then that in merry company he drank a little more than he should. But his exhilaration — it couldn't be called drunkenness — had nothing of the animal or repulsiveness to it. It only made him more lively and more forthcoming with the thoughts that occurred to him.” And later Schurz's father attributes Master George's outburst to his premonition that he would not live to be old.]

11a [DE inserts here “... when I was present at such a gathering ...”]

11b [DE says “Ah, once again an hour nearer death.” rather than “One hour nearer death.”]

11c [DE omits “in this world.”]

11d [DE says “hit him hard” rather than “in a certain sense persecuted him.”]

11e [DE says “better educated” rather than “much cleverer.”]

11f [DE expresses this sentence as “Every new thought that he heard and could understand was a great delight to him.”]

11g [DE omits this sentence.]

11h [DE inserts here “... while the women piously clung to the church, ...”]

11i [DE omits “private.”]

11j [DE appends here “... or its environs.”]

11k [DE omits this sentence.]

11m [DE inserts here “... a large part of its ...”]

11n [DE omits “and interested.”]

11o [DE inserts here “... clever and ...”]

11oa [Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1720-1781) German critic and dramatist, wrote Nathan der Weise in the winter of 1778-1779. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

11ob [DE omits “dramatic.”]

11p [DE inserts here “... improper ...” and more elaborately details the consequences: the girl went home and told what had happened, and her mother and siblings (the father being dead) tried to call the schoolmaster to account.]

11q [DE inserts here “... several ...”]

11r [DE says “veritable” rather than “bloody.” and gives an additional detail on the “riot”: it came “with sustained and by no means unbloody fist fighting.”]

11s [DE omits “fateful.”]

11t [DE begins this sentence with “For the opposition, ...”]

11u [DE inserts here “..., the personification of piety and love of truth, ...,” says “shamefacedly” rather than “tamely” and omits “and a reckless defamer of character.”]

11v [DE says here “who could only speak truth” rather than “the very embodiment of truthfulness and piety.”]

11w [DE says here “further evil consequences which were not apparent at first” rather than “unforeseen consequences.”]

11x [DE inserts here “..., who was in the wrong, ...” and says “yield” rather than “leave Liblar.”]

11y [DE begins this sentence with “At that time, the nominal ...” and omits “and his countenance most benignant.”]

11z [DE inserts here “... a good master, ...” and omits “and his countenance most benignant.”]

11aa [DE inserts here “... and whom I remember well ...” and says “enough” rather than “and exacting.”]

11ab [DE inserts here “... and dangerous ...” and says “very” rather than “the most.”]

11ac [DE inserts here “... or travel to fairs in the region ...”]

11ad [DE says “my grandfather and his sons as well as notables from the village, for example my father” rather than “the men of our family.”]

11ae [In DE this sentence is replaced by two: “In general the Count's family was most kind with the Halfen and those who pertained to him. The old countess was generally regarded as a very proud lady, but still one could deal with her with no special formality.”]

11af [DE appends here “..., as for people to whom one is bonded by the interests of friendship.”]

11ag [DE inserts here “... raw ugly ...”]

11ah [DE inserts here “... brave ...” and says “also at the same time” rather than “soon after.”]

11ai [DE omits “not a little”]

11aj [DE says “easily” rather than “rapidly” and inserts here “..., with those who pertained to him ...”]

11ak [DE adds livestock to the list of auctioned items, omits “public” and notes that the auction took place in the courtyard.]

11am [DE says “departure” rather than “change.”]

11an [DE inserts here “... elementary ...” and omits “of a somewhat higher order.”]

11ao [DE inserts here “... in the old building ...” says “headmaster Grönings” rather than “principal” and says “seminarian” rather than “young student” and and omits “giving out discordant sounds.”]

11ap [DE presents this sentence more elaborately and personally: “The elementary instruction which I received under Herr Grönings, a well-taught, methodical and strict man, and an excellent teacher, was superb, and on the side I continued my Latin sessions with the chaplain and the music lessons with the good Herr Simons.”]

11aq [DE inserts here “... to accustom myself early in life ...” and adds another sentence after this one: “Only Saturday afternoons did I go to Liblar, of course in the company of my brother Heribert who came to Brühl in the morning that day in order to get his piano lesson.”]

11ar [DE omits “a walk of about eight miles.”]

11as [DE says “I was astonished to find” rather than “I found.”]

11asa [Gottlieb Friedrich Klopstock (1724-1803) German poet. Klopstock's nature was best attuned to lyrical poetry, and in it his deep, noble character found its truest expression. He was less suited for epic and dramatic representation; for, wrapt up in himself, a stranger to the outer world, without historical culture, and without even any interest in the events of his time, he was lacking in the art of plastic representation such as a great epic requires. Thus the Messias, despite the magnificent passages which especially the earlier cantos contain, cannot satisfy the demands such a theme must necessarily make. Twenty-five years in the making, the intense public interest the work aroused in its commencement had almost vanished before its completion. It was translated into seventeen languages and led to numerous imitations. In his odes Klopstock had more scope for his peculiar talent. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

11at [DE inserts here “... his copy of ...” and before gave inserts “... dutifully ...” and omits “current.”]

11au [DE appends here “... without necessity.”]

11av [DE appends here “..., and my naïve child's mind was at that time truly edified.”]

11aw [DE inserts here “... a considerable amount of ...” and notes that Schurz's father considered Urania a great work.

C. A. Tiedge (1752-1841) German poet; “the last of the [didactic] school of poets [in Germany]; in a once-famous Urania, he sang of God and Immortality and Liberty.” — Encyclopædia Britannica (11th edition), “Didactic Poetry,” Vol. 8, p. 203. See also “German Literature,” Vol. 11, p. 793.

“Some singable lyrics, of which ‘Schöne Minka, ich muss scheiden’ is still unforgotten, first established his reputation, and Urania über Gott, Unsterblichkeit und Freiheit (1800; 18th ed., 1862), a lyric-didactic poem, inspired by the ethics of Kant, enjoyed wide popularity in the beginning of the nineteenth century.” — New International Encyclopædia, 1905.]

11ax [Christian Fürchtegott Gellert (1715-1769) German poet. He was a Privatdozent and then, in 1751, an extraordinary professor of philosophy at the university of Leipzig. He lectured on poetry, rhetoric and literary style with much success. He wrote in order to raise the religious and moral character of the people, and to this end employed language which, though at times prolix, was always correct and clear. He thus became one of the most popular German authors, and some of his poems enjoyed a celebrity out of proportion to their literary value. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

11ay [Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803) was one of the most prolific and influential writers that Germany has produced. He broke with classicism and became one of the leaders of the Sturm und Drang movement. He co-operated with a band of young writers at Darmstadt and Frankfort, including Goethe, who in a journal of their own sought to diffuse the new ideas. Herder's masterpiece, the Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte, has the ambitious aim of explaining the whole of human development in close connexion with the nature of man's physical environment. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

11az [Gottfried August Bürger (1748-1794) German poet. He had a natural disposition to a wild and unregulated life. In 1773 the ballad Lenore made his name a household word in Germany. This poem remains without a rival in dramatic force and in its vivid realization of the weird and supernatural. In 1784, shortly before his removal to Göttingen where he established himself as Privatdozent, his wife died, and he married her younger sister for whom he had had a passion throughout his earlier marriage. Her death within a year affected him deeply. Though he suffered from an utter want of moral balance, his talent for popular poetry was very considerable, and his ballads are among the finest in the German language. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

11aza [August Friedrich Ernst Langbein (1757-1835), German writer, was born in Dresden and died in Berlin. He studied law and worked as an actuary for the courts, administrator and chancery clerk. In 1800, he used his private means to devote himself to writing. After 1820, he worked as a censor in the area of belles lettres, with enviable objectivity striking his own works from the catalog. Although a productive writer, his means were meager until the King granted him a pension. As a person, he was amiable and kind, although somewhat anxious. As a writer, he was reproached for being frivolous and superficial. His writing was inventive and showed talent for humor and verse, but completely lacked the poet's touch. While he was much read with enjoyment by the public of the 1820's, this speaks more against the times than against the writer, who was very conscious of his shortcomings. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie.]

11ba [DE inserts here “... as in other directions ...”]

11bb [DE starts this paragraph with the sentence “My childhood years living in my village and Brühl were darkened by fateful blows, a few of which I have mentioned — the lameness of my grandfather, the departure from the castle, the death of my grandparents and the early passing of my brother.” This sentence is thus expressed as “Here I must mention another occurrence, of little significance, but which in a truthful narrative of my life should not be suppressed.”]

11bc [DE omits “extremely” and says “my” instead of “the” and appends here “... as a student.”]

11bd [DE says “teacher” instead of “teachers” and omits “and was never satisfied with anything short of the best.”]

11be [DE says “misled by an overly attractive round of” instead of “tempted by a” and notes the play was in Brühl and that the crime was recorded in a record book.]

11bf [DE inserts here “... which after all did not turn out to be arduous ...”]

11bg [DE inserts here “... the heavy weight of ...”]

11bh [DE inserts here “... unnecessarily ...”]

11bi [DE says “closely packed houses and crowds” instead of “confinements and jostling crowds.”]

11bj [DE expresses this last phrase as “one knew every inhabitant like a close neighbor.”]

11bk [DE gives the friend's name as Joseph Winterschladen, inserts here “... handsome ...” and says “the most well-to-do merchant of our village” instead of “a well-to-do merchant” and “abilities” instead of “parts.”]

11bm [DE appends here “... when I visited Liblar in 1889.”]

11bn [DE inserts here “... and several relatives ...”]

12 [DE adds at this point: “But I also had good friends among the other village children, with whom I merrily knocked around looking for birds' nests, catching fish and crayfish, and playing robbers, soldiers and all the pranks kids find pleasure in.”]

12a [DE says “loved” instead of “interested himself greatly in the care of.”]

13 [DE gives more detail for the topic of this sentence: “In our garden, along with fruits and vegetables, he had a beautifully laid out bed of rarely seen flowers, and in all the rooms of the house hung cages with different sorts of songbirds which he tried to interest us children in: finches and northern parulas, thrushes (Turdus merula) and quail (Coturnix coturnix).” Later Schurz notes that hundreds of snares were set out for field-fares along the hunters' trails, and that he tended them (which included resetting the snares as well as collecting the birds) each day for weeks during the autumn holidays. DE omits “a form of sport which I confess I no longer approve” — an AT addition.]

13a [DE omits “and now and then a wild boar.”]

13b [DE says “lingering in the deep woods” rather than “that woodland charm“ and inserts here “... in Brühl ...”]

13ba [Schurz has been cited as an early advocate of forest conservation in the United States. In an October 15, 1889, speech before the American and Pennsylvania Forestry Associations on this subject, he noted “. . . the laws of nature are the same everywhere. Whoever violates them anywhere, must always pay the penalty. No country ever so great and rich, no nation ever so powerful, inventive and enterprising can violate them with impunity. We most grievously delude ourselves if we think that we can form an exception to the rule.” — Donald J. Pisani, “Forests and Conservation, 1865-1890,” The Journal of American History, Vol. 72, No. 2 (September 1985), pp. 340-359.

As United States Secretary of the Interior, his efforts to protect federal lands from illegal timber harvesting were praised by Harper's Weekly, and he attracted public attention to the necessity of forest preservation. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition; Harper's Weekly, April 6, 1878, p. 267.]

13c [DE omits “uncles” and mentions both male and female cousins.]

13d [DE inserts here “... youngest ...” and omits “most of.”]

13e [DE inserts here “... suspended on large hoops for protection against rain and sun ...”]

13f [DE omits “and flowers” and adds after this sentence: “Even the journey was a festival for us children.”]

13g [DE appends here “... which meant to go to the dance.”]

14 [DE notes parenthetically that at that time “there was still no proper framework-supported bird pole in the community of Liblar.” It also notes that the tip of the pole was sheathed in iron. As was the case where the bird-shoot was mentioned in Chapter I, the word Schützenfest doesn't appear, only Vogelschießen. The “king” is referred to as Schützenkönig, and there is a Schützengesellschaft, just no Schützenfest. Later in Chapter III, when Schurz describes his own triumph at the bird-shoot, the word Schützenfest does appear to describe the event in a somewhat officious remark by a villager. Perhaps if Schurz had done another draft of DE this term would have been used in preference to Vogelschießen. DE omits “and chains.”]

14a [DE omits “having been hoisted up the tree” and inserts here “... while it was being tied fast ...”]

14b [DE adds a sentence here: “He would have probably crushed me, or badly injured me, if I had not jumped away.”]

14c [DE appends here: “... for those full of expectation.”

Whitsunday, or Pentecost, is one of the principal feasts of the Christian Church, celebrated on the fiftieth day after Easter to commemorate the descent of the Holy Spirit on the disciples. The day became one of the three baptismal seasons, and the name Whitsunday is now generally attributed to the white garments formerly worn by the candidates for baptism on this feast. It is connected with the Jewish Pentecost, not only in the historical date of its origin, but in idea; the Jewish festival is one of thanks for the first-fruits of the earth, the Christian for the first-fruits of the Spirit. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

15 [DE gives the drummer's name as Heinrich Hahn, and notes he was popularly known as “Hahnen Drickes.” DE is more diffuse regarding the drummer's age saying “who at that time seemed very old to me.”]

16 [DE says “spindle-thin” rather than “spindle-legged,” “waved” rather than “carried” and omits “the patron-saint.” DE gives more exact detail about the procession, and differs. In DE, after Master Schäfer come two (rather than “the”) captains carrying the old spears, then the previous year's sharpshooting king between just two directors of the Society. In DE, “solemn-visaged” is omitted.]

16a [A Christian martyr whose festival is celebrated on the 20th of January. The Acta Sanctorum describe St Sebastian as a citizen of Narbonne and captain of the first cohort under the emperors Diocletian and Maximian. Having secretly become a Christian, Sebastian was wont to encourage those of his brethren who in the hour of trial seemed wavering in their profession. He made many converts, several of whom suffered martyrdom. Diocletian, having been informed of this conduct, sent for him and earnestly remonstrated with him, but, finding him inflexible, ordered him to be bound to a stake and shot to death. After the archers had left him for dead, a devout woman, Irene, came by night to take his body away for burial, but, finding him still alive, carried him to her house, where his wounds were dressed. No sooner had he wholly recovered than he hastened to confront the emperor, reproaching him with his impiety; Diocletian ordered him to be instantly carried off and beaten to death with rods. The sentence was forthwith executed, his body being thrown into the cloaca, where, however, it was found by another pious matron, Lucina, whom Sebastian visited in a dream, directing her to bury him ad Catacombas juxta vestigia apostolorum. St Sebastian is specially invoked against the plague. As a young and beautiful soldier, he is a favourite subject of sacred art, being most generally represented undraped, and severely — though not mortally — wounded with arrows. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

16aa [DE inserts here “heavy” and appends to this sentence: “... and given by these to the brotherhood.”]

16b [DE says “The number of shields was so large that they” rather than “The shields” and “very stately” rather than “gorgeous.”]

16c [DE says “The king” rather than “His Majesty” and inserts here “... on both sides or ...”]

16d [DE inserts here “... happy ...”]

16e [DE says “booths of stuff and drink tables” rather than “booths where sweetmeats, wine and beer were sold.”]

16f [DE says “the flag bearer of Liblar” rather than “he.”]

16g [DE says “although I do remember” rather than “until, alas!”]

16h [DE inserts here “..., this time without a prayer, ...”]

16i [DE says “Proud” rather than “Happy.”]

16j [DE inserts here “... little more than ...”]

16k [DE has a slightly different sentence: “More than once this good fortune was to come to me in later days when I no longer appreciated it so highly.”]

16m [DE omits “on the castle moat” and says “appreciations of art” rather than “enjoyment of the stage.”]

16n [DE says “I was” rather than “we were.”]

16o [DE says “I” rather than “we boys regularly.”]

16p [DE says “hall” rather than “dance-hall.”]

16q [DE gives this sentence as “The price for seats ranged from four Pfennigs for children in the worst seats to a Kastenmännchen — 2½ silver Groschen — for the front benches.” Encyclopædia Britannica (11th edition, “Germany,” v. 11, p. 878) has this to say about German monetary systems which must pertain somewhat to the time under discussion here: “In 1871 Germany still had seven different systems; the most important was the Thaler and the Groschen, which prevailed over most of North Germany, but even within this there were considerable local differences. Throughout the whole of the south of Germany and in some North German states the gulden and kreuzer prevailed. Then there were other systems in Hamburg and in Bremen. Everywhere, except in Bremen, the currency was on a silver basis. In addition to this each state had its own paper money, and there were over 100 banks with the right of issuing bank-notes according to regulations which varied in each state.” Unfortunately, neither the Pfennig/Groschen system nor the Kastenmännchen is mentioned. A consultation of Wikipedia ( under "pfennig" indicated after 1821 1 Prussian taler was worth 30 silbergroschen which in turn was worth 360 pfennig. For the sentence above, this gives a price range of 4 pfennig for the cheapest seats to 30 pfennig for the most expensive which is approximately the range suggested by “one cent ... to five cents,” but DE indicates this was the range for all seats rather than just the front ones.]

16r [DE inserts here “..., which hid from us the mysteries of the stage, ...”]

16ra [The plot which Schurz outlines here is based on the medieval tale of Geneviève of Brabant. Many authors have adapted the tale, and the plot details for the puppet theatre are probably based on one of those adaptations. Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition, gives a basic outline of the tale. In it the Crusades and the dungeon are not mentioned. Golo denounces Genovefa directly to Siegfried after making advances, and Siegfried sentences her to death. Apart from these differences, it is very similar to the plot Schurz outlines with a merciful executioner, a forest exile, a benevolent doe, and Siegfried's discovery of the forest refuge during a hunt through the doe's agency.]

16s [DE says “deep castle dungeon” rather than “dark dungeon” and “a servant” rather than “his man-at-arms.”]

16t [DE says “while” rather than “after.”]

16u [DE inserts here “... and seeing despair near ...”]

16v [DE inserts here “... with a full udder ...” and says “provides sufficient nourishment for mother and child” rather than “provides them both with milk.”]

16w [DE inserts here “... faithful ...”]

16x [DE inserts here “... gradually ...”]

16y [DE inserts here “... great ...”]

16z [DE gives this sentence as “Since the other castle folk at once recognize the count, Golo turns over the castle to him, and tells him a disgusting pack of lies about Genovefa, who he says deservedly has died.”]

16aa [DE inserts here “... ever deeper into the loneliness ...” and appends to this sentence “... in which the fair Genovefa and Schmerzenreich live.”]

16ab [DE inserts here “... bitterly ...”]

16ac [DE inserts here “... two ...”]

16ad [DE appends here “... the next winter.”]

17 [DE gives a little more background on how Schurz came to see the play for the first time in Brühl: his Uncle Ferdinand, who one night had to stay over in Brühl, took him.]

17a [DE inserts here “... involuntarily ...”]

17b [DE inserts here “... in unmistakable Brühl dialect ...”]

17c [DE inserts here “... sudden ...”]

17d [DE inserts here “... and that pure enjoyment of dramatic performance ...”]

Notes to Chapter III

1 a school with a nine years’ course in which emphasis is laid on Latin, Greek, and mathematics. Boys enter at the age of nine or ten. When they finish the course, they are admitted to the universities.

1a [DE omits “several years.”]

1b [The recollections about the cathedral tower and chain gang don't appear in DE.]

1c [DE omits “I would have taken any pains to avoid it” and says instead “although I had benefited from a thorough elementary education, and the progress of my Latin studies and breadth of my reading were at a level not common among small boys.” DE omits “and of mortification to myself.”]

1d [DE begins this sentence with “Since my parents' means were small, ...” and gives the location of the house as Maximinenstraße, and the name of the locksmith as Master Schetter. It also adds: “Master Schetter, as he was called, was a capable craftsman and good citizen, and his wife, an industrious housekeeper, treated me as their own child. ... I studied my lessons in the family's living room where I usually was alone on workdays,” and says “who worked beside his father as a journeyman locksmith” rather than “who was also a mechanic.” DE only mentions journeymen and not apprentices.]

1e [DE omits “and inspire.”]

2 [called Sexta;] the subsequent classes in their proper order are Quinta, Quarta, Untertertia, Obertertia, Untersekunda, Obersekunda, Unterprima, and Oberprima. [Note that the grades in the gymnasium are numbered exactly in the opposite order as they are in elementary schools in the United States.]

2a [DE says “known in wider circles as a teacher making a not insignificant name for himself” rather than “widely known as a teacher of exceptional ability.”]

2b [DE expresses the second half of this sentence as: “and when in my later life I have steadfastly maintained the principle that clear, pictorial and direct expression are the fundamental requisites of a good style, I have to a large extent to thank the teaching I got from Bone.”]

2c [DE gives this topic as “The Uses of Iron,” and the list of subjects differs: “group of trees” rather than “group of people” with “city gate” appearing as an additional subject.]

2d [An alternative way of translating this sentence and the next in DE would be: “In this manner he accustomed his pupils to first determine what their visual perceptions and impressions were, and then to set forth in the clearest, most precise and simplest language just what was perceived and no more. After we had busied ourselves for a time with the simplest form of these exercises and brought ourselves to a certain facility, we were allowed more liberty in the formation of our sentences, but only for the purpose of presenting more clearly and fully the form, characteristics or activity of what we perceived.”]

2e [In modern parlance, “complicated periods” would be better translated as “complex sentences.”]

2f [DE inserts here “... to observe, ...” and adds a sentence after this one: “Bone carefully corrected our essays, and, when the notebooks were returned, gave an instructive individual critique which, when he found something exceptionally praiseworthy, encouraged the student.”]

2g [DE adds a sentence here: “The study of grammar was by no means neglected, but treated as subsidiary.”]

2h [DE appends here “... and that for three years I was under the guidance of this excellent teacher.”]

2i [DE says “compositions.”]

2j [DE appends here “... as a good example” and adds after this sentence: “He gave special notice to a passage in my composition describing a summer evening scene in a village where the boys are driving the cows in from the meadow, while the women and girls sat at a brook flowing through the village scouring metal and tinware clean. ‘This is really a classical passage,’ he said.”]

2k [DE begins this sentence with “He took a warm inclination to me, ...”]

2m [DE adds at the end of this sentence: “... though not without shyness.”]

3 [The original German for this paragraph is: „Berge und Felder waren mit glänzendem Schnee bedeckt; der Himmel trug das rosige Kleid der Morgenröte. Da sah ich drei Jäger, welche unter einer hohen Eiche standen. Die größeren Äste des Baumes trugen eine schwere Last Schnee, die kleineren waren mit Reif behangen. Die Kleider der Jäger hatten eine hellgrüne Farbe und waren mit blanken Knöpfen besetzt. Zu ihren Füßen lag ein großer Hirsch, dessen rotes Blut den weißen Schnee färbte. Drei dunkelbraune Hunde saßen um den toten Körper und ließen die roten Zungen lechzend hervorhängen.“ In DE, Schurz adds that he wrote this paragraph in the lowest, or sixth, class. Also DE indicates this passage comes from the 53rd edition of Bone's Lesebuch rather than the 35th.]

3a [DE inserts here “... in stimulating conversation ...,” and precedes this sentence with: “This illustrates Bone's method as well as my comprehension of it.”]

3b [DE inserts here “I wrote a few verses myself and was in danger of getting a good opinion of my inspirations and facility of expression when one day my teacher read one of my products out loud, without acknowledging me as the writer, and said ‘This poem sounds as if it were by Claudius, but I don't know it.’”]

3c [DE inserts here “... many-volumed ...”]

3ca [Homer, a legendary figure, was the great epic poet of Greece. Many of the works once attributed to him are lost; those which remain are the two great epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, thirty-three Hymns, a mock epic (the Battle of the Frogs and Mice), and some pieces of a few lines each (the so-called Epigrams). — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

3cb [(1751-1826), German poet and translator, the son of a farmer was invited to Göttingen in 1772 on the basis of some poems he had written for the Musenalmanach. He studied philology and became one of the leading spirits in the famous Hain or Dichterbund. In 1775, he became editor of the Musenalmanach, which he continued to issue for several years. He was rector for two schools until he retired in 1802 and settled in Jena. Despite Goethe's efforts to keep him in Jena, in 1805, he accepted a call to a professorship at Heidelberg where he devoted himself entirely to his literary labors, translations and antiquarian research. It is as a translator that Voss chiefly owes his place in German literature. His translations indicate not only sound scholarship but a thorough mastery of the laws of German diction and rhythm. The most famous of his translations are those of Homer. Of these the best is the translation of the Odyssey, as originally issued in 1781. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

3d [DE says “writer” rather than “book” and inserts here “... zealously ...” and says “each word” rather than “form of expression.” DE omits “eager” and “of the story or the argument.”]

3da [Cornelius Nepos (c. 99-24 B.C.), Roman historian. He wrote Chronica, an epitome of universal history; Exempla, a collection of anecdotes after the style of Valerius Maximus; letters to Cicero; lives of Cato the elder and Cicero; and De viris illustribus, parallel lives of distinguished Romans and foreigners. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

3db [Gaius Julius Caesar (102-44 B.C.) the great Roman soldier and statesman. The publication of Gallic War, apparently written in 51 B.C., was doubtless timed to impress on the mind of the Roman people the great services rendered by Caesar to Rome. Nevertheless it stands the test of criticism as far as it is possible to apply it, and the accuracy of its narrative has never been seriously shaken. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

3dc [Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 B.C.), Roman orator and politician. A prolific writer, he wrote on rhetoric, left written recollections of his speeches and copies both of letters he sent and letters he received. And he wrote digests of Greek philosophy for a Roman audience. An advocate of republican government, he was killed in the aftermath of Julius Caesar's murder in which he had no direct involvement. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

3e [DE appends here “... in higher classes.”]

3f [DE says “which pertained” rather than “upon which special stress was to be laid” and “reading matter” rather than “subject.”]

3g [DE gives more detail to the first part of this sentence, saying: “For this manner of studying I mostly had my teacher Bone to thank, who, however, ceased to be my teacher when I graduated from the Quarta to the Tertia, ...”]

4 [DE adds: “Later he filled other teaching positions and got into difficulties during the conflict between the Prussian government and the Roman Catholic Church.”

This conflict is traditionally referred to as the Kulturkampf (cultural struggle). The term Kulturkampf was first used by Virchow in the Prussian legislature to imply that it was a struggle of principle between the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church and that of modern society. The Prussian government, having determined to embark on an anti-Catholic policy, suppressed the Catholic division in the ministry, and appointed a new minister, Falk, a Liberal lawyer of uncompromising character. This was followed by measures in which the state no longer, as in the school inspection law or in the introduction of civil marriage, defended its prerogatives against churches, but assumed itself a direct control over ecclesiastical matters. Bismarck in this case gave the Liberals a free hand, and the laws eventually were carried and proclaimed on the 15th of May 1873; hence they got the name of the May laws. The laws were put into force with great severity. Within a year six Prussian bishops were imprisoned, and in over 1300 parishes the administration of public worship was suspended.

In 1876, however, the Conservatives reunited on a programme which demanded the maintenance of the Christian character of the schools, cessation of the Kulturkampf, limitation of economic liberty, and repression of social democracy. This became the nucleus of a great reaction against Liberalism. It was not confined to any one department of life, but included protection against free trade, state socialism as against individualism, the defense of religion as against a separation of church and state, increased stress laid on the monarchical character of the state, continued increase of the army, and colonial expansion.

Bismarck finally became the first Protestant on whom the Pope bestowed the order of Christ; this was done after the cessation of the Kulturkampf and the reference of the dispute with Spain concerning the Caroline Islands to the arbitration of the Pope.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition, articles on “Bismarck” and “Germany.”]

4a [DE says “which looked like a sort of religious institution” rather than “the interior of which looked almost like a convent” and after this sentence adds: “Pictures of saints looked down on me from all the walls.”]

4b [DE inserts here “... likewise ...”]

4c [DE omits “instantly.”]

4d [DE inserts here “... of thirty years ...”]

4e [DE inserts here “... silk ...”]

5 the preceding picture enables the reader to judge whether Schurz had lost the art of description which Bone had taught him.

5a [DE inserts here “... and kissed one another ...”]

5b [Bone's opening words in DE are a little different: “Look, I am so happy!” he exclaimed. “Early in the year, I had already heard that you were in Germany. Then I read of your meetings with Bismarck and the Kaiser. But I knew you would also come to see me. I recognized your voice — yes, I recognized your voice as I heard you ask for me outside.”]

5c [DE omits “close together,” and after this sentence adds: “He complained about his rheumatism which made it almost impossible for him to go out and soured every activity. But ...“]

5d [DE omits “and friends.”]

5e [DE inserts here “... truly ...”]

5f [DE adds the following sentence: “He died not long afterwards.” DE also just describes the bottle as black and does not make clear that this is because the liquid is black.]

5g [DE notes Schurz's walk led up the Trankgasse past the cathedral, and reminds the reader that it started at “my locksmith's.”]

5h [DE says “completely” rather than “nearly.”]

5i [DE says “externally was mostly brick walls” rather than “was built partly of brick.”]

5j [DE says “gnawed down the ornate medieval sculptures” rather than “gnawed the medieval sculptures.” DE omits “on the walls and arches and turrets” and “at its feet.”]

5k [DE inserts here “... supposed ...” and says “of the street” rather than “below.”]

5m [DE appends here “... from the high tower.”]

5n [DE says “almost unscathed” rather than “much disfigured.”]

5o [DE says “was” rather than “proved to be.”]

5p [DE says “devoted much” rather than “made every” and “seek death by jumping from the tower of a house of God” rather than “such desperation.” ]

5q [DE inserts here “... over a secret crime ...”]

5r [DE gives this sentence as “Another tragic scene I was present at had a similar effect.”]

5s [DE says “stabbed to death” rather than “murdered” and notes “I forget whether it was out of jealousy or that he had just lost her favor.”]

5t [DE says “bloody” rather than “final.”]

5u [DE omits “guardian” and inserts here “... decided ...”]

5v [DE says “boys and girls” rather than “children.”]

5w [DE omits “Deep silence reigned” and says “beside” rather than “on.”]

5x [DE begins this sentence with “Since I was still small ...” and appends to it “... of us and see everything.”]

5y [DE says rather “Thus I saw the unfortunate step up onto the framework of the scaffold” and in the next phrase says “assistants” rather than “assistant.”]

5z [DE inserts here “... between two posts ...”]

5aa [DE says “from the severed neck” rather than “into the air” and omits “dark.”]

5ab [DE expresses this last phrase as “The scaffold was already taken down again and the pool of human blood on the ground covered with sand by the time the rays of the morning sun shone brightly from the Cathedral towers down onto the site of the execution.”]

5ac [DE inserts here “... did not only take me to scenes of horror. He ...”]

5ad [DE inserts here “My father had often told me of it, but what I saw overreached all my expectations.”]

5ae [DE inserts here “... as was customary ...”]

5af [DE supplements here so: “... Genovefa — the unhappy fate of ‘The Bandit Bride’ in Brühl had made me suspicious; ...”]

5ag [In DE this sentence is replaced by an extended passage: “The taste of my friend the locksmith ran to knight dramas, and in his eyes there was no greater actor than Wilhelm Kunst who occasionally played guest rolls in Cologne. Kunst belonged to that class of muscular actors — a giant of a figure gifted with a powerful body and the voice of a lion. But this voice was capable of more beautiful modulations, and he used his abilities with so much moderation and judgment that, I believe, he bore the reputation of a not insignificant, yes even a very noteworthy, player. The first piece I saw at the side of my locksmith was ‘Otto von Wittelsbach,’ at that time a famous knight play in which the hero meets King Philipp of Swabia, who cheats him in a chess game. With an armored fist the hero strikes the chess board so the pieces fly over the stage, and then strikes the king down with a blow from his sword. Here Kunst was in his element, and his achievement inspired me to the utmost. I also saw him as Wetter vom Strahl in ‘Käthchen von Heilbronn’ and as Wallenstein in ‘Wallensteins Tod.’”

Otto von Wittelsbach (1781) is a play by Joseph Marius Babo (1756-1822). As a dramatist, Babo preferred action based on history. In Otto von Wittelsbach, he followed the path blazed by Goethe in Götz von Berlichingen. Sometimes one could see he was acquainted with Shakespeare. He filled a variety of pedagogical and bureaucratic roles related to the theater over his life. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie

Das Käthchen von Heilbronn, oder Die Feuerprobe (Käthchen von Heilbronn, or The Test of Fire), by Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist (1777-1811), was written in 1808. Wallensteins Tod is the third play in Friedrich Schiller's Wallenstein trilogy (1798-1799). — Encyclopædia Britannica (11th edition).

Wilhelm Kunst (1799-1859) was a celebrated actor who provoked quite varied opinions. He was born to play heroic rolls, but some thought, due to lack of study, or perhaps too much of the comedian's touch, Kunst did not do well in roles that required subtlety and excellence in acting. He did better in lower-rated versions of a particular plot, for example being suited to lesser translations of Shakespeare rather than first-rate ones, but in the plays he excelled at, for example Otto von Wittelsbach, he was quite stunning. He first played major roles in Lübeck and worked his way up to the Viennese stage. During his heyday, he did quite well economically, but ended his career in poverty. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie.]

5ah [DE inserts here “... there were months in between ...”]

5ai [DE adds here a passage about the locksmith's passion for acrobatics: “My locksmith also found great enjoyment in the art of acrobatics and knew much he could tell me about the famous Averino, a star of the first rank in this specialty who from time to time visited Cologne to give performances in the theater. One such performance I witnessed with my friend. The neckbreaking jumps, superhuman dislocations and tests of strength with cannonballs little moved me, and, in spite of the enthusiasm of the locksmith, I saw the great Averino once and never again.”]

5aj [DE inserts here “... diligently ...”

Karl Friedrich Becker (1777-1806) was a historian and pedagogue who found himself, on account of his sickliness, unable to pursue his career as a teacher of teachers in a seminary, and returned to private life in 1800, devoting himself entirely to literary pursuits whose character ensured the future regard for his name. The most important of his works was Weltgeschichte für Kinder und Kinderlehrer (World History for Children and Teachers of Children, 1801-1805) which appeared in nine volumes. Later editors changed the work without adding any essential scholarly depth, and the original edition by Becker is worth obtaining. His teacher acknowledged it as a much beloved work and regretted Becker's early death. Becker also issued, in three volumes, Erzählungen aus der alten Welt für die Jugend (Tales from the Old World for Children, 1801-1803). — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 2, pp. 222-223. Apparently Schurz's Weltgeschichte is his father's copy, mentioned in the previous chapter. Later in this chapter, Schurz will mine it for ideas for a drama he wishes to write.]

5aja [Edwy (Eadwig), “The Fair” (c. 940-959), king of the English, succeeded his uncle Eadred in 955, when he was little more than fifteen years old. At his coronation feast, he retired to enjoy the company of his future wife, but the nobles resented this and induced Dunstan and Bishop Cynesige to bring him back. A resentful Edwy drove Dunstan into exile in 957. Further unrest among the nobles led them to select Edwy's brother for king in 957. The latter took the throne peacefully in 959 when Edwy died. In 958, the Archbishop of Canterbury decided Edwy and his wife were too closely akin and separated them. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

5ak [The causal connection between the love and the struggle is not so clear in DE.]

5am [DE says “a church arrogating to itself political power” rather than “the church” and adds after this sentence: “So the Quartaner went boldly and vigorously to work.”]

5an [DE only mentions one ballad.]

5ao [DE says “what purpose they served” rather than “their history.”]

5ap [DE inserts here “... wild ...”]

5aq [DE says “cage” rather than “big pit.”]

5ar [DE says “&c” rather than “after a heroic fight with the monstrous beasts.”]

5as [DE says “seeing that it pertained to old knights of the Gracht, in his pride” rather than “even prouder of it than I.”]

5at [DE says “who really did not understand poetry very well” rather than “who probably took little interest in any kind of poetry.”]

5au [DE appends here “... much beyond the limits of what was required by my school work.”]

5aua [Christoph Bernhard Levin Schücking (1814-1883), German poet and novelist, was born to the Westphalian nobility. His mother, Sibilla Katharina née Busch (1791-1831) was a poet who published a poem here and there. She became friends with the poet Annette von Droste-Hülshoff, and wrote her son a letter of introduction when he left his castle home for the gymnasium in Münster. Shortly after he left home, his mother died, and Droste did her best to fill this gap in his life. Eventually they became very good friends. She helped get him commissions and even contributed this and that to them. Their mutual inspiration peaked around 1841/42. In 1843, Schücking married Luise von Gall, who also published poetry and novels. Droste and his wife did not get along, and she felt he neglected her and that his head was too turned by the revolutionary "young Germany". And then he published a novel on the Westphalian nobility which did not depict them favorably, and her friends, sometimes rightly, sometimes wrongly, traced many of the depictions back to Droste. This annoyance led to her avoiding Schücking for the rest of her life. After her death in 1848, he looked to get collections of her work published. His wife continued publishing throughout their marriage while raising a considerable family. In 1845, Schücking accepted a position with the Kölnischen Zeitung as a literary editor and sometimes foreign correspondent. He worked with them until 1851 when he wanted more time for his writing. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie]

5av [DE omits “great.”]

5aw [DE gives his full name as Wilhelm Pütz, and says “a teacher of history” rather than “the compiler of excellent historical text-books,” but actually he filled both roles well. His life centered around Cologne where he was born in 1806 and died in 1877. He wrote textbooks for history, geography and German which did well. His works were translated into many European languages. He finally ended up fairly well off and endowed some of his favorite scholarly endeavors in Cologne and Bonn, including a fund to buy paintings for the Wallraf-Richartz Museum. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie]

5ax [DE adds here “He had written a hand-book which, in abbreviated terseness and divided into several volumes, gave historical facts and relationships from the earliest period down to current times.”]

5ay [DE notes these travels were made possible by the honoraria he received from the publication of his textbooks.]

5az [DE says “For a time” rather than “In addition to history.”]

5ba [August Wilhelm von Schlegel (1767-1845), German poet, translator and critic, was educated at the Hanover gymnasium and at the university of Göttingen. Having spent some years as a tutor in the house of a banker at Amsterdam, he went to Jena, where, in 1798, he was appointed extraordinary professor. Here he began his translation of Shakespeare, which was ultimately completed, under the superintendence of Ludwig Tieck, by Tieck's daughter Dorothea (1799-1841) and Graf Wolf Heinrich Baudissin (1789-1878). This rendering is one of the best poetical translations in German, or indeed in any language. In 1804, he travelled in France, Germany, Italy and other countries with Madame de Staël, who owed to him many of the ideas which she embodied in her work, De l'Allemagne. Schlegel was made a professor of literature at the university of Bonn in 1818, and during the remainder of his life occupied himself chiefly with oriental studies. As an original poet Schlegel is unimportant, but as a poetical translator he has rarely been excelled, and in criticism he put into practice the Romantic principle that a critic's first duty is not to judge from the standpoint of superiority, but to understand and to “characterize” a work of art. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

5baa [Johann Ludwig Tieck (1773-1853), German poet, novelist and critic, was born in Berlin, his father being a rope-maker. He was educated at the universities of Halle, Göttingen and Erlangen. In 1794, he returned to Berlin and resolved to make a living by his pen. In 1798, Tieck married and in the following year settled in Jena, where he, the two brothers Schlegel and Novalis were the leaders of the new Romantic school. He edited the translation of Shakespeare by A. W. Schlegel, who was assisted by Tieck's daughter Dorothea (1799-1841) and by Graf Wolf Heinrich Baudissin (1789-1878). Tieck's importance lay rather in the readiness with which he adapted himself to the new ideas which arose at the close of the 18th century, than in any conspicuous originality or genius. His importance as an immediate force in German poetry is restricted to his early period. In later years, it was as the helpful friend and adviser of others, or as the well-read critic of wide sympathies, that Tieck distinguished himself. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

5bab [Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547-1616) Spanish author of El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha. His main object was to ridicule the romances of chivalry, which in their latest developments had become a tissue of tiresome absurdities. His first intention was merely to parody these extravagances in a short story; but as he proceeded the immense possibilities of the subject became more evident to him, and he ended by expanding his work into a brilliant panorama of Spanish society as it existed during the 16th century. A variety of characters are presented with the genial fidelity which comes of sympathetic insight. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

5bb [Pedro Calderón de la Barca (1600-1681) Spanish dramatist. Like most Spanish dramatists, Calderón wrote too much and too speedily, and he was too often content to recast the productions of his predecessors. He is admittedly an exquisite poet, an expert in the dramatic form, and a typical representative of the devout, chivalrous, patriotic and artificial society in which he moved. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

5bc [DE says “the elementary basics of” rather than “some.”]

5bd [Silvio Pellico (1789-1854) Italian dramatist. A victim of censorship, he threw himself heartily into an attempt to weaken the hold of Austrian despotism by indirect educational means. He managed Conciliatore, the organ of a literary association. But the paper was suppressed before a year was up, and the society itself was broken up. In 1820 Pellico was arrested on the charge of carbonarism and imprisoned until 1830. He wrote dramas during his career, mostly tragedies, but it is the simple narrative and naïve egotism of Mie prigioni, an account of his sufferings in prison, that established his strongest claim to remembrance. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

5be [Ludovico Ariosto (1474-1533) Italian poet. He wrote Orlando furioso. In his machinery he displays a vivacity of fancy with which no other poet can vie; but he never lets his fancy carry him so far as to omit to employ, with an art peculiar to himself, those simple and natural pencil strokes which, by imparting to the most extraordinary feats a color of reality, satisfy the reason without disenchanting the imagination. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

5bf [DE says “I met” rather than “It was a great pleasure to me to meet.”]

5bg [DE is more vague and says “the middle 1870's” rather than “1873.”]

5bh [DE appends here “... this once” and omits “you have to.”]

5bi [DE says “with a lively intellect” rather than “young in spirit.”]

6 [DE starts this sentence off with “After three years, ...” and explains the reason for the move more elaborately: “and for this music was guilty. I was conscientiously, and with love, pursuing my piano studies, and the locksmith's shop didn't have an instrument; so I had to go to a friend's house, where there was a piano, to do my exercises. After some time, this became wearisome, and my father found me lodgings in another house which had a piano at hand.”] Schurz had real musical ability. While a refugee in London and Paris he added considerably to his income by teaching music. In the later volumes of his Reminiscences he comments at length on great musicians whom he had heard.

6a [At the end of this sentence, DE appends: “until I entered the Tertia.”]

6b [DE inserts here “... before one another ...” and after this sentence adds: “They were somewhat older than I and in higher grades, but they took me into their group.”]

6c [DE notes that Petrasch's father was also a high-ranking freemason.]

6d [DE mentions only Petrasch's religious utterances as attracting the notice of the authorities. It characterizes the religious instructor as “decidedly prudent.” “excused” would be a more accurate translation here than “suspended.” DE omits “and he invited him to further talks upon sacred subjects.”]

6e [DE says “those of other faiths” rather than “the heterodox.”]

6f [DE inserts here “... these and ...” and appends to this sentence “... or as we called it ‘to go to the first communion.’”]

6g [DE gives this sentence as “In preparation, the religious instructor of the gymnasium gave us special instruction in the tenets of the Catholic faith.”]

6h [DE says “the sincere and truly pious wish” rather than “an earnest desire” and “my” rather than “all.”]

6i [DE appends here “... since, of all the shameful deeds of human cruelty we encounter in history, religious persecutions were always to me the most outrageous.”]

6j [DE appends here “... even if unbaptized.”]

6k [DE adds here: “My teacher continued to treat me with generosity and friendliness, and I could not say that the confessions that I made to him were the source of any sort of difficulties for me during the course of my schooling. For my part, ...”]

6m [DE omits “great.” AT has an extra section here, marked for deletion: “... and I have almost never tried to rob a believer of his belief. All the more distasteful to me was that unctuous cant which so frequently constitutes the main part of professional preaching, and is usually employed to mask the absence of clear thought.” AT begins the next paragraph with the addition: “I was still entangled in this conflict with myself and with the church authority, when I became acquainted with my new friends, and found these young men to be substantially of the same mind. Of course we frequently conversed about these things and communicated to one another our struggles and experiences.”]

6n [DE says “enlightening” rather than “soothing.” and omits “which were new and fascinating.”]

7 (Heinrich) Heine: German author, 1797-1856, preëminent in lyric poetry and distinguished as a prose writer. He lived in Paris after 1831, and received a pension from the French government on account of his many writings regarding Germany. [It may be noted that, by freeing the Jews from many of the political disabilities under which they had hitherto suffered, Napoleon became the object of particular enthusiasm in the circles amidst which Heine grew up. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.] He did not criticize the German people so much as the abuses of government to which they had to submit. Naturally he found it pleasanter to live in exile.

8 [Ferdinand Freiligrath] 1810-1876, one of the better-known German poets of the revolutionary period. Persuaded by Hoffmann von Fallersleben he devoted himself to revolutionary poetry after 1844. He had to flee from Germany, but returned in 1848 to work with Karl Marx for a socialistic revolution. When that failed, he returned to England, and stayed there till the amnesty of 1868.

[Freiligrath was a friend of the American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882). In 1842, when Longfellow was taking a rigorous water cure at Boppard on the Rhine, a fellow patient introduced him to Freiligrath at the latter's home in St. Goar. Freiligrath had a special interest in English and American poetry. There followed many meetings and outings in Germany where this topic was discussed, and Longfellow presented Freiligrath with copies of his books Hyperion and Ballads and Other Poems. The friendship developed further in their correspondence. — James Taft Hatfield, “The Longfellow-Freiligrath Correspondence,” Publications of the Modern Language Association, Vol. 48, No. 4 (December 1933), pp. 1223-1291.]

9 [Karl Ferdinand Gutzkow (1811-1878) German novelist and dramatist. With the exception of one or two of his comedies, Gutzkow's writings have fallen into neglect. But he exerted a powerful influence on the opinions of modern Germany; and his works will always be of interest as the mirror in which the intellectual and social struggles of his time are best reflected. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

10 [Heinrich Laube (1806-1884), German dramatist, novelist and theatre-director. His writings severely criticized the political régime in Germany. These, together with the part he played in the literary movement known as Das junge Deutschland (Young Germany), led to his being subjected to police surveillance and his works confiscated. In 1836 he married, and almost immediately afterwards he suffered a year's imprisonment for his revolutionary sympathies. As a theatre-manager he has had no equal in Germany, and his services in this capacity have assured him a more lasting name in German literary history than his writings. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

11 [Georg Herwegh] 1817-1875, [German political] poet with remarkable talent for inflammatory expression in revolutionary poetry. [He took an active part in the South German rising in 1848; but his raw troops were defeated on the 27th of April at Schopfheim in Baden. He just managed to escape to Switzerland, where he lived for many years on the proceeds of his literary productions. He was later (1866) permitted to return to Germany. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

11a [DE inserts here “... new ...”]

11b [DE inserts here “... pompous ...”]

12 [Buch der Lieder, 1826.]

13 [Reisebilder, 1826-31. DE starts this list of Heine's works with Neue Lieder — New Songs — which perhaps refers to Neue Gedichte — New Poems — of 1844.]

14 [In DE, this item in the list appears as Wintermärchen, Deutschland — Winter Tales, Germany — which apparently refers to Deutschland: Ein Wintermärchen — Germany: A Winter Tale — of 1844. DE omits “the various political poems.”]

15 its sub-title is ein Sommermärchen. [Published in 1847. The subtitle is actually ein Sommernachtstraum — A Summer Night's Dream.]

16 [DE inserts here “... heaven ...”] this “revolutionary” sentiment grew out of the Napoleonic wars of 1812-1813. The rulers of a number of the thirty-nine independent governments or states of what we now call Germany appealed to the people to rise and expel the French from the land, promising a “united Germany” after the war. Later they saw that a united Germany meant a loss of power for them, and on that account they refused to keep their promises, thus sowing the seeds of revolution. The surviving poets of this uprising made themselves obnoxious to the rulers in Germany by insisting that the promises be kept. Many of them sought refuge in foreign countries, and the governments were busy in the “suppression” of revolutionary poetry.

17 [German poet, philologist and historian of literature, born August Heinrich Hoffman (1798-1874) at Fallersleben in the duchy of Lüneburg in Hanover. In 1823 he was appointed custodian of the university library at Breslau, a post which he held till 1838. He was made professor of the German language and literature at that university in 1830, but was deprived of his chair in 1842 in consequence of his Unpolitische Lieder (1840-1841), which gave much offence to the authorities in Prussia. Fallersleben was one of the best popular poets of modern Germany. In politics he ardently sympathized with the progressive tendencies of his time, and he was among the earliest and most effective of the political poets who prepared the way for the outbreak of 1848. He composed melodies for many of his songs, and a considerable number of them are sung by all classes in every part of Germany. Among the best known is the patriotic Deutschland, Deutschland über Alles. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

DE omits “and circulated among us.”]

18 possibly because the books themselves were suppressed.

19 which began, as commonly understood, in 1789.

20 the Kurfürsten (electors) were prominent princes of the Holy Roman Empire who had the right of naming the Emperor. Their number was variously seven, nine, or ten. The seven were the Archbishops of Mayence, Trèves, and Cologne, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Duke of Saxony, the Markgrave of Brandenburg, and the King of Bohemia.

21 by the treaty of Lunéville the boundary between France and Germany was allowed to remain at the Rhine. By this treaty, 9 February, 1801, between Napoleon on the one side and Austria as the main party on the other, Germany lost over 24000 square miles of territory, and over three millions of population. The German Empire formally accepted the treaty. [DE omits “and seized” and puts “army” after “French.”]

22 for a while after the Revolution (1789) France was a republic. On 18 May, 1804, Napoleon was proclaimed Emperor of the French, and by popular vote the office was made hereditary in his family. France remained an empire till Napoleon's banishment to Elba in 1814.

22a [DE omits “after the French wars.”]

22b [DE adds here “The Prussian official remained a ‘hungry Prussian.’”]

23 promises of a united Germany with a liberal constitution.

23a [DE omits “boys.”]

23b [DE inserts here “... national ...”]

24 were used to mark the graves of the poor.

24a [DE inserts here “... all the more tightly we clung to the objectives themselves, and ...”]

25 [DE adds here: “but another thoroughly competent man”. Later his name is mentioned parenthetically as Nattmann.]

26 called die Völkerschlacht — the Battle of the Nations — was fought, 16 and 18 October, 1813. “Napoleon's command included Portuguese, Spaniards, Neapolitans, and large contingents of Germans from the Rhine League, as well as the flower of the French youth; while the allies brought against him Cossacks and Calmucks, Swedes and Magyars, besides all the resources of Prussian patriotism and Austrian discipline. The result was a decisive defeat for Napoleon. In the following March the sovereigns of Russia and Prussia entered Paris at the head of their troops.”

26a [DE says “national” rather than “complete.”]

26b [DE omits “at one of the next lessons.”]

26c [DE omits “and dangerous.”]

26d [DE inserts here “... writing ...” and appends to this sentence “... and kept me constantly busy.”]

26e [DE appends here: “... and enter into the ranks of its famous authors.”]

26f [DE says “would otherwise” rather than “should.”]

26g [DE appends here “... in all subjects, without exception.”]

26h [DE says “this steady even-handedness” rather than “these” and after this sentence adds: “Nevertheless I maintained my position as one of the better students in those classes I neglected.”]

26i [DE inserts here “... ten Groschen or ...”]

26j [DE omits this sentence, and instead adds: “The friends I went around with seemed to be much better provided for in these matters than I was. They could permit themselves many enjoyments which I had to forsake.”]

26k [DE omits this sentence.]

26m [DE enumerates the “good things of life” as “riches, power, position.”]

26n [DE inserts here “... or feeling of being poorly treated by fate ...”]

26o [DE says “cherished at times by the best disposed nature” rather than “legitimate,” and “often not” rather than “not.”]

26p [DE appends here “..., and not expensive, but nonetheless pushing the limits of my finances.”]

26q [DE says “enjoyable” rather than “valuable.”]

27 [DE appends here: “... which at that time was in an old building on the Trankgasse.”] Ferdinand Franz Wallraf (1748-1824) founded in Cologne a museum which was rich in articles of scientific and artistic value, and later presented it to the city. It is now called the Wallraf-Richartz Museum.

27a [DE inserts here “There were also modern pictures there, among them several of significant value.”]

28 [Eduard Bendemann] 1811-1889, painter of historical subjects, for the most part classical or biblical. The painting [of 1832] mentioned in the text, based on Psalm 137 [and the end of Franz von Üchtritz's play Die Babylonier in Jerusalem (The Babylonians in Jerusalem)], marks the height of his art.

29 Bendemann was director of the Academy at Düsseldorf, 1854-1867.

29a [DE omits “as to composition and execution.”]

29b [DE says “musical high mass” and “Catholic sect” rather than “church.”]

29c [DE begins this sentence with “Normally, ...”]

29d [DE omits “sometimes.”]

29e [DE says “main entrance” rather than “portals” and notes the wall stretches between the more middle columns.]

29f [DE inserts here “... unusual ...”]

29g [DE's description of this location not as graphic.]

29h [DE says “a hundredfold” rather than “wonderfully.”]

29i [DE inserts here “... pointed ...”]

29j [DE says “wonderful” rather than “mysterious” and omits “weaving.”]

29k [DE begins this sentence with “Then ...” and omits “and my eyes filled with tears.”]

29m [DE inserts here “... them ...”]

29n [DE notes the garrison is the “28th Infantry Regiment” and that Neumarkt is “the great drill field.” The audience is described as “officers and the gathered public,” and the program is further qualified as “mostly opera music.”]

29o [DE says “beautiful” rather than “happy” and “a work on art history” rather than “books on architecture.”]

29p [DE says “enjoyments” rather than “studies.”]

29q [DE appends here “..., to whom I was bound by a fellowship of intellectual ambition.”]

29r [DE adds here “... reveled in our favorite writers ...” and notes what they read aloud to each other were poems they had written.]

29s [DE gives the uncle's name as Uncle Peter, and the boys' names as Heribert and Otto. There it is noted Uncle Peter lived at the “Münchhof”, and that Heribert was a year older than Carl, and Otto was a year younger.]

29t [DE adds here “... intellectual ...”]

29u [DE omits “which it did most effectually.”]

29v [DE adds here “... since we had very little cash, indeed my cousins had somewhat more, but still very little ...”]

29w [DE adds here “My cousins for awhile attended the public school in Cologne, and, during the week, they spent their nights in a neighborhood which was very attractive to our way of seeing things. There we gathered now and then to play cards.”]

29x [DE adds here “... by the excitement of the moment ...”]

29y [DE says “I” rather than “We.”]

29z [DE says “buried itself in me so painfully and deeply” rather than “appeared in so drastic a shape.”]

29aa [DE adds here: “when I wasn't on excursions to the various uncles” and says “school” rather than “summer.”]

29ab [DE says “Lind, Herrig and Jülich” rather than “various places.”]

29ac [DE adds here: “nor with my literary accomplishments, and moreover I usually kept the latter to myself.”]

29ad [DE elaborates this last phrase a little more saying “I had kept up my piano studies, and also studied thorough bass. I especially liked to improvise. My father, who took great pleasure in this, thought it sounded so good on the piano, that it would work well before the assembled village folk on the church organ.” See Chapter XIII, note 1mc, for an explanation of thorough bass.]

29ae [DE describes in more detail and differently the pieces played. Rather than voluntary, it says “an interlude at a fitting place during the Sunday morning service, or a postlude at the close of the service while people walked out.”]

29af [DE adds a sentence here: “When I finished, the villagers thought that such a piece was permissible once, and that its like had never been heard in Liblar before.”]

29ag [DE indicates two factors, in addition to the tolerable skill he had developed using a rifle, which motivated Schurz to join the Sanct Sebastianus Society: he had entered the Sekunda, and he had received a rifle that had belonged to a family member.]

29ah [DE appends here: “... for the most part.”]

29ai [DE omits this sentence.]

29aj [DE says “that afternoon” rather than “on this occasion” and omits “old bow-legged” and says “I” rather than “my heroic enthusiasm.”]

29ak [DE says “fear” rather than “suspect.”]

29am [DE omits “which a well-aimed bullet would surely bring down.”]

29an [DE says “whole of my future fate” rather than “current of my future.”]

29ao [DE says “My eye remained truly clear” rather than “so that my eye should be clear.”]

29ap [DE says “joyful” rather than “proud.”]

29aq [DE appends here: “... and almost pressed me to the ground, ...” Also DE puts an exclamation point in “I was king!”]

30 [DE has no quotation, but only the phrase “and called out my name.”]

30a [DE appends here “... and everything had started shaking.”]

30b [DE inserts here “..., Uncle Georg who had been destined to take over the management of the farming operations at the castle, ...” and starts this sentence off with “If I remember correctly, ...”]

30c [DE inserts here “... next to our house ...” and omits “than his little hardware business yielded”]

30d [DE inserts here “... using pressed blocks of earth ...” and adds “promised to be especially economical” to the list of advantages.]

30e [DE says “the experiment” rather than “it” and “my father had” rather than “had been.”]

30f [DE says “soon became apparent” rather than “appeared” and omits “amusement”]

30g [DE adds here: “As I have mentioned before, none of them was a sharp calculator or dealer. This went against the Cavalier in their natural dispositions.”

A cavalier was a horseman, particularly a horse-soldier or one of gentle birth trained in knightly exercises. Cavalier in English was early applied in a contemptuous sense to an overbearing swashbuckler a roisterer or swaggering gallant. “Cavalier” is chiefly associated with the Royalists, the supporters of Charles I. in the struggle with the Parliament in the Great Rebellion. Here again it first appears as a term of reproach and contempt, applied by the opponents of the king. At the Restoration the court party preserved the name, which survived till the rise of the term Tory. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

30h [DE inserts here “... with everything ...” and says “reliable insight into the” rather than “quick” and “advantage” rather than “chance.”]

30i [DE adds here: “And I am afraid I have inherited this bad habit from my father, since I always get complaints that my writing desk looks chaotic.” — deleted in AT.]

30j [DE omits “in Liblar” and says “until everything was in comprehensible and satisfactory order” rather than “and ‘settling up.’”]

30k [DE inserts here “... possibly ...” and omits “in his amiability and brotherly affection”]

30m [DE expresses this phrase as “By way of beginning, they would sit together at a table and recall the precious days which they had spent living with each other, and the outrageous escapades which they had realized together.” and says “turned into a family celebration of the merriest sort” rather than “faded out of view” and omits “a day, or even.”]

30n [DE inserts here “... at all ...”]

30o [DE inserts here “... which were to fix everything ...” and says “make the situation significantly worse” rather than “hasten on the final disaster.”]

30p [DE inserts here “... I was informed as little as possible about these things, and ...”]

30q [DE inserts here “... in Cologne ...”]

30r [DE gives this phrase as “ Admittedly, most of my students only paid me 2½ Silbergroschen (6½ cents) per hour — 5 Groschen was a very generous honorarium.”]

30s [DE inserts here “... — the house, garden and hall building — ...”]

30t [DE appends here “... again in a frightening way.”]

30u [DE inserts here “..., as it seemed, ...”]

30v [DE inserts here “... by only demanding a small advance ...” and says “and make no further payments” rather than “and not take the property.”]

30w [DE's version of the first half of this sentence could more accurately be translated as: “My father turned to legal means to hold the purchaser to the contract, but this was a protracted and uncertain affair, ...”]

30x [DE appends here “... to force payment.”]

30y [DE inserts here “..., and for our family horrible, ...”]

30z [DE omits “then” and “evidently.”]

30aa [DE omits “hurriedly.”]

30ab [DE inserts here “... as they could ...”]

30ac [DE inserts here “..., and careful and relentless effort, ...”]

31 an examination taken by students at the end of the last year of a gymnasium course. Theoretically at least it covers the studies of all the preceding years of the course. The gymnasium student could not be regularly admitted to a university till he had passed it. [DE appends to this sentence “... in the fall.”]

31a [For this reason, DE merely states “the graduation examination was customarily much harder for the non-resident” and gives as a preceding reason for the plan being bold “because it definitely looked like it would be hard to pursue in parallel the gymnasium studies to the necessary level.”]

32 [DE adds: “After completing the course at the university, I hoped to bridge the unremunerative Privatdozent period which comes before obtaining an appointment as a professor by using the proceeds of literary work.”] a Privatdozent is a scholar of approved standing who is allowed to give courses at a German university, but who has not as yet been “called” to a professorship. Nearly every professor has begun as a Privatdozent. A Privatdozent receives fees but no salary, and naturally expects in time to be called to a professorship.

32a [Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8 B.C.), the famous Roman poet. His main works were Epodes, Satires, Odes and Epistles, the latter three published in multiple volumes over time. The later Epistles contain much literary criticism. He fought with the republicans against Octavius and Antony after Julius Caesar's assassination, and was stripped of his property after the war. He gradually became convinced of the beneficence of Augustus's rule, and, after the death of Virgil, became accepted as Rome's greatest living poet, living on a farm in the Sabine countryside.

Horace is one of the few writers, ancient or modern, who have written a great deal about themselves without laying themselves open to the charge of weakness or egotism. His chief claim to literary originality is that of being the first of those whose works have reached us who establishes a personal relation with his reader, speaks to him as a familiar friend, gives him good advice, tells him the story of his life, and shares with him his private tastes and pleasures — and all this without any loss of self-respect, any want of modesty or breach of good manners, and in a style so lively and natural that each new generation of readers might fancy that he was addressing them personally and speaking to them on subjects of every day modern interest. In his self-portraiture, far from wishing to make himself out better or greater than he was, he seems to write under the influence of an ironical restraint which checks him in the utterance of his highest moral teaching and of his poetical enthusiasm.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

32aa [DE inserts here “... depth of scientific or ...”]

32b [DE omits “and inspiration.”]

32c [DE omits “take up in later life” rather than “begin or resume.”]

32d [DE appends here “..., aye, even made these studies as easy as a game.”]

Notes to Chapter IV

1 an organization originally intended to be broader and less snobbish than the dueling corps. At first it was made up — at least in part — of students who had taken part in the German wars of liberation. Since 1815 the spirit of the organization has been distinctly patriotic. Its purpose was to break down society lines and to destroy rivalry in the student body, to improve student life and increase patriotism. The call for the first meeting was signed by the philosopher Fichte, “Turnvater” Jahn, and some students. The motto of the organization was Ehre, Freiheit, Vaterland [(honor, freedom, fatherland)]; the colors were gold, red, and black, supposed — though erroneously — to be the colors of the Holy Roman Empire. As it became plainer that the Germans were to be disappointed in their hopes for a united nation, discontent grew, especially among the students. In 1818 it was decided to introduce the Burschenschaft into all the higher institutions of learning in Germany. In 1819 Kotzebue, the Russian dramatist and aristocrat, was assassinated at Jena by a demented student. Though the Burschenschaft had nothing to do with this deed, the governments united in suppressing the society. But it would not be suppressed — it took a secret political character. Later it broke into two factions, the Arminen and Germanen. In 1833 the various governments investigated it, and hundreds of students were sent to prison or confined in fortresses, disfranchised, or executed. In 1840 Prussia granted amnesty to all in its jurisdiction. The Burschenschaft took but little part in the Revolution of 1848. Over fifteen hundred members met at Eisenach, but confined their activities mainly to sending resolutions to the Parliament at Frankfurt.

2 the Burschenschaften were, like the dueling corps, named after ancient localities of Germany or adjoining countries, e.g. Saxonia, Helvetia, Germania, Teutonia, Bubenruthia, etc.

2a [DE omits the last explanatory remark “one ... impulse.”]

2b [DE inserts here “..., joined this Burschenschaft ...” and says “with all sorts of exaggerations” rather than “probably with an exaggerated account of my literary capabilities.”]

3 a place frequented by students where beer and other refreshments can be obtained.

3a [DE inserts here “... only at ease with family and intimate friends, ...”]

3b [DE notes that Overbeck studied archaeology and that he was a native of Hamburg.]

3c [Instead of this sentence, DE says “When other students talked to me I blushed all over and could hardly get out a word. I seemed to myself an awkward country boy, who did not know how to conduct himself in educated company, and I was thoroughly ashamed. And what was worse, I was aware of the general disappointment which the good Petrasch could hardly conceal.”]

3d [DE concludes this paragraph with: “... and I felt immature around them. In later life it was often my lot to cope with a similar frame of my mind.”]

3e [DE gives the last phrase as “..., but I was admitted to the society as a so-called Mitbummler and was permitted to attend their convivial meetings at the Kneipe almost as if I was a full member” and adds after this sentence: “Since the Franconia differentiated itself from the other student societies by its finer tone and did not make massive drinking of beer a duty, my moderate habits did not make me uncomfortable.”]

3f [DE gives this phrase more elaborately as: “For a long time I sat among these lively, talkative and sometimes decidedly intellectual fellows as a quiet, almost mute, spectator.”]

3g [DE says “especial” rather than “general.”]

4 a scene in Goethe's Faust is laid in Auerbach's Keller in Leipzig. Goethe had been a student in Leipzig and had frequented this restaurant. [DE inserts after this sentence: “The rhyming came easily to me, and the verses flowed comfortably and not unmusically.”]

4a [DE gives the last phrase as: “seldom had a work of this sort been better written.”]

4b [DE inserts here “... and for no amount of money would I have yielded to his entreaties that I read my work at the next Kneipabend, ...”]

4c [DE says rather “Nobody seemed to suspect me.”]

4d [DE inserts here “... again and again ...” and says “embracing” rather than “congratulation and handshaking.”]

4e [DE inserts here “... and useful ...” and appends to this sentence “... which will be spoken of later.”]

4f [DE appends here “... and gave me no rest.”]

4g [DE appends here “..., but without essential difficulty.”]

4h [DE inserts here “... anxious ...”]

4i [DE says “a bit” rather than “again.”]

5 the chief episode in the Sixth Book of the Iliad is the Parting of Hector and Andromache. [DE gives the last phrase of this sentence more elaborately as: “So I was able to put the text to one side and translate into German the selection assigned to me without looking at one letter of it. This attracted no little attention.”]

5a [DE says “other areas” rather than “history” and “higher mathematics and science” rather than “other branches.” Trefousse's and Schicketanz's works both cite, somewhat ironically, the first page of Schurz's Zeugnis der Reife (diploma dated August 28, 1847) which has the statement “In der griechischen sind seine Kenntnisse etwas lückenhaft geblieben.” (“Some gaps remain in his knowledge of Greek.”) However, it should be kept in mind that most likely the Greek examination consisted of more than just a translation exercise, and the balance of the Greek part of the exam was most likely where the gaps lay. Moreover, Schurz may have known the Greek passage by heart but still had a few places where his translation had problems. Thus, though the remarks in the diploma are noteworthy, they do not seem inconsistent with Schurz's recollection of his examination.]

5b [DE omits “German.”]

6 (1829-1911), novelist, dramatist, and poet. He was a student at Bonn, 1847-1848. [He studied law, and subsequently literature and philosophy, at the universities of Berlin, Bonn and Greifswald. On leaving the university he became a master in a gymnasium at Leipzig, but upon his father's death in 1854 devoted himself entirely to writing. His novels combine two elements of especial power: the masculine assertion of liberty which renders him the favorite of the intelligent and progressive citizen, and the ruthless war he wages against the self-indulgence of the age. Spielhagen's dramatic productions cannot compare with his novels. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.

DE says “doubtless” rather than “in a sense.”]

6a [DE gives this sentence as “So much more strongly did it embody an intellectually distinguished tone and an earnest scientific striving, and I believe none of the student societies of that time could point to as many young men who later made a name for themselves as able people in various walks of life.”]

6aa [Johannes Overbeck (1826-1895), German archaeologist, was born in Antwerp, and raised in an environment which encouraged his interest in the visual arts. After graduating from Bonn, he spent most of his career as a professor at the University of Leipzig (1853-1895). He also helped direct the Archaeological Institute in Berlin (1874-1895). Throughout his life though, his outlook remained that of Bonn. His work was devoted to the art history of ancient Greece and the related mythology. He rarely visited archaeological sites, preferring to write about them second hand. This tended to give his writings a dry flavor, which even his comprehensive marshalling and organization of materials could not really overcome. His devotion was mainly to the lecture pulpit, and there he made his most noteworthy contributions. His lectures were very well attended, the primary ones with frequently over 100 listeners. He sought to improve the life of students in other ways as well by establishing a reading room and infirmary. As one compensation for his lack of first-hand experience, he developed Leipzig's collection of plaster casts. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 55, pp. 852-854.]

6ab [Julius Schmidt (1825-1884), German astronomer and geophysicist. As a student at a gymnasium in Hamburg, he impressed with his sense of form and drawing abilities and demonstrated a strong interest in science. Rümker taught him the fundamentals of astronomical observation (1842-1845). He then worked in a private observatory. In 1846, he became an assistant astronomer at Bonn, where he also completed his education. After being an astronomer in Olmütz for some years, in 1858 he became director of a new observatory at Athens where the clear skies were very suited to astronomical observation. He is best known for his studies of the moon and mapped many new features and prepared a highly detailed map. He also studied vulcanism and seismic phenomena on Earth, sometimes at the risk of his life. He was a pioneer in using the anaeroid barometer for measuring altitude. He published a work on the physical geography of Greece. He received an honorary doctorate from Bonn in 1868. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 31, pp. 768-770.]

6b [DE inserts here “... a few years ago ...” and says “from Eutin, who, without having enjoyed the usual gymnasium training, worked his way to the highest ranks of astronomers, and, ...” rather than “an astronomer.”]

6ba [Karl Otto Weber (1827-1867), German surgeon and pathological anatomist. He attended a gymnasium in Bremen where his father was director. He entered the University of Bonn in 1846, received his medical and surgical degree in 1851, passed the state exam in Berlin in 1852, and went on a study trip, most of the time of which was spent in Paris. In the winter of 1852-53 he became assistant in a Bonn surgical clinic where, due to the supervising doctor's growing weakness of sight, he was granted much freedom of initiative. By 1853, he had become a Privatdocent at Bonn, and devoted himself to research on pathological anatomy.

When his supervisor retired in 1855 and another doctor took his place on the Bonn faculty, Weber was urged to dedicate himself to pathological anatomy, which was not yet covered by the faculty. By 1857 he became extraordinary professor, and by 1862 ordinary professor. In 1865, he became professor of surgery at the University of Heidelberg, but fell victim to diptheria in 1867.

He had great facility in putting on paper the knowledge he gained from experiment, microscope and practice. His ample drawing skills permitted him not only to draw his own illustrations but to also transfer them to the lithographic stone. As a surgeon he showed great care and precision in the most difficult operations, and he was a skilled teacher as well. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 41, pp. 343-345.]

6c [DE says “accomplishments” rather than “merit.”]

6ca [Ludwig Meyer (1827-1900), German psychiatrist. He began his medical studies in Bonn in 1848, and was deeply involved in the upheavals of those years. As a consequence, he was expelled from Bonn and spent five months in prison under interrogation before being acquitted. Being a friend of both Schurz and Kinkel, he came close to being arrested again in 1850 when Schurz freed Kinkel from Spandau.

He passed his medical exams in 1851, and after holding various other positions, in 1866 he became the first professor of psychiatry at Göttingen, also directing a clinic there. Much influenced by tours of Great Britain, he was a German pioneer in the humane handling of psychiatric patients and maintained that a psychiatric hospital should look like other, non-psychiatric, hospitals. He removed patient restraints, often with his own hands, and took the bars off the windows. Despite opposition, he introduced patients in his lectures. He also studied paralysis.

Neue Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 17, pp. 364-365.]

6cb [Adolf Heinrich Strodtmann (1829-1879), German poet, translator and literary historian, had a peripatetic youth, learning the classics in four gymnasiums. Although this was not conducive to learning the classics, it had the benefit of showing him things from several points of view and taught him the Danish language well. After participating, on the side of the Germans, in the 1848 uprising in Schleswig-Holstein, where he was severely wounded and spent some time in Copenhagen harbor on the prison ship Dronning Maria, Strodtmann became a student at the university at Bonn where he especially became devoted to Gottfried Kinkel. The beginning of his writing career was mostly devoted to composing poetry, but as he became older and less revolutionary he devoted more time to translation and literary history. He wrote books about Kinkel and Heine and published the correspondence of the poet Bürger. He translated three works from the French, but mostly concentrated on Danish and English which he knew better. In 1852, he sailed for America, and with help from his father, the not-very-practical ex-student entered the book trade in Philadelphia, buying, selling and lending as well as publishing a literary magazine called Die Locomotive. The business was not successful and closed in 1854, after which he traveled around the country pursuing literary interests eventually settling in New York. Weary of his various efforts to make a living, he returned to Germany in 1856, becoming a citizen of Hamburg. He covered the 1870 war with France for several newspapers, and in 1871, he moved to a suburb of Berlin where he lived for the rest of his life.

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 36, pp. 605-611.]

6d [DE doesn't give a list of languages. It also notes that Strodtmann wrote several works on literary history and that he will often be mentioned often later in the Reminiscences.]

6e [DE says “odd” rather than “somewhat distant.”]

6f [DE says “morose stay-at-home mopers” rather than “priggish.”]

7 [In DE, this sentence is preceded by another: “After passing my graduation examinations, I became a full member of the Burschenschaft Franconia, and, after conquering my shyness, felt at home there.”]

7a [DE says “sought” rather than “had to seek.”]

7b [DE inserts here “... or too grossly ...”]

7c [DE inserts here “... mischievous ...” and omits “then as now.”]

8 student Korps in German universities (especially the more provincial ones) give much attention to dueling. The student duel is peculiar to Germany. The weapons are swords nearly a yard long with sharp edges. In the duel thrusting is not allowed. The sword hand is raised above the head, the sword is guided mainly by the wrist, and is driven in attack at the opponent's face. Duelists wear goggles, and padding enough to rouse a football player's envy.

9 student organizations which sprang from the old Landsmannschaften. In 1810 in Heidelberg the name Korps came into use and soon displaced the older name at all the universities. The oldest Korps, Onoldia, at Erlangen dates from 1798, though it was not called a Korps till some years later. Most of them came into existence in the period 1800-1820. At first the various governments prohibited them as well as the Burschenschaften, but tolerated them after 1840. After 1848 they were officially approved. Their purpose is the cherishing of the body of traditional usages of the various universities regarding drinking and dueling, maintaining the student body, training members to be minutely jealous of their honor, and the avoidance of all religious or political questions. Each university student body — or at least the part of it consisting of corps members — has a social code, as it were, which the corps uphold punctiliously. In 1905 there were 87 corps with 1260 active members. There are now [in 1913] Korps in mining, technical, forestry, engineering, and veterinary schools. Their names, e.g. Borussia (Prussia) , Gothia, Tigurinia, Thuringia, would seem to indicate that the organizations were originally Landsmannschaften. Landsmannschaften formerly had the character of gilds; they were loosely organized bodies of students from the same region or nation naturally enough drawn together by their longings for companionship. A good example is the Mosellanerlandsmannschaft of the University of Jena. It contained members from the Rhineland, Palatinate, Suabia, and Alsace. The purpose of the organizations in general was: (1) to encourage friendship; (2) to compel the adjustment of difficulties arising among members; (3) to protect a “brother member” against slander or other attack from outsiders; (4) to share in social enjoyments; (5) to perform friendly services for one another; (6) to yield to the will of the majority; (7) to obey the president as long as he directs for the best interests of the organization. By 1786 this code had grown to 86 paragraphs, and the organization was much closer.

9a [DE makes no exception, not even a tentative one as is done here for the French.]

9b [DE expresses this phrase more elaborately as “While an exceptional insult or a disgrace inflicted upon a relative or girl friend may perhaps still be accepted as an excuse for single combat with swords or pistols, ...”]

9c [DE says “such” rather than “scars won in”]

9d [DE says “thinks” rather than “is truly foolish to think”]

9e [DE says “prevents unseemly quarrels and stigmatizes vulgar fisticuffs” rather than “prevents personal quarrels from degenerating into vulgar brawls and fisticuffs” and omits “and that the sword is a more dignified weapon than the fist.”]

9f [DE appends here “... — and indeed unseemly quarrels are much fewer, since there can hardly be something more unseemly than the capricious, thoroughly groundless, quarrels used by Korps adherents to provoke a challenge.”]

9g [DE adds here “Is it honorable to provoke a duel with a maliciously spoken insult?”]

9h [DE omits “entirely.”]

10 to be recalled later in connection with campaigns and expeditions in which Schurz had ample opportunity to observe “pugnacious” corps students in action in real warfare.

10a [In this paragraph in DE, Schurz speaks of the Franconians in the first person plural rather than the third person, and DE adds here: “The occasional temptations to use my skill to punish a shameless fellow were close by, but I am glad to say that I successfully withstood them. Only once did such a temptation directly cross my path. One evening in the marketplace, a drunken corps student ran into me, apparently with the intention of provoking a challenge. I had to take a moment to get hold of myself, but recovered my senses enough to look him calmly in the face and say: 'Oh, let's give up this childishness!' That seemed to dumbfound him as without another word he staggered away.” — deleted in AT.]

10b [DE inserts here “... characteristic ...”]

10c [DE says “ribbons” rather than “the tricolored ribbon across our breasts” and after this sentence adds: “We enjoyed our gatherings at the Kneipe with moderation and sang.”]

10d [DE says “had” rather than “celebrated” and “fitting” rather than “becoming” and something like a club business meeting must be meant in this sentence. The German word is Kommerse.]

10e [DE inserts here “... played shuffleboard and ...”]

10f [DE says “worthy” rather than “benign.”]

11 a city on the right bank of the Rhine.

11a [The German word Loreley derives from the Old High German word Lur, which is connected with the modern German word lauern — “to lurk,” “be on the watch for” — and equivalent to elf and lai — “a rock.” The Lorelei is a rock in the Rhine near St Goar, which gives a remarkable echo, which may partly account for the legend. The tale appears in many forms, but is best known through Heinrich Heine's poem beginning Ich weiss nicht was soll es bedeuten. In the commonest form of the story, the Lorelei is a maiden who threw herself into the Rhine in despair over a faithless lover, and became a siren whose voice lured fishermen to destruction. The 13th-century minnesinger Der Marner said that the Nibelungen treasure was hidden beneath the rock. The tale is obviously closely connected with the myth of Holda, queen of the elves. On the Main, she sits combing her locks on the Hullenstein, and the man who sees her loses sight or reason, while he who listens is condemned to wander with her for ever. The legend, which Clemens Brentano claimed as his own invention when he wrote his poem “Zu Bacharach am Rheine” in his novel Godwi (1802), bears all the marks of popular mythology. Heine's poem has been set to music by some twenty-five musicians, the settings by Friedrich Silcher (from an old folk-song) and by Liszt being the most famous. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

11aa [DE inserts here “... young ...”]

11b [DE says “idealistic enthusiasm” rather than “emotions.”]

12 [DE says “tears which I shed as extravagantly” rather than “feelings which I showed as exuberantly.” The words of the song are] from a poem entitled Wanderlied by Justinus Kerner, 1786-1862 [, poet and medical writer, and mean:
Cheerfully we still drink
The sparkling wine,
Goodbye my dear ones,
Now we must part.”]

12a [Before this sentence, DE adds: “I remember more than one leave taking where the last line of this song would not come out due to the sobs.”]

13 [Johann Gottfried Kinkel (1815-1882), German poet, art historian, writer and orator, in 1843 married Johanna Mockel (1810-1858), who had been divorced in 1840 after five months of unhappy marriage to the “coarse Cologne bookseller and business-Catholic Matthieux.” In 1849, Kinkel was sentenced to life imprisonment. After his escape in 1850, he found refuge in London where he taught German and public speaking for women. He also wrote and gave lectures on German literature, art, and history of culture. In 1863, he was appointed examiner at the University of London and other schools in England. Johanna taught music. In 1858, Johanna died after a fall out of a window which was due to a long-standing heart ailment. In 1860, Kinkel married Minna Emilia Ida Werner, a Königsberger who was living in London. In 1866, he left London for Zürich where he became professor for archaeology and the history of art in the polytechnic university. Here he lived for the rest of his life. Apparently Kinkel was not benefitted by any of the amnesties Germany offered to exiles, although he visited and lectured in Germany (Wiesbaden) late in his life.

Kinkel's narrative poem Otto der Schütz (Otto the Marksman, 1843) was extraordinarily successful. It was based on a courtly legend which Achim von Arnim had already used in Auerhahn, and on which Johanna had based a Singspiel she composed in 1841. His later narrative poems Der Grobschmied von Antwerpen (The Antwerp Blacksmith, 1851) and Tanagra (an artist's idyll drawn from ancient Greece and composed late in Kinkel's life) had much less success, though the latter is superior in literary merit, and the former is no worse. Some half dozen of his shorter poems were published in readers for use in German gymnasiums.

Johanna was herself an author of considerable merit. She wrote on musical subjects, and an autobiographical novel of hers, Hans Ibeles in London, was published posthumously in 1860. She also had a substantial output of musical compositions. Many of these compositions were written for the Maikäferbund (May Beetle Group — the Maikäfer being the beetle Melolontha vulgaris which emerges from the ground in May; in German, there is also the idiomatic phrase grinsen wie ein Maikäfer which means “grin like a Cheshire cat,” and the slang verb maikäfern which means “to ponder, ruminate, rack one's brains”), a group of poets — or people who thought they were poets — which she directed and Gottfried also helped lead. This group was founded in 1840 and lasted until the 1848 revolution. It had an annual festival. She also wrote music for her children which was published.

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 55, pp. 515-528. Edward Manley's notes and Encyclopædia Britannica (11th edition) also provided guidance. Information on Maikäfer comes from Cassell's German-English Dictionary and]

DE omits “at Bonn” and says “great significance” rather than “fateful consequence.”]

13a [DE's version of this sentence seems garbled: “Kinkel delivered my lectures on literature and art history of which I attended one.”]

13b [DE gives his birth date as August 11, 1815.]

13b [DE omits “where he attracted large congregations by the eloquence of his sermons” and adds here: “He traveled there every Sunday from Bonn to deliver his sermons which were distinguished by a rare rhetorical ardor.”]

13c [Karl Joseph Simrock (1802-1876) German poet and man of letters. Simrock established his reputation by his excellent modern rendering of the Nibelungenlied (1827), and of the poems of Walther von der Vogelweide (1833). — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

13ca [Wolfgang Müller von Königswinter (1816-1873), German poet and physician. His real name was Wilhelm Müller, but that was also the name of an earlier poet; in addition, he followed the poet's practice of appending the name of his birthplace to his original name. He met Simrock and Kinkel in Bonn where he went in 1835 to study medicine at the wish of his father, also a physician. He continued his studies in Berlin in 1838 and graduated in 1840 after which he served his required time in the army as a surgeon. On his discharge in 1842, he went to Paris where he met Heine, Herwegh and Dingelstedt and continued his medical studies. His stay there was brief, since the death of his father pushed him to establish a practice in Düsseldorf. He married in 1847, and his family life was a great comfort and inspiration to him in later years. In 1848, he was a delegate to the preliminary parliament at Frankfort. When that was over, he went back to writing sagas about the Rhein. In 1853, he gave up his medical practice and moved to Cologne where he devoted himself to writing. In addition to poetry, he wrote novels and works for the stage. He briefly went back to practicing medicine during the 1870 war and wrote some patriotic poems on this occasion. His verses were not imposing in their depth of passion, originality or flights of imagination, but won the reader through their free and fresh aura, their musical voice, their tender mellowness and their poetical sensuality. They were characterized by beauty and health. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 22, pp. 698-701.]

13d [DE omits “in literature.”]

13e [DE notes the bookseller's name was Matthieux.]

13f [DE inserts here “... in 1846 ...”]

13g [DE adds here “A dark pair of eyes, undimmed by the glasses which near-sightedness obligated him to wear, shined out from under a broad forehead shaded by a black head of hair. Mouth and chin were framed by a full black beard.”]

13h [DE inserts here “... in spite of my still unconquered shyness ...” and after this sentence adds “It was really not difficult to become familiar with Kinkel.”]

13i [DE omits “with moderation, to be sure.”]

13j [DE inserts here “... intimately ...”]

13k [DE adds here: “Much life experience has taught me this.” The next paragraph is introduced with the sentence: “Nothing could have been more charming than Kinkel's family life.”]

13m [DE puts this sentence as “Her medium large figure was wide and plain, with hands and feet, while not especially large, still not decoratively formed, and a dark complexion and coarse features without feminine charms.” There Schurz refers to her as Frau Johanna rather than as Frau Kinkel.]

13n [DE inserts here “... at all ...”]

13o [DE says “wide” rather than “flat” and omits “and black slippers, with.”]

13p [DE puts this sentence as “But from her steel blue eyes shone a dark glow which boded the uncommon. Really the impression of lack of beauty disappeared when she began to speak.”]

13q [DE says “always” rather than “instantly.”]

13r [DE inserts here “... deep ...”]

13s [Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), German composer. Not content to express his individuality only in an abrupt epigrammatic style, from the outset breadth was also his aim. His work can be divided into three styles. The first three pianoforte sonatas, op. 2, show the different elements in Beethoven's early style as clearly as possible. The second sonata is flawless in execution, and entirely beyond the range of Haydn and Mozart in harmonic and dramatic thought, except in the finale. The D minor sonata of 1803, op. 31, No. 2, marks the beginning of Beethoven's second period. In their perfect fusion of untranslatable dramatic emotion with every beauty of musical design and tone, the works in the second style have never been equaled, nor is it probable that any other art can show a wider range of thought embodied in a more perfect form. Beethoven's third style arose imperceptibly from his second. His late works are characterized by the enormous development of polyphonic elements. In proportion, the prominence of rhythmic figures decreased. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

13t [Frederic François Chopin (1810-1849), Polish composer and pianist. The intensity of his expression finds its equal in literature only in the songs of Heinrich Heine, to whom Chopin has been justly compared. A sensation of such high-strung passion cannot be prolonged. Hence we see that the shorter forms of music — the étude, the nocturne, national dances — are chosen by Chopin in preference. With very few exceptions his works belong to that class of minor compositions of which he was an unrivaled master. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

13u [DE says “the children with which their marriage was blessed” rather than “their four children.”]

14 “The possession of the seamless garment of Christ (John XIX. 23), for which the soldiers cast lots at the Crucifixion, is claimed by the Cathedral of Trier (Trèves) and by the parish church of Argenteuil.” The coat was “exposed” in theory every seven years, but actual “expositions” have not been so frequent. The exposition alluded to in the text was 18 August - 6 October, 1844, and many eager pilgrims attended it. On this occasion many miracles were reported from Trier.

15 a movement arising from the exposition of the Holy Coat at Trier. A suspended priest named [Johannes] Ronge [Schurz's brother-in-law] wrote an open letter to Bishop Arnoldi regarding the situation at Trier, and the result was the “German Catholic” movement. Many persons denied that miracles occurred at Trier during the exposition of the coat enough to make a considerable protest against what they were pleased to call the deception. Ronge saw an opportunity to put these protests in the form of a public letter addressed to Bishop Arnoldi. The principles of the new movement included innovations for the most part, such as the dropping of Latin from the service, the discontinuance of sacerdotal celibacy, disbelief in the headship of the Pope, etc. The new organization made headway for a while, but has now ceased to exist. [In DE “so-called” modifies “holy coat” rather than “German Catholic.”]

15a [DE says “political thoughts and feelings” rather than “origin and development of the feelings with regard to political conditions.” and omits “he, and, in a more modest way.”]

16 The Holy Roman Empire [was] founded in 800 A.D. by the coronation of Charlemagne at Rome. By far the greater number of its emperors were Germans, so that it naturally came to be regarded by the Germans as their own institution. See James Bryce's Holy Roman Empire.

17 alluding to the legend of Friedrich I., called Barbarossa, who is supposed to be still living under a spell of enchantment under the Kyffhäuser Mountain in the Harz southwest of Berlin. According to the legend, to which allusion is made in the text, a time will come when the emperor will be freed from the enchantment which keeps him prisoner under the mountain, will come forth, and will reëstablish the German (Holy Roman) Empire in all its glory. The following poem (Echtermeyer's text) by Rückert gives the legend and the popular feeling about the “German” Empire:


(† 1190 n. Chr.)
1. Der alte Barbarosse,
Der Kaiser Friederich,
Im unterird'schen Schlosse
Hält er verzaubert sich.
    17. Sein Bart ist nicht von Flachse,
Er ist von Feuersglut,
Ist durch den Tisch gewachsen,
Worauf sein Kinn ausruht.
5. Er ist niemals gestorben,
Er lebt darin noch jetzt;
Er hat im Schloß verborgen
Zum Schlaf sich hingesetzt.
21. Er nickt als wie im Traume,
Sein Aug' halb offen zwinkt,
Und je nach langem Raume
Er einem Knaben winkt.
9. Er hat hinabgenommen
Des Reiches Herrlichkeit
Und wird einst widerkommen
Mit ihr zu seiner Zeit.
25. Er spricht im Schlaf zum Knaben:
„Geh hin vors Schloß, o Zwerg,
Und sieh, ob noch die Raben
Herfliegen um den Berg.
13. Der Stuhl ist elfenbeinern,
Darauf der Kaiser sitzt,
Der Tisch ist marmelsteinern,
Worauf sein Haupt er stützt.
29. Und wenn die alten Raben
Noch fliegen immerdar,
So muß ich auch noch schlafen
Verzaubert hundert Jahr.”
Friedr. Rückert. (Zwischen 1814 und 1817.)

[Encyclopædia Britannica (11th edition) has the following entry for “Kyffhäuser”:

A double line of hills in Thuringia, Germany. The northern part looks steeply down upon the valley of the Goldene Aue, and is crowned by two ruined castles, Rothenburg (1440 ft.) on the west, and Kyffhausen (1542 ft.) on the east. The latter, built probably in the 10th century, was frequently the residence of the Hohenstaufen emperors, and was finally destroyed in the 16th century. The existing ruins are those of the Oberburg with its tower, and of the Unterburg with its chapel. The hill is surmounted by an imposing monument to the emperor William I., the equestrian statue of the emperor being 31 ft. high and the height of the whole 210 ft. This was erected in 1896. According to an old and popular legend, the emperor Frederick Barbarossa sits asleep beside a marble table in the interior of the mountain, surrounded by his knights, awaiting the destined day when he shall awaken and lead the united peoples of Germany against her enemies, and so inaugurate an era of unexampled glory. But G. Vogt has advanced cogent reasons (see Hist. Zeitschrift, xxvi. 131-187) for believing that the real hero of the legend is the other great Hohenstaufen emperor, Frederick II., not Frederick I. Around him gradually crystallized the hopes of the German peoples, and to him they looked for help in the hour of their sorest need. But this is not the only legend of a slumbering future deliverer which lives on in Germany. Similar hopes cling to the memory of Charlemagne, sleeping in a hill near Paderborn; to that of the Saxon hero Widukind, in a hill in Westphalia; to Siegfried, in the hill of Geroldseck; and to Henry I., in a hill near Goslar.

DE doesn't contain the part of this sentence after the colon.]

18 the Thirty Years' War, fought over the greater part of Germany. In this war the Germans divided against each other on a basis of politics and religion, each side having support from other nations. It took place 1618-1648.

“It was a huge, blasting ruin, from which Germany had not fully recovered in the middle of the nineteenth century. Season by season, for a generation of human life, armies of ruthless freebooters harried the land with fire and sword. The peasant, who found that he toiled only to feed robbers and to draw them to outrage and torture his family, ceased to labor, and became himself robber or campfollower. Half the population and two-thirds the movable property of Germany were swept away. In many large districts the facts were worse than this average. The Duchy of Wurtemberg had fifty thousand people left out of five hundred thousand. Populous cities had become hamlets, and for miles upon miles former hamlets were the lairs of wolfpacks. Not until 1850 did some sections of Germany again contain as many homesteads and cattle as in 1618.

“Even more destructive was the result upon industry and character. Whole trades, with their long-inherited skill, had passed from the memory of men. Land tilled for centuries became wilderness, and men became savages. The generation that survived the war had come to manhood without schools or churches or law or orderly industry. The low position of the German peasantry, morally and mentally, well into the nineteenth century, was a direct result of the Thirty Years' War.” — West's Modern History.

19 a good example of this in later times was the sale of German regiments (called Hessians) by German princes to George III. of England for service against the Americans in the Revolution, 1776-1781. [See the chapter “German Mercenaries” from The German Element in the War of American Independence by George W. Greene (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Riverside Press, 1876).]

20 1806-1813, when the kings or princes of Wurtemberg, Bavaria, Baden, Nassau, Darmstadt, with fourteen other princes formed the Rhine Confederation, and repudiated the jurisdiction of the Empire. The Confederation was a creature of Napoleon, as these princes were at his mercy. It was naturally under his “protection.” [DE mentions here that Bavaria, Saxony and Wurtemberg were the leaders of the Rheinbund group. In AE, this listing is postponed to the next paragraph.]

21 the Holy Roman Empire, by this time become, in the words of Voltaire, “neither holy, nor Roman, nor Empire.” In 1806 Franz II. of Austria, who was the emperor, abdicated to prevent Napoleon's usurping the imperial throne. By this act the Holy Roman Empire came to an end.

22 the destruction of Napoleon's army in the invasion of Russia (1812) gave Prussia the opportunity. The whole Prussian people rose to rid themselves of foreign domination. The rest of Germany was not unanimous in joining the revolt, though the princes of the Rhine Confederation joined it. By the peace of Paris (May, 1814) the boundaries between France and Germany were made as they were in 1792. This period when the people of Germany threw off the yoke of the oppressor has been the subject of much eloquence and enthusiasm.

23 issued by Friedrich Wilhelm III., king of Prussia, from Kalisch, a town otherwise obscure enough. He had met the emperor of Russia here, and the two had renewed their friendship and had concluded a treaty for the restoration of the independence of Europe. Immediately afterward (17 March, 1813) the king of Prussia issued his address An mein Volk. Its substance was as follows:

“My faithful people, and indeed all Germans, need no account of the causes of the war which now begins. They are open before the eyes of Europe. Men of Brandenburg, Prussia, Silesia, Pomerania, and Lithuania! You know what you have suffered for these seven years. You know what your sad doom will be if this war does not end in success. Remember your past: remember the Great Elector and the Great Frederick! Even small nations have fought with great powers in such a cause as this. Remember the heroic Swiss and Netherlanders. This is the last and decisive struggle which we undergo for our existence, our independence, our prosperity. There is no escape for us but an honorable peace or a glorious death. Even this you would meet calmly, for honor's sake, since the Prussian and the German cannot survive his honor. But we have a right to be confident. God and our firm purpose will give victory to our righteous cause, and a secure and glorious peace will bring back to us the time of our prosperity.”

[DE omits “after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.”]

24 these “promises” became the moving cause of the political discontent and the revolutions that followed in Germany. Of the latter, Schurz's book deals only with the Revolution of 1848.

24a [DE omits this sentence.]

24b [DE omits “of Leipzig and Waterloo.”]

24c [DE says “had also ambitions outside of Germany, or rather was inspired by selfish interests outside of Germany” rather than “had also un-German interests and designs.”]

24d [DE says “he hated free aspiration and feared the people” rather than “he hated and feared every free aspiration among the people.”]

24e [DE says “public administration of justice” rather than “trial by jury.”]

25 (1770-1840) became king of Prussia in 1797. He was a weak king, a lovable personality, and a man of perfect uprightness. His queen was the much beloved Louise. [(1776-1810), who bore the sufferings inflicted on her and her family during the war between Prussia and France with dignity and unflinching courage. During the war, Napoleon attempted to destroy the queen's reputation, but the only effect of his charges in Prussia was to make her more deeply beloved. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.] They were the parents of Emperor Wilhelm I., known as Wilhelm der Große [William the Great] (died 1888).

25a [DE inserts here “... paternalistic ...”]

25b [DE says “of a wish for fulfillment” rather than “reminder” and “sufficient ground to defer the fulfillment of that wish” rather than “as such to be repelled.”]

25c [DE omits “patriotic men whom they called.”]

25d [DE adds here: “The German was tempted to despise his fatherland. He viewed himself with irony.”]

26 (1795-1861), son of Friedrich Wilhelm III., came to the throne in 1840. He began well by undoing much of his predecessor's tyranny. But he was not in harmony with the spirit of the times and retarded the advancement of his people. Personally he was noble-minded and conscientious. In 1857 his mind began to fail, and his brother Wilhelm became regent.
[DE omits “Frederick William III.'s son and successor.”]

27 [DE adds: “It was right at that time that the threat to the Rhineland border by French foreign minister Thiers once again mightily aroused German nationalism, and a chorus of a million shouted back a warning with the song ‘You will never have the free German Rhine!’ much as thirty years later ‘Watch on the Rhine’ threatened the French.”

Watch on the Rhine (Wacht am Rhein) was written in 1840, the same year Nikolaus Becker wrote Der deutsche Rhein, by businessman Max Schneckenburger (1819-1849), but it languished in obscurity until in 1870, having been set to music by Karl Wilhelm (1815-1873) in 1854, it became the hymn for the German side in the Franco-Prussian war. Schneckenburger went to work in Switzerland in 1841 where he established a cast-iron foundry. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie.

Watch on the Rhine is somewhat known in the USA due to its appearance in the movie Casablanca where an attempted rendition is eventually drowned out by the Marseillaise (see note 2 for Chapter 5).]

Thiers (pronounced tee-air) [, Louis Adolphe]: (1797-1877) French statesman and historian, prime minister and secretary of state for a few months in 1840. “You will,” etc.: by Nikolaus Becker (1809-1845). The poem is as follows:

Der deutsche Rhein.

1. Sie sollen ihn nicht haben,
Den freien deutschen Rhein,
Ob sie wie gier'ge Raben
Sich heiser danach schrein,
    17. Sie sollen ihn nicht haben,
Den freien deutschen Rhein,
Solang dort kühne Knaben
Um schlanke Dirnen frei'n;
5. Solang er ruhig wallend
Sein grünes Kleid noch trägt,
Solang ein Ruder schallend
In seine Woge schlägt!
21. Solang die Flosse hebet
Ein Fisch auf seinem Grund,
Solang ein Lied noch lebet
In seiner Sänger Mund!
9. Sie sollen ihn nicht haben,
Den freien deutschen Rhein,
Solang sich Herzen laben
An seinem Feuerwein;
25. Sie sollen ihn nicht haben,
Den freien deutschen Rhein,
Bis seine Flut begraben
Des letzten Manns Gebein!
13. Solang in seinem Strome
Noch fest die Felsen stehn,
Solang sich hohe Dome
In seinem Spiegel sehn!
Nikolaus Becker. (1840.)

27a [DE inserts here “..., while he discussed all sorts of projects with the people, ...”]

27b [DE omits “but unreal”]

27c [DE appends here: “..., for better representation of the middle and farming classes, and for freedom of the press. The 'class committees', instituted in 1842 to take the place of centralized popular representation, but with only very restricted powers, made the old unfulfilled promises of a truly representative system of government more perceptible and the spirit of the people clearer.”]

27d [DE adds here: “It did not help that the royal government angrily rejected the petitions; that it increased censorship; that, in order to suppress the religious liberalization movements alluded to previously, it put schools under strict controls, and substituted conservative teachers and corresponding textbooks for more liberal ones; that it curtailed freedom of curriculum in the universities, and even tried to bring judges under its yoke with disciplinary laws.”]

27e [DE omits “and petition.”]

27f [DE inserts here “... more vividly ...”]

28 (1787-1874), French statesman and historian. His statecraft was directed against the continental powers. He was quite generally opposed to the policies of Thiers.

29 (1784-1865), English statesman nicknamed Lord Firebrand. He became Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1830, and for twenty years exerted his powerful influence. During the Revolution of 1848 he sympathized, or was supposed to sympathize, with the revolutionary party abroad. He supported the claims of the Greeks in their war for independence. When Kossuth, the Hungarian leader, landed in England, Palmerston proposed to receive him, and was prevented only by a peremptory vote of the Cabinet. As a result the British government, or at least Palmerston as its representative, was regarded with suspicion and resentment by every power in Europe except the French Republic. Over the Foreign Office he exercised and asserted an arbitrary dominion which the feeble efforts of the premier could not control. In his seventy-first year he became prime minister, which position he retained, with one short interval, till his death.

30 (1799-1869), English statesman. He was an ardent supporter of the Reform Bill, 1832. He introduced and carried the first national education act for Ireland, and introduced a bill for the freeing of slaves in the British West Indies. Three times he was called on to form an administration. He was a protectionist. By the admission of all parties he was the most perfect orator of his day.

The brilliant chief, irregularly great,
Frank, haughty, rash — the Rupert of debate.”
Bulwer Lytton.

31 [Friedrich Franz Karl Hecker] (1811-1881), member of the legislature in Baden and later leader of the Revolution (1848) there. He emigrated to America, and lived on a farm near Belleville, Ill. In 1860 he was an elector on the Republican ticket. In that campaign he was much in demand as a speaker. He served in the Civil War [of a regiment he raised for the Federal side — Encyclopædia Britannica].

32 [Karl Wenzeslaus Rodecker von Rotteck] (1775-1840), professor at the University of Freiburg. He was “persecuted” in 1832 in one of the Demagogenverfolgungen. For a while he represented his university in the Landtag. He was editor of two political periodicals.

33 [DE says “Welcker” instead of “Welker.”]

[Karl Theodor Welcker] (1790-1869), [law] professor and publicist. He was a member of the Baden legislature, and a colleague of Rotteck's in the editing of The Independent. He was a member of the Frankfurt Parliament of 1848.

34 [Ludolf Camphausen (1803-1890): “In 1848 ... Ludolf Camphausen stepped suddenly from his banker's desk at Cologne to the presidential chair of the Ministry of State at Berlin, being called by King Frederick William IV. to succeed Count Arnim-Boitzenburg as prime minister, on the 29th of March. Ludolf availed himself largely of his younger brother's (Otto) splendid business talents, and the two might, indeed, have succeeded at the time in tiding over this most critical epoch in the constitutional history of the land, had they not had to encounter the deep insincerity of the monarch on the one side, and the (very excusable) profound distrust of the Radical and Progressist majority of the Assembly on the other side.

“Both Ludolf and Otto Camphausen were moderate Liberals — too honestly Liberal to suit the views of the king and of the reactionary feudalist clique around him, and too honestly Conservative for the impatience of the men of progress. Less than three short months sufficed to convince Ludolf Camphausen of this fact, and already on the 20th of June he tendered his resignation to the king.

“One month after, at the end of July, 1848, Ludolf Camphausen was sent as Prussian representative to the new German central power at Frankfort-on-the-main. Here he remained till April, 1849, when he finally resigned, and went back to his banking business at Cologne, a wiser and sadder man, thoroughly disenchanted of the alluring illusions of power and office.”

— G. L. M. Strauss, Men Who Have Made the New German Empire, Vol. II, London: Tinsley Brothers, 1875, pp. 289-290.]

35 [Georg Freiherr von Vincke] (1811-1875), Prussian statesman. In 1843-1845 he was a member of the Westphalian legislature. He was a member of the Vereinigter Landtag, and attracted attention by his opposition to revolution, and by favoring the hereditary empire. At intervals from 1849 to 1867 he was a member of the Prussian lower house.

36 [Hermann von Beckerath (1801-1870): “one of the most remarkable public characters of Germany, was born at Krefeld (in Prussia), December 1801. He sprang from a commercial family, and made a considerable fortune as a banker. But he gave himself also to pursuits of a more intellectual character, and especially to the studies of jurisprudence and politics. The accession of Frederick-William IV. to the throne roused B. to a sense of the political condition of his country, and he devoted himself to work out its constitutional freedom. In 1843, he was elected representative of his native town in the provincial diet, and continued for several years to take a prominent part in Prussian politics. He was a deputy in the National Assembly, which sprang up in the eventful year 1848, and held its sittings at Frankfort. His eloquence exercised considerable influence on this assembly. He was appointed minister of finance, and shortly after called to Berlin to construct a cabinet; but in this he failed. His strictly constitutional advice was not apparently agreeable to the court, and he returned to Frankfort. An advocate for German unity, it was he who made use of the expression: `This waiting for Austria is death to the union of Germany.' But zealous as he was for constitutional freedom and German unity, he refused his assent to any measure of a revolutionary tendency. When the retrograde movement set in, he resigned such posts as he held under government, but continued, as a member of the second Prussian chamber, a vigorous opposition to the Manteuffel ministry, which had deserted the cause of German unity, and returned to the old traditional politics of the court.” — Chambers's Encyclopædia, Vol. I, Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1870, pp. 787-788.]

37 [David Justus Ludwig Hansemann] (1790-1864), Prussian statesman and publicist. On one occasion the crown rejected his election to the legislature because he had proposed a constitutional government in 1830. In 1846 he had favored government ownership of railroads.

38 (Assemblée nationale), the name which the States General of France assumed 7 June, 1789, and which they changed on the 23d to Assemblée constituante (Constitutional Convention). That this latter name is well deserved may be seen from the fact that this body passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man and voted the Constitution of 1791. It abolished feudal privileges, proclaimed national sovereignty, separated the legislative, executive, and judicial powers, made all citizens eligible to public office, established their equality before the law, instituted religious freedom, reformed the civil service and the system of taxation. It gave place to the Assemblée legislative, 30 September, 1791.

38a [DE adds: “At Kinkel's gatherings these things became the object of lively discussion.”]

39 see note 1. See also Henderson's A Short History of Germany, II., 328-335.

[DE omits “As I have already mentioned.”]

39a [DE omits “1813 to 1815.”]

39b [DE gives the last phrase as “although sometimes this zeal degenerated into a foolish overdone Germanomania.”]

40 Demagogenverfolgungen: in 1819, after the attempt to assassinate the president of the Nassau parliament, and after the assassination of Kotzebue (see note 1), active proceedings were undertaken in concert by the various governments of the German states against the so-called “demagogues.” For a period of about ten years suspects were pursued with particular vigor, though “persecutions” were continued for a longer time. The Burschenschaften and patriotic societies even the Turners became objects of suspicion, complaint, and persecution by official and non-official informers. Students, respected scholars, and university professors were called to account on charges that were without ground. Discontent with government policy was centred in universities, parliaments, and newspapers. In 1833 the officials of twenty-three states heard over eighteen hundred such cases.

41 erroneously supposed to have been the colors of the Holy Roman Empire.

41a [Ulrich von Hutten (1488-1523) German monk, knight and satirist. Like Erasmus or Pirckheimer, he was one of those men who form the bridge between Humanists and Reformers. He lived with both, sympathized with both, though he died before the Reformation had time fully to develop. His life may be divided into four parts: — his youth and cloister-life (1488-1504); his wanderings in pursuit of knowledge (1504-1515); his strife with Ulrich of Württemberg (1515-1519); and his connexion with the Reformation (1510-1523). Each of these periods had its own special antagonism, which colored Hutten's career: in the first, his horror of dull monastic routine; in the second, the ill-treatment he met with at Greifswald; in the third, the crime of Duke Ulrich; in the fourth, his disgust with Rome and with Erasmus. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

Notes to Chapter V

0 [DE notes here parenthetically “if I remember correctly it was a Sunday morning.” This chapter and chapter VI appear together as the fifth chapter of DE.]

1 [Louis Philippe (1773-1850), King of France 1830-1848. He was sixteen at the outbreak of the Revolution, into which, like his father, he threw himself with ardour. In 1790 he joined the Jacobin Club. When the republic was proclaimed, like his father, he took the name Égalité, and posed as its zealous adherent. An accomplice of Dumouriez in the plot to march on Paris and overthrow the republic, he left France in 1793. The execution of his father in that year made him duke of Orleans. News of Napoleon's abdication recalled him to France in 1813. He was cordially received by Louis XVIII.; he was named colonel-general of hussars, and such of the vast Orleans estates as had not been sold were restored to him by royal ordinance. The immediate effect was to make him enormously rich, his wealth being increased by his natural aptitude for business. He courted popularity by having his children educated en bourgeois at the public schools.

His opportunity came with the revolution of 1830. Thiers issued a proclamation pointing out that a Republic would embroil France with all Europe, while the duke of Orleans, who was "a prince devoted to the principles of the Revolution" and had "carried the tricolor under fire" would be a "citizen king" such as the country desired. He was publicly embraced by Lafayette as a symbol that the republicans acknowledged the impossibility of realizing their own ideals and were prepared to accept a monarchy based on the popular will. Charles X. was deposed, and Louis Philippe became king. To conciliate the revolutionary passion for equality he was content to veil his kingship for a while under a middle-class disguise. Little by little, always supported by a majority in a house of representatives elected by a corrupt and narrow franchise, his policy became more reactionary and purely dynastic. By allying himself with the reactionary monarchies against the Liberals of Switzerland, he finally alienated the French Liberal opinion on which his authority was based.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

Encouraged by Guizot, he opposed electoral reforms which were advocated by Thiers. An insurrection broke out in Paris, 22-23 February, 1848. The National Guard abandoned the king, and on the 24th he abdicated and fled. The republic was immediately proclaimed.

1a [DE adds: “..., all seemingly driven by the same instinct, ...”]

1b [DE adds here: “..., and we went to this one or to that one.”]

1c [DE omits “and went away.”]

1d [DE inserts here “... further ...”]

1e [DE omits “excited as they were.”]

1f [DE also puts quotes around “national German Empire.”]

1g [DE adds here: “..., freedom of movement, ...”]

1h [DE adds here: “Initially, people preferred to carry on about the German monarchy and its haze of Kyffhäuser romanticism.”]

1i [DE omits “serious.”]

1j [DE omits “political.”]

1k [DE omits “to the best of our ability.”]

2 the French national hymn. [The Marseillaise was composed at Strassburg by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle (1760-1836), a captain in the army. He wrote both words and music in a fit of patriotic excitement after a public dinner. The piece was at first called Chant de guerre de l'armée du Rhin, and only received its name of Marseillaise from its adoption by the Provençal volunteers whom Barbaroux introduced into Paris, and who were prominent in the storming of the Tuileries. The author was a moderate republican, and was cashiered and thrown into prison; but the counter-revolution set him at liberty. In 1825, he published Chants français, in which he set to music fifty songs by various authors. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

2a [DE says “cathedral courtyard and old market place” rather than “public places.”]

2a [August Willich (1810-1878) was of a Prussian family, born in the province of Posen, Prussia, in 1810. His father was a captain of hussars, and the son, though he departed from the traditions of the family in politics, did not in the choice of his profession. He joined the revolutionists in Baden in 1848, and was there with Hecker and Sigel. During the Civil War he first joined a German regiment in Cincinnati, later was made captain of the Thirty-second Indiana Regiment (also called the First German). He distinguished himself under General Buell in Kentucky; also in the battle of Shiloh, where he was instrumental in the rescue of Grant's army. For his decisive bayonet attack he was made a brigadier-general. He served under Rosecrans, and in one of the aggressive movements was taken prisoner, but was exchanged after four months. He took prominent part in the battles of Liberty Gap and Chickamauga, and after the taking of Missionary Ridge was sent to Texas. It is interesting to know that Willich in 1870 offered his services to the King of Prussia, though he was once a “forty-eighter.” His offer was appreciated, but declined with thanks. When sixty years of age he matriculated as a student of philosophy in the University of Berlin. — Albert Bernhardt Faust, The German Element in the United States, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1909, v. 1, pp. 555-556, note 1. Date of death from]

2c [Fritz Anneke (1818-1872).]

3 Oberpräsident: in Prussia the highest official of each of the provincial governments. The English call him Lord-Lieutenant. [DE omits “prorogued.”]

3a [DE says “already in the beginning of March” rather than “almost at once” and “all that” rather than “what.”]

4 see note 1.

5 [Daughter of a British army officer, she was born in Ireland in 1818, and named Marie Dolores Eliza Rosanna Gilbert. Her father died in India when she was seven. Her mother remarried and Gilbert was sent to Europe to be educated and then joined her mother in Bath. In 1837, she married a British officer in the India service and accompanied him there. She returned to England in 1842, and her husband divorced her. She studied dance, and in 1843 had an unsuccessful début in London as "Lola Montez, Spanish dancer." After subsequent successes in Germany, Poland and Russia, she came to Munich in 1846. There she acquired absolute sway over Ludwig I, King of Bavaria. The Revolution of 1848 overthrew his government and made it necessary for her to flee. In 1851, she appeared in theaters in New York. She then left for Australia, but returned to America in 1857 to act, and lecture on gallantry. After devoting some time to visiting outcast women in New York City, she died there in 1861. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

5a [Ludwig I (1786-1868), king of Bavaria, opposed absolutism and took great interest in the work of organizing the Bavarian constitution in 1818. He succeeded to the crown in 1825. Bavaria's power of self-defence especially was weakened by his economies and by his lack of interest in the military aspect of things. A patron of the arts, mainly interested in sculpture, he visited Italy and also encouraged excavation and collection of art in Greece. With the revolution of 1830, he began to be drawn into the current of reaction and allowed the reactionary system of surveillance of the German Confederation to be introduced into Bavaria. He aided the liberation of Greece from Turkish rule with money and diplomacy, and his son Otto became king of Greece in 1832. Especially after 1837, when Karl Abel became head of the ministry, the strict Catholic party influenced affairs more and more decisively in Bavaria. However, in 1846, this was countered by the liberal and anti-Jesuit influence of Ludwig's new mistress, Lola Montez, and the king dismissed Abel in favor of the more liberal Zu Rhein. Opposition of the people, especially students, and the revolutionary movement of 1848 forced him to banish Montez. That year he also abdicated in favor of his son Maximilian, henceforth devoting himself to art patronage. The role which the Bavarian capital now plays as the leading art centre of Germany would have been an impossibility without Ludwig's splendid munificence. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

6 (1807-1848), agitator and author. [He was born in Cologne, the son of a failed theologian who made a poor living as a cooper. He was ten years old before he could go to school. He failed as a goldsmith's apprentice, but completed an apprenticeship as a gardener. After his journeyman's time, he returned to Cologne to work in a lamp factory. His employer put him to work at the counter since he was good at calculations. In 1829, he followed his employer to Berlin where he also continued his education. His work was interrupted by obligatory military service, and on his release, his poor circumstances obliged him to return to Cologne where he worked serving in a theater. By this time, he had published some writing, mostly poems. When the theater closed in the summer, he worked for a sheriff as a scribe.

The political upheavals of 1830 attracted his interest, and ideals of freedom found their way into his poetry. He followed the theater troupe to Leipzig where in 1840 he had worked his way up to being a cashier in the city theater. He published plays and novels, and began speaking in public on behalf of liberal ideas. He was a very compelling speaker. His initial attempt at a newsletter was suppressed by the censor, but another one continued for four years with occasional lapses due to the censor. He became a German Catholic when Ronge came to Leipzig, and wrote on that movement's behalf. In 1844, he gave up his theater job to found a book store. In 1845, when the presence of John of Saxony stirred the masses and the military fired on them, Blum calmed them and urged conformity to the law. This resulted in his being elected a representative in Leipzig's government.

He embraced the upheavals of 1848.] He was vice-president of the preliminary Parliament at Frankfurt [which he dominated with his energy, imposing figure and pithy speechs. As a member of the succeeding parliament and leader of the left, he worked to contain the most radical elements. Blum's trustworthiness was questioned when the extreme leftist Ruge claimed Blum had moved toward his side.] He went to Vienna to help the revolutionists, and was commander of a select company. He was arrested and shot for having led an expedition against the Imperial armies. [His execution aroused much indignation, and 40,000 thalers were raised to care for the family he left behind.

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 2, pp. 739-741.]

[DE omits “quickly.”]

7 Clemens, Prince of Metternich-Winneburg (1773-1859), Austrian statesman. From 1801-1809 he was the Austrian ambassador at several courts. From 1809-1848 he held various ministerial and cabinet positions in the Austrian government, and was the moving spirit in Austria's home and foreign policy. He aimed constantly to advance his country without regard for other nations. As mentioned in the text, he was driven from power in 1848. He fled to England, but returned two years later, and spent the rest of his life in retirement in Vienna.

[DE omits “in the streets.”]

8 different from Frankfurt am Main, from which it was colonized.

8a [Perhaps the last phrase could be better translated as “and witnessed decisive events.”]

8b [DE says “and collecting numerous signatures on them to send to Berlin” rather than “to circulate them for signature and to send them to Berlin.”]

8c [DE says “plenty of students and a large number of craftsmen and other workers” rather than “a great number of students and people of all grades.”]

8d [DE omits “which so long had been prohibited as the revolutionary flag.”]

8e [DE adds here: “This report was later confirmed insofar as the struggle in Berlin had actually taken place, but oddly the report had reached us before the struggle in Berlin had begun.”]

8f [DE adds here: “It was felt that a struggle between the people and troops had to bring major consequences.”]

8g [DE inserts here “full” and omits “awful.”]

9 [DE adds the qualification: “, Unter den Zelten,” ...] a part of the Tiergarten on the banks of the Spree. Parties, social gatherings, and picnics were held here. Naturally agitators could find audiences here without difficulty. [DE says “liberal-leaning” rather than “political” and “fiery” rather than “popular.”

9a [DE omits the previous sentence and “14th of March,” and says “the petitioners” rather than “public opinion.”]

9b [DE appends here “... and many people, among them several women, were wounded.”]

9c [DE appends here “... and further liberal reforms.”]

9d [DE says “happy” rather than “authoritative” and omits “that the popular demands had been granted.”]

9e [DE says “lines” rather than “heavy bodies.”]

9f [DE inserts here “... from all walks of life ...” and says “doctors, lawyers” rather than “professional men” and “whatever was at hand” rather than “all sorts of weapons” and adds pistols and sabers to the explicit list of weapons.]

9g [DE omits “at short distances.”]

9h [DE appends here “... while young boys were close by zealously casting bullets and loading firearms.”]

9i [DE says “significance” rather than “character.”]

9j [DE gives this sentence as “With every incoming report his agonized agitation rose.”]

9k [DE begins this sentence with “Finally, ...”]

9m [DE says “He said” rather than “He began by saying”]

9n [DE says “he closed with the lines” rather than “he implored them” and DE follows up with a more extended quotation from the King's message: “Listen to the fatherly voice of your king, residents of my faithful and beautiful Berlin, and forget what has happened, as I will forget it, and will forget it in my heart, for the sake of the great future which, under the blessing of God's peace, will dawn for Prussia and, through Prussia, for Germany. Your loving queen, and truly faithful mother and friend, who lies prostrate in grievous suffering, joins her heartfelt tearful supplications with mine. Frederick William.”]

9o [DE misquotes the king's speech here by appending to the correct quotation which appears here (requoted from the excerpt above) the words “or the gullible victims of such.” But certainly this implication could easily be extracted from the speech. There must be a misprint and this phrase should have appeared outside of the quotes in DE, and AE would benefit by having this phrase appended here as well, outside the quotes.]

9oa [Johann Karl Wolf Dietrich von Möllendorf (1791-1860), Prussian infantry general, spent most of his military career in the Guard corps. In the War of Liberation, he distinguished himself in the taking of Paris in 1814. In 1848, he commanded a brigade in Berlin which was assigned to the protection of the King's castle. During the hostilities on March 18, he captured the portion of the city lying between there and the Alexanderplatz in a bloody fight. When a truce was declared on March 19, and he was on his way to the Alexander barracks to make it known, he was treacherously siezed and made a prisoner by a rabble, but soon regained his freedom through the intervention of some honest people. Later his brigade was sent to Schleswig-Holstein. He retired in 1857. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 22, pp. 119-120.]

9p [DE omits “by the citizens.”]

9q [DE inserts here “... of men, women and children.”]

9r [DE omits this phrase.”]

9s [DE inserts here “... fighter-citizens ...,” notes the men did the carrying and says “their distorted features and gaping wounds uncovered, but wreathed with laurel branches and immortelles” rather than “their gaping wounds uncovered, their heads wreathed with laurel branches and immortelles.”]

9t [DE omits “pallid” and inserts here “... with ripped clothes and ...”]

9u [DE says the call was muffled rather than loud.]

9v [DE says “upper” rather than “open.”]

9w [DE does not specify who made the cry.]

10 first line of a hymn by Paul Gerhardt (1607-1676). He was a clergyman who is best known as a writer of hymns. In his time there was a bitter disagreement between Lutherans and an element called the Reformierten. Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm proposed a union of the two, and Gerhardt opposed it. An edict of 1664 prohibited aspersions and charges of heresy between the adherents of these different theological opinions. Gerhardt refused to obey, and was removed from his position in the Nikolaikirche in Berlin.

Next to Luther he is Germany's most famous sacred poet. Though inferior to the Reformer in the force and ruggedness of his verse, he is his superior in polish and in the expression of the deeper spiritual emotions. A number of his hymns enjoy a greater popularity than the one mentioned in the text.

10a [DE inserts here “slowly” and says “corpse bearers and their escort” rather than “procession.”]

10b [DE omits “nor ‘Down with Royalty!’”]

10c [DE adds here: “The cannons had hardly ceased their roar when shops opened up for business again.” Also, the last sentence of the next paragraph of AE doesn't appear in the DE at that point and most likely is an alternative translation of this added sentence moved to the end of the next paragraph.]

11 (1797-1888), brother of Friedrich Wilhelm IV. and second son of Friedrich Wilhelm III. and his queen, Louise. He was Regent, 1858-1861, King of Prussia, 1861-1888, and the first emperor of United Germany, 1871-1888, as Wilhelm I., called der Große. The people now speak of him as der alte Kaiser.

11a [DE adds here “had to flee the wrath of the people right after the Berlin street fight. Rightly or wrongly he ...” and omits “and the popular wrath turned upon him.”]

11b [DE omits “By order of the king.”]

11c [DE omits “on the street.”]

11d [DE omits “military” and inserts here “... whatsoever ...”]

11e [DE begins this sentence with “It is said ...,” says “painted” rather than “put” and inserts here “no further precaution was necessary — ...” DE omits the next sentence.]

11f [DE says “armory” rather than “government armories.”]

11g [Not phrased as a quote in DE. The next quote in AE is phrased as a quote in DE but using the third person inside the quote.]

11h [DE inserts here “... following ...” which seems contradictory and a mistake? DE states the flag was raised “on top of the dome of the royal palace.”]

11i [DE inserts here “... declared he ...”]

11ia [DE says “would be” rather than “had been.”]

11j [DE adds: “Only one lone mistrustful voice rose up from an unknown man in the crowd and shouted out, 'Don't believe him brothers! He lies! He has always lied!' Some members of the citizens militia protected the unfortunate from the anger of those surrounding him and took him quickly to the nearest guard house where, regarded as a lunatic, he was soon released.” This selection is explicitly excluded in AT. Since the last assembly referenced was a school gathering, and he does not seem to be a student, certainly more context should be given with this incident if it is to be included, for example where and when it occurred.]

12 now the park-like grounds to the City Hospital in Berlin.

12a [DE says “20 000” rather than “two hundred thousand,” as does There is nothing about the lone dissenter in this latter source, and it says only one voice shouted for the king to take of his hat.]

12b [DE omits “political.”]

12c [DE omits “reasonable” and inserts here “in looking back.”]

12d [DE omits this sentence.]

12e [DE says “working” rather than “theory” and omits “current.”]

12f [DE says “all” rather than “practical.”]

12g [DE inserts here “... real ...”]

12h [DE omits “or known.”]

12i [DE omits “in strength.”]

12j [DE omits “now.”]

12k [DE expresses this sentence as “Would it not have been more astounding if the people had been indeed conscious of specific attainable goals and found with assured vision the right means to fulfill them and had the judgment to value what was worth keeping in the current system?” In AT, Schurz explicitly substitutes the given sentence for DE's version.]

12m [DE omits “popular” and says “diverted” rather than “seduced” and “frightened.”]

12n [DE omits “overlooking the tergiversations of the princes.”]

12o [AT gives this sentence as “In my circle, I knew many young men who were without fortune, depending upon their studies to secure for themselves and their families a decent living, devoted to their scientific callings not only from self-interest but also from inclination, but who at that time at any moment were ready to abandon and risk all for the liberty of the people and the greatness of the fatherland. I knew burghers and peasants in plenty of whom the same could be said.” DE gives this sentence as “In my circle I knew many upright men — learned men, students, townspeople, farmers, workers — with or without fortune — some less dependent on their daily work to secure for themselves and their families a decent living, some more — devoted to their work not only out of self-interest, but out of inclination — but who at that time at any moment were ready to risk all — position, possessions, prospects, life — for the liberty of the people and the greatness of the fatherland.”]

12p [DE omits “all, even.”]

13 the usual name for the great assembly hall of a university or school.

13a [DE appends here, “... and that because of the first speech I ever made in my life.”]

14 Ritschl, Friedrich Wilhelm (1806-1876), was called to the University of Bonn in 1839 as professor of classical (Greek and Latin) literature and eloquence. He was remarkable for his organizing ability and for his seminars. In 1865 he was called to the University of Leipzig, where the same brilliant successes attended his work. He published voluminous investigations on the comedies of Plautus.

15 the four faculties of a German university are law, medicine, theology, and philosophy. In this latter belong the subjects which Americans associate with a college course philosophy, languages, mathematics, science, etc. One who has complied with the requirements of the Philosophical Faculty may receive the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Ph.D.

15a [DE gives this sentence as “I heard a speaker say something very repugnant to my point of view, and, following a sudden impulse, I requested the floor and the next moment found myself speaking to the assembly.”]

15b [DE adds here, “that my whole body trembled;”]

15c [DE omits “principal.”]

15d [DE inserts here “... very ...” and omits “with liberal-minded men.”]

15e [Moritz August von Bethmann-Hollweg (1795-1877) jurist and Prussian statesman. In his youth, he was tutored by Karl Ritter, a founder of the science of geography, and by Grotefend, who decyphered the Persian cuneiform. He studied the science of law at Göttingen and with Savigny at Berlin. He graduated from Göttingen in 1819. In 1820, he became a professor at Berlin. He specialized in the history of civil legal procedure and made many pioneering contributions demonstrating a deep grasp of his subject and an independence from received doctrine, and showing the value of the historical viewpoint. He stayed away from politics and was repelled by the proceedings of the “persecution of the demagogues.” He did interest himself in religion, and had an ongoing concern to reconcile his religious convictions with the rest of his life.

In 1829, he became a professor at Bonn, and the beneficial influences of this small community permitted him to make this reconciliation and understand the moral foundations of the law. Savigny noted his worked showed an independent and uninhibited political outlook, an example of freedom and belonging to onesself as opposed to just mouthing party slogans.

The death in 1840 of Frederick William III, who had much appreciated his work, brought great changes to his life. Bethmann-Hollweg was raised to the nobility, and in 1842 was appointed the government authority at Bonn and as university trustee. Now his primary concern became the welfare of the university. This represented a departure from his life of academic research, and gave him more access to the government in Berlin, and he turned his attention more to religious and political developments. In 1846, he led a church conference, and participated in further conferences which struggled over liturgical and constitutional issues. In 1848, as a result of the dissolution of the ministry, he gave up his university offices.

The frightfulness of the 1848 revolution, and the moral damage it revealed in many areas, decided Bethmann-Hollweg for devoting himself to the moral and political well-being of the country. He took leadership roles in his church, and entered the upper house of the newly-formed Prussian legislature, taking a seat on the far right. He was much opposed to the democratizing tendencies of the time, though still repelled by the reactionary elements. In 1853, he entered the lower house. Notwithstanding its small size, his faction was significant through its political integrity and intellectual prominence, but in a new election in 1855 Bethmann-Hollweg lost his seat, and he took his leave from political life for a time.

With the advent of the regency in 1858, he became the minister of religion in the new administration. Opposition from the right and left prevented him from accomplishing much. He stayed in the office until the advent of Bismarck in 1862, and then departed for private life. He took up his studies again with undiminished vigor, though on new foundations, and published much worthwhile work in the years that remained to him.

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 12, pp. 762-773.

DE omits “at that time.”]

15f [DE inserts here “... servileness and ...”]

15g [DE omits “therefore” and “prudently.”]

15h [DE omits “was couched in very peremptory language and.”]

15i [DE inserts here “... without delay ...”]

15j [DE inserts here “... strong ...”]

15k [DE inserts here “... on the Koblenzer Straße ...”]

15ka [Friedrich Calker (1790-1870), German philosopher, was educated in Jena. For a short time, he was a lecturer in Berlin. In 1818, he was called to a extraordinary professorship in the newly founded University of Bonn, becoming an ordinary professor in 1826. He substantially echoed the ideas of his teacher Fries. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 3, pp. 706-707.]

15m [DE adds here, “... who pressed in around his door and unfortunately trampled his small Dutch flower garden ...”]

15n [DE adds here, “... fresh ...”]

15o [DE gives this sentence as “It was easy to see on the face of the brave man, to whom no one wished harm, that he found the soaring spirit of German youth rather spooky. We thanked him for obliging us, took our leave politely and marched back to the market-square.”]

15p [DE omits “whether truly or not” and “unpopular.”]

15pa [Since in the next chapter Märzerrungenschaften is translated as “March concessions”, here it would seem more consistent to say “concessions resulting from” rather than “results of.”]

15q [DE characterizes the democrats as “those who aimed at securing the fruits of the revolution only in the construction of new conditions ‘on the broadest democratic basis.’”]

16 [DE adds the phrase “and the formal ,Sie’ was supplanted by the intimate ,Du’.”]

16a [DE inserts here “... who possessed an extraordinary capacity for work and was very industrious, ...”]

16aa [Johann Wilhelm Löbell (1786-1863), German historian, was born in Berlin. After his studies — he entered the scholarly life against the wishes of his mother who wanted him to go into business —, and the war for independence — he was not on the frontlines but worked in an office supporting the militia —, he moved to Breslau where he soon found work as a teacher of history in a war college. There he published a historical paper and one on building connections between the sciences and humanities in gymnasium studies. In 1823, he went to work in Berlin at a military academy as a history teacher. There he also became involved with the issuance of new editions of Becker's World History. His tasteful presentation and intelligent discrimination enabled him to successfully negotiate the dangerous waters — destined to swallow so many later editors — between a half popular and half scholarly treatment. He oversaw the issuance of three new editions. Then he was called to a professorship at Bonn in 1829 where he spent the rest of his life. He was a gifted teacher and knew how to spot young talent and fortify its foundations. He also took an interest in literary history, writing a well-received paper on Gregor of Tours and studies of the development of German poetry. He tried writing a world history but lost interest. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 19, pp. 35-38. ]

16b [Before this sentence, DE adds “Indeed, my work as an agitator was not inconsiderable.”]

16c [DE omits “however.”]

16d [DE says “appeals found immediate favor” rather than “efforts struck a responsive chord.”]

16e [DE says “took up their studies again” rather than “returned to the universities” and “further convinced me of this” rather than “consoled me for the restraint I had put upon my warlike ardor.”]

16f [DE omits “Schleswig-Holstein volunteers.”]

16g [DE omits “and will appear ... occasions.”]

16h [DE says “completed his studies at” rather than “left.”]

16i [DE says “In the encounter at Bau” rather than “One morning.”]

16j [DE inserts here “... remarkably ...”]

16k [DE appends here “... heartily.”]

16m [DE inserts here “... — I believe it was the left one — ...”]

16n [DE inserts here “... and his sight was so poor ...”]

16o [DE inserts here “... fresh ...”]

16p [DE says “life” rather than “men, things, and events.”]

16q [DE says “views at that time” rather than “instincts.”]

Notes to Chapter VI

0 [DE says “celebratory mood” rather than “horizon,” inserts here “... immediately ...” and says “made everything appear in such a rosy light” rather than “looked so glorious.”]

0a [DE says “took root” rather than “had gained ground.”]

0aa [DE omits “gradually” and says “won strength” rather than “was intensified.”]

0aaa [The national parliament at Frankfort began with an informal meeting in March 1848 of 51 men at Heidelburg where several hundred delegates were nominated for a preliminary parliament which should see to the calling of a really national assembly. The preliminary parliament convened in Frankfort toward the end of March, after the upheavals in Berlin. This body was not representative of all Germany: Austria furnished but two members, tiny Baden 72, and Hesse-Darmstadt 84. But more serious than this was the sharp antagonism that developed between the monarchical and the republican parties. The preliminary parliament kept to its programme, declared for a national assembly to be formed by direct popular election, and appointed a committee to take the matter in hand. It made the important pronouncement that the decision regarding a constitution for Germany was to be the affair simply and solely of this national assembly.

This assembly, the Frankfort parliament, convened on May 18. The members this time had been chosen from all Germany, theoretically one from every 55,000 of the population. They considered themselves empowered to make great and permanent changes. Unfortunately, no draft of a constitution had been prepared, and the assembly lost five valuable weeks before it could take the matter in hand at all. But the greatest error of the Frankfort assembly was to begin its debates on the constitution with a discussion of the fundamental rights of the German man, a list of which had been drawn up in a hundred paragraphs. Days passed into weeks and weeks into months, while the parliament was still busy with underlying principles, and with disputed points of political economy; and while enemies within and without were rising against it. By March 1849, it had drafted a constitution and sent a delegation to Berlin to offer the imperial crown to Frederick William IV. They were treated rudely, and Frederick William refused the offer.

In May 1849, 65 members resigned — including most of the illustrious members — declaring their unwillingness to foster civil war. Bereft of its sanest members, the parliament ran riot with its revolutionary ideas. The place of meeting was moved from Frankfort to Stuttgart. It came to be called the rump parliament. It now elected a “regency for the empire”; and this “regency” proclaimed to the German people that, in the struggle against absolutism, they were to accept no commands save from itself and its plenipotentiaries. It called for a general arming, and for a credit of five million thalers. But the “rump” had overestimated its strength. The Würtemberg government first ordered it to vacate the assembly hall of the estates, then to hold the sessions of the “regency” beyond the state boundaries; and, finally, to move away altogether under pain of “suitable measures.” It was given its quietus by being forced to disperse by soldiers with drawn swords.

— Ernest T. Henderson, A Short History of Germany, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1902, Volume II, Chapter VIII.]

0ab [DE omits “represented the sovereignty of the German people in the large sense” and explicitly includes politics as well as the fields of law and philosophy as sources for illustrious men in the new parliament.]

0ac [DE says “concessions exacted by” rather than “legitimate results of.”]

0ad [DE begins this sentence with “In contrast, ...”]

0ae [DE inserts here “... especially ...”]

0af [DE says “inclination to progress” rather than “general education.” “Progress” here probably refers to new technologies in industry.]

0ag [DE says “he had assumed during the storm and stress of the days in March” rather than “the revolution had made him assume.”]

0ah [DE says “as the people of no other city of the world would have” rather than “in the hours of stress.”]

0ai [DE omits “perfectly.”]

0aj [DE omits the characterization of Potsdam.]

0ak [DE says “flatter the royal person and to increase its own importance through his exaltation” rather than “exalt and flatter the royal person.”]

0am [DE says “now made it their business to goad the king's pride” rather than “artfully goaded the king's pride.”]

0an [DE says “prestige” rather than “self-appreciation” and inserts here “... not inconsiderable ...”]

0ao [DE says “influences” rather than “forces” and “completest” rather than “largest.”]

0aoa [Apparently these were excesses connected with the meetings of the Prussian constituent assembly in Berlin. Henderson (A Short History of Germany, Vol. II, Chapter VIII) reports that “Members who voted contrary to the radical element were repeatedly ill-treated by the mob that surrounded the place of meeting. Once the crowd penetrated into the hall of meeting itself; once they stormed the arsenal and carried off the more valuable guns.” Encyclopædia Britannica (11th edition, “Germany: History”) mentions “violence of politicians out of doors.”]

0ap [DE inserts here “... or America ...,” omits “of repression” and says “any reasonable person” rather than “anybody.”]

0aq [DE inserts here “... assiduously ...,” omits “with considerable effect” and says “absolutely” rather than “after all.”]

0ar [DE inserts here “... effect of the ...” and says “the reaction” rather than “these developments.”]

0b [DE discusses the men belonging to the democratic club in more detail: “Among the townspeople in the club, a merchant by the name of Anselm Unger was especially prominent. He was a man of adequate, though not extraordinary, ability, and of good character and some wealth. There was also a bartender by the name of Friedrich Kamm who had earlier been a brush maker, also a man of unblemished reputation, but who, at least according to the way he talked, belonged to that class of grim revolutionaries as were found among the terrorists in the French revolution who had insatiable bloodlust and were not satisfied 'until the last aristocrat was strangled with the intestines of the last priest', etc. Among the students, the most zealous were Strodtmann, who I have already mentioned, a medical student named Ludwig Meyer, brave and enthusiastic, and a Westphalian by the name of Brüning, who was a gifted speaker, but who disappeared from our ranks after a few months.”]

0ba [DE omits “soon.”]

0bb [DE inserts here “... and social ...”]

0bc [DE inserts here “the necessary” rather than “unflinching.”]

0bd [DE says “terrorism” rather than “excesses” and omits “during the Reign of Terror.”]

0be [DE inserts here “... we thought we could follow and which ...”]

0bf [DE inserts here “... ‘Citizen Unger,’ ‘Citizen Kamm,’ ‘Citizen Schurz’ ...”]

0bg [DE inserts here “... with warmth and ...” and says “and” rather than “because.”]

0bh [DE says “assigned” rather than “invited.”]

0bi [Heinrich Karl Marx (1818-1883) German socialist, studied law and then history and philosophy at Bonn and Berlin, and took a Ph.D. in 1841. In Berlin, he was closely associated with the young Hegelians. His radical ideas made a university career out of the question, and he went to work on a radical newspaper, but it was suppressed by the censors in 1843. In this year, he also married Jenny von Westphalen.

He traveled to Paris to further study socialism. There he was closely associated with Arnold Ruge. In contrast to most of the socialists of the day, Marx laid stress upon the political struggle as the lever of social emancipation. In Paris, Marx met Friedrich Engels (1820-1895). Engels, the son of a wealthy cotton-spinner, had also frequented the society of the Hegelians when he was in Berlin to do his military service. In 1842, he had gone to England, his father's firm having a factory near Manchester, and had gotten to know the Owenite and Chartist movements, as well as German communists. Now, in 1844, on a short stay in Paris, he visited Marx, and the two found themselves in perfect agreement. From that visit dates the close friendship and uninterrupted collaboration which lasted during their lives, so that even some of Marx's subsequent works, which he published under his own name, are more or less also the work of Engels.

At the request of the Prussian government, France ushered Marx and his friends out of the country, and he and Engels and others went to Brussels where they came into still closer contact with the socialist working-class movement. At the end of 1847, they wrote their famous pamphlet, Manifest der Kommunisten. Scarcely was the manifesto printed when, in February 1848, revolution broke out in France. After a short stay in France, Marx and Engels went to Cologne. When in November 1848 the king of Prussia dissolved the National Assembly, Marx and his friends advocated the non-payment of taxes and the organization of armed resistance. Then the state of siege was declared in Cologne, the paper he had founded, Neue rheinische Zeitung, was suspended, and Marx was put on trial for high treason. He was unanimously acquitted by a middle-class jury, but in May 1849 he was expelled from Prussian territory. He went to Paris, but was soon given the option of either leaving France or settling at a small provincial place. He preferred the former, and went to England. He settled in London, and remained there for the rest of his life. He lived at this time in great financial straits, occupied a few small rooms in Dean Street, Soho, and all his children then born died very young. At length he was invited to write letters for the New York Tribune for a guinea apiece. In 1867, he published the first volume of his critique of political economy, Das Kapital.

In 1864, the International Working Men's Association had been founded in London, and Marx was in fact, though not in name, the head of its general council. The first years went smoothly enough. Marx was then at his best. He displayed political sagacity and toleration. He was more a teacher than an agitator, and his expositions of such subjects as education, trade unions, the working day, and coöperation were highly instructive. He did not hurry on extreme resolutions, but put his proposals in such a form that they could be adopted by even the more backward sections, and yet contained no concessions to reactionary tendencies. But this condition of things was not permitted to go on. The anarchist agitation of Bakunin, the Franco-German War, and the Paris Commune created a state of things before which the International succumbed. In 1872, the general council was removed from London to New York. But this was only a makeshift, and in 1876 the rest of the old International was formally dissolved at a conference held in Philadelphia.

The dissolution of the International gave Marx an opportunity of returning to his scientific work. He did not, however, succeed in publishing further volumes of Das Kapital. Repeated illness interrupted his researches, and in 1883 he passed quietly away.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

0bj [DE says “was” rather than “could not have been much more than” (Marx was born on May 5, 1818), “and” rather than “but” and “a” rather than “the advanced.”]

0bk [DE says “powerfully built” rather than “somewhat.”]

0bm [DE inserts here “... in his field ...”]

0bn [DE says “intolerably arrogant” rather than “intolerable.”]

0bo [DE inserts here “... essentially ...” and says “a somewhat respectful” rather than “even a condescending.”]

0bp [DE inserts here “..., I might characterize it as a tone which spit, ...”]

0c [DE adds here: “... and carries on his reasoning from that ground. The man who starts from the philosophy 'Whoever does not think as I do is an ass or a cad, or both' will find it hard to gain adherents.” Schurz explicitly deletes this last sentence in AT. The last phrase of the sentence before looks like it inadvertently was deleted with it. In the sentence before, DE says “experience” rather than “lesson.”]

0ca [DE omits “for which I had to write articles.”]

0cb [DE adds two more troubling items here: “my own feeling of powerlessness and how I as a subservient member could avert the threatening trouble with something effective.” Schurz excludes these explicitly in AT.]

0cc [DE says “to prepare the people by prudent and energetic action for” rather than “for the people to be prepared for prudent and energetic action in.”]

0d [DE adds here: “Also, we sometimes deliberately combined convivial gatherings with political demonstrations. So there were sufficient patriotic gatherings at the Kneipe, and sometimes also torchlight excursions to the Kessenich Gorge, an especially favored destination in Bonn, where, sitting around campfires, we amused ourselves until dawn with patriotic songs, speeches and other expressions of youthful enthusiasm.”]

0da [DE inserts here “... this sort in ...” and omits “chosen.”]

0e [DE says “parental” rather than “paternal” and “a day by foot or a few hours by steamer” rather than “a few hours.”]

0ea [DE gives the last two sentences as “For the first time on that bright September morning I had the full enjoyment of a trip up the Rhine for the entire stretch from Bonn to Mainz, and I made an effort to drive away the disquieting thoughts which were stirred up by confused rumors of turmoil and a street-battle in Frankfurt.”]

0eb [DE inserts here “... that evening ...”]

0ec [DE says “how back in the spring of 1848” rather than “that.”]

0f [DE adds here: “... and occupied Jutland.”]

0fa [DE omits “painful” and inserts here “... to the world ...” and says “known in the history of that time as the infamous” rather than “the so-called.”]

0g [Although it is somewhat hard to discern here, DE makes it clear that the fifth member was to be appointed jointly by Denmark and Prussia.]

0ga [DE says “eleven” rather than “ten” and “now” rather than “apparently.”]

0gb [DE inserts here “... very ...” and gives the name of the meadow as “the Pfingstweide.”]

0gba [Hans Adolf Erdmann von Auerswald (1792-1848) was born in East Prussia where the family possessed the estates of Plauth and Tromnau. He entered the army in 1813 and by 1848 had become a major general. Three precincts had elected him to the Frankfurt parliament where he joined the conservatives, but he did not participate in the party leadership or the debates. On September 17, 1848, a gathering on the Pfingstweide in Frankfurt led by Zitz had, on account of the parliament's decision regarding the truce of Malmö, declared the members thereof traitors to the fatherland, freedom and honor. The result was the uprising on the next day where a mob went looking for Reichsminister Hekscher and Prince Felix Lichnowsky, if such a thing as a plan can be attributed to a drunken, agitated mob. Auerswald had ridden out with Lichnowsky, and by the Friedberger Gate, the mob discovered them. They tried to flee. At the Bethmann villa, Auerswald was mortally felled by a pistol shot. Lichnowsky was beaten up and died the next day. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 1, pp. 650-651. Franz Zitz will appear again later in Schurz's narrative.]

0gbb [Felix Lichnowsky (1814-1848) was a son of the historian Eduard Lichnowsky who had written a history of the Habsburg family. He entered the Prussian army in 1834, but left it in 1838 to enter the service of the Spanish pretender Don Carlos, where he received the rank of brigadier general. He fought a duel with the Spanish General Montenegro and was severely wounded, but recovered. In 1847, he was elected by Ratibor to Prussia's United Diet, and was elected to the national parliament in 1848 where he took his seat on the right. Here he put to use his substantial oratorical skills, though frequently using them to dazzle rather than enlighten, and his demeaning characterizations of the left earned him a poor reputation in those quarters. When the uprising broke out on September 18 in consequence of the parliament's decision regarding the truce of Malmö (in the debate for which Lichnowsky had spoken in very conciliatory terms), disdaining all warnings, he rode out with General von Auerswald to meet the troops arriving from Württemberg. A mob recognized them on the Bornheimer Highway and gave chase to the defenseless men. They fled, but accidentally went down a dead-end path at the end of which they dismounted and hid in a gardener's hut. The mob found them in the hut, shot von Auerswald to death and, like a band of cannibals, beat up Lichnowsky who died the next day in Baron Bethmann's villa. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 18, pp. 533-534.]

0gbc [The hotel name means “at the sign of the swan.”]

0gc [DE inserts here “... yet ...”]

0gd [DE inserts here “... back then ...” and says “played out so sadly” rather than “was already foretold.”]

0ge [DE omits “there sat” and inserts here “... more or less ...”]

0gf [DE inserts here “... increasingly ...” and omits “thus.”]

0gg [Joseph Maria von Radowitz (1797-1853), Prussian general and statesman. In the Frankfort parliament he was leader of the extreme Right; and after its break-up he was zealous in promoting the Unionist policy of Prussia, which he defended both in the Prussian diet and in the Erfurt parliament. He was practically responsible for the foreign policy of Prussia from May 1848 onwards, and in September 1850 he was appointed minister of foreign affairs. He resigned, however, in November, owing to the king's refusal to settle the difficulties with Austria by an appeal to arms. In August 1852 he was appointed director of military education; but the rest of his life was devoted mainly to literary pursuits. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

0gh [Heinrich Wilhelm August, Freiherr von Gagern (1790-1880), German statesman. When the German national parliament met in May 1848, he was elected its first president. His influence was at first paramount, both with the Unionist party and with the more moderate elements of the Left, and it was he who was mainly instrumental in imposing the principle of a united empire with a common parliament, and in carrying the election of the Archduke Johann as regent. With the growing split between the Great Germans (Großdeutschen) , who wished the new empire to include the Austrian provinces, and the Little Germans (Kleindeutschen) , who realized that German unity could only be attained by excluding them, his position was shaken. In December, when the Austrian members had left the cabinet, Gagern became head of the imperial ministry, and he introduced a programme (known as the Gagnersche Programm) according to which Austria was to be excluded from the new federal state, but bound to it by a treaty of union. After a severe struggle, this proposal was accepted; but the academic discussion on the constitution continued for weary months. In May 1849, realizing the hopelessness of coming to terms with the ultra-democrats, Gagern and his friends resigned. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.

DE says “storm-laden” rather than “heavy.”]

0gi [Silenus was a primitive Phrygian deity of woods and springs. As the reputed inventor of music he was confounded with Marsyas. He also possessed the gift of prophecy, but, like Proteus, would only impart information on compulsion. In Greek mythology he is the constant companion of Dionysus, whom he was said to have instructed in the cultivation of the vine and the keeping of bees. He fought by his side in the war against the giants and was his companion in his travels and adventures. In art he generally appears as a little pot-bellied old man, with a snub nose and a bald head, riding on an ass and supported by satyrs; or he is depicted lying asleep on his wine-skin, which he sometimes bestrides. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

0gj [Johann Ludwig Uhland (1787-1862), German poet and politician. Uhland wrote manly poems in defense of freedom, and in the states assembly of Württemberg he played a distinguished part as one of the most vigorous and consistent of the liberal members. In 1829 he was made extraordinary professor of German literature at the university of Tübingen, but he resigned this appointment in 1833, when it was found to be incompatible with his political views. In 1848 he became a member of the Frankfort parliament. He was also an ardent student of the history of literature. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

0gk [DE ends this sentence with a period rather than an exclamation point.]

0gm [Martin Luther (1483-1546), German religious reformer, was the son of peasants and grew up among them. His father worked in the mines and leased several smelters. After attending schools without fees due to his family's impoverished circumstances, Luther entered the university at Erfurt, the most famous in Germany at that time. By this time his family had become more prosperous. Luther devoted himself to the study of scholastic theology as preparation for studies in law. He was said to be a skilled lute player and debater. By 1505, he was ready for law studies, and may have begun them; but suddenly, apparently consulting no one, he entered the Erfurt convent of the Augustinian Eremites and became a monk.

In 1508 he went to Wittenburg to assist a small university recently opened there. He began to preach there. He went back to Erfurt to complete his theological studies and became a professor of theology in Wittenburg. He found his calling in lecturing on scripture, but found his teachings diverged from the Erfurt theology. This divergence found expression in a 1516 lecture on indulgences. He thought the sales of these pardons from sin were injurious to people's morals, and eventually, in the tradition of academic disputation, posted a list of 95 theses on the church door in Wittenburg, which was commonly used for notices. But these theses were not presented academically, but for all people. They were eagerly read and printed in Latin and German and eventually spread all over Germany with the consequence that the sales of indulgences dropped off precipitously.

In ecclesiastical circles, it was felt Luther needed to be silenced. After an unsuccessful interview with the papal legate to the German diet, he published articles on the results. From these the people of Germany saw in Luther a pious academic, who had done nothing but propose a discussion on the notoriously intricate subject of indulgences, and was peremptorily ordered to recant and to remain silent. Next came the Leipzig disputation in 1519 on papal supremacy with John Mayr of Eck who felt Luther had fallen into the Hussite heresy. Eck's apparent victory moved Luther to the realization that he indeed was fundamentally at variance with the medieval ecclesiastical system which held that man cannot approach God without a priestly mediator. Luther stood for the spiritual priesthood of all believers. The people were sympathetic. On receipt of a papal bull, he burned it in public.

Next secular authorities became involved. In 1520, a new emperor, Charles, was unsympathetic with Luther, but no imperial edict against Luther could be published without the sanction of the diet at Worms, and they requested Luther be granted safe-conduct there to be examined. The emperor desired minimal answers to two questions: Had Luther written some specified books? Was he prepared to abjure or maintain what he had written? Luther obtained permission from the diet to present an extended answer to the second question. Upon completing the presentation of his answer, Luther was threatened by Spaniards in the diet and celebrated as a victor by the Germans. In anticipation of an unfavorable imperial edict, he was spirited off secretly to the Wartburg, a castle belonging to the elector Frederick,. The edict came, and threatened all Luther's sympathisers with extermination, but was mostly toothless.

Luther worked for the reformation to be a peaceful one, risking his life to calm agitated peasants; but in 1525, when the Peasants War went ahead anyway, he cast a stain on his life by issuing a pamphlet which urged that the rebellion be crushed. During this time he married a nun from the nobility, Catherine von Bora, whose escape from a convent he had aided. Luther's writings had convinced most of the convent inmates of the unlawfulness of monastic vows. Also in this year, the Reformation spread beyond Germany, and separated into different movements, only one of which Luther guided, and this guidance was where Luther concentrated his energies for the rest of his life.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

0h [DE says “already” rather than “repeatedly” and appends here “... a few years after the war of liberation to remind the people of the promises that had been made in those tough times and the hopes they engendered. Also, in the spring of 1848, a student gathering had already taken place there, however their deliberations didn't leave behind any definite results.”]

0ha [DE gives this sentence more elaborately as “The meetings took place in the meeting hall of a resort named Klemda where we organized ourselves according to parliamentary rules so that our speeches might proceed in orderly fashion. There was also in no way a lack of oratorical accomplishment.”]

0hb [DE inserts here “... at that time ...”]

0hc [DE inserts here “... dark ...”]

0hd [DE inserts here “... cycling ...”]

0i [DE adds here: “It also seemed that the Viennese had deliberately selected their most handsome people for the student congress, at least all these young men were strikingly beautiful, tall and bearded, and for the most part a bit older than the rest of us.” — deleted in AT.]

0j [DE notes at the beginning of this sentence that: “Although in most of the university towns the students played a more or less prominent part in the first outbreaks of the revolution, ...” — deleted in AT.]

0k [DE notes this was the Pillersdorf-Latour ministry, and that Pillersdorf was the one who asked the students' opinion.

Franz Freiherr von Pillersdorff (1786-1862), Austrian statesman. After a legal education in Vienna, in 1805 Pillersdorf started his public service career in Galicia, Spain. In 1807, he returned to Vienna as assistant to the court councilor Freiherr von Baldacci. This put him in the center of the action when the war with Napoleon broke out. In the disadvantageous peace that followed, a new ministry was formed, with Metternich at its head. Baldacci moved to the periphery of power, but Pillersdorff advanced to court secretary and then became a court councilor. Here Pillersdorff had ample opportunity to aquaint himself with the great disarray in the operation of the Austrian state, and how necessary reform was, but uncommonly difficult to implement.

The events of 1812-1815 increased the oppressive political climate still more. Baldacci became minister of the army and headed the administration of the occupied zones in France, and Pillerdorf was put at his side. Pillersdorf's stay in France and travels to England gave him the opportunity to make comparative studies and think about how the people could start participating in lawmaking and government in Austria as well. But the time had not come for such changes in Austria since the emperor Franz kept the reigns of power tightly to himself.

After the war, Austrian finances urgently required attention. The paper money issued amounted to 700 million, but at least a portion of this disappeared from circulation and was replaced by specie. By 1830 there was even the prospect of a surplus in the treasury. This situation brought to the fore the question of whether or not government should be representative, for to maintain the partially achieved financial order, the participation of the public in financial management was needed, as well as confidence that the ministries would not overstep their budgets. The future of Austria lay in the solution of this question, for the financial element comprised much more important affairs. But those near the throne did not want to see the solution of the financial question turn into a question of a constitution — yet that was its essence.

The July revolution of 1830 heightened the tension in the various classes of the population. In 1832, Pillersdorff, who thought that concerns about conflict with the new government in France should not frustrate attempts to bring more order to Austria's finances, was taken away from finances and moved to the chancellery where he became a privy councilor on the inner track of the government. A new field opened itself to him where no skilled hand had been on the plow since Joseph II. All kinds of weeds needed to be pulled, and obstacles removed, in order to create a foundation for public welfare which until now had not been allowed to develop. As stubbornly as the current order was maintained, so public discontent with it became greater. Even patriotic men faced with a sort of longing the storm that rose up from France and unleashed itself on Austria.

The brittle government collapsed. Prince Metternich resigned, the ministry soon followed, and Pillersdorff was put at the head of the ministry. If Pillersdorff had hoped for a moment to be able to calmly and gradually reorganize the government, everything conspired against his honest intention — the turmoil in Italy and Hungary, the unrest in Vienna, relations with Germany. The unexpected departure of the court made it an affair of honor for the ministry not to resign, and Pillersdorff remained true to his post. He held fast to the concessions made by the crown, but the resistance he offered to constantly emerging new demands was too weak. He avoided the summoning of the government's sources of influence. In the meantime, public affairs came into such confusion and disarray, and Pillersdorff showed himself so little suited to manage them and create order, that finally he resigned.

He became a deputy in the Vienna Reichstag. Here he took his place right of center with the men who earnestly wanted to support the new government. Never was there a vote in which he did not take the government's side. When the Reichstag was dissolved in 1849, Pillersdorff's ministerial activity as well as his behavior during the days of September became the subject of a disciplinary investigation. These proceedings must have been uncommonly painful for Pillersdorf whose efforts during his career were directed, as he himself said, toward “reinforcing the power and prestige of the government and instilling confidence in it by avoiding motives for dissatisfaction through suggestions for peaceful reforms.”

Pillersdorff went into deep seclusion. His lot was to stand, “not amongst those who had been judged, but among those who had been shamed.” But his fellow citizens sought to heal these wounds: When constitutional government returned to Austria in 1861, they confidently called him to the house of representatives. The old man, who had reached the end of his days, took up the mandate with joyful readiness and uprightly performed the duties of his office as head of the finance committee.

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 26, pp. 135-137.]

0m [DE inserts here: “... tales of their deeds and ...” — deleted in AT.]

0ma [DE says “well aware” rather than “sadly conscious.”]

0mb [Josef Radetzky, Count of Radetz (1766-1858), Austrian soldier. The events of 1848 in Italy, which gave the old field marshal his place in history among the great commanders, found him, in the beginning, seriously handicapped in the struggle with Carlo Alberto's army and the insurgents. By falling back to the Quadrilateral, and there checking one opponent after another, he was able to spin out time until reinforcements arrived. Thenceforward, up to the final triumph of Novara, he and his army carried all before them. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

0mc [Carlo Alberto (1798-1849), king of Sardinia (Piedmont). He never actually became a Carbonaro, and was surprised and startled when after the outbreak of the Neapolitan revolution of 1820 some of the leading conspirators in the Piedmontese army informed him that a military rising was ready and that they counted on his help. He induced them to delay the outbreak and informed the king, requesting him, however, not to punish anyone. Two days later, Turin was in the hands of the insurgents, the people demanding the Spanish constitution. The king at once abdicated and appointed Carlo Alberto regent. The latter, pressed by the revolutionists and abandoned by his ministers, granted the constitution and sent to inform Carlo Felice, who was now king, of the occurrence. Carlo Felice, who was then at Modena, repudiated the regent's acts, accepted Austrian military assistance, with which the rising was easily quelled, and exiled Carlo Alberto to Florence. The young prince found himself the most unpopular man in Italy, for while the Liberals looked on him as a traitor, to the king and the Conservatives he was a dangerous revolutionist.

On the death of Carlo Felice, Carlo Alberto succeeded. He inherited a kingdom without an army, with an empty treasury, a chaotic administration and medieval laws. In 1847, he issued a decree granting wide reforms, and when risings broke out in other parts of Italy early in 1848, he was at last induced to grant the constitution. When the news of the Milanese revolt against the Austrians reached Turin, public opinion demanded that the Piedmontese should succour their struggling brothers; and after some hesitation, the king declared war. With an army of Piedmontese, and men from other parts of Italy, the king took the field and defeated the Austrians at Pastrengo. At Custozza, the Piedmontese were beaten, forced to retreat, and to ask for an armistice. On re-entering Milan Carlo Alberto was badly received and reviled as a traitor by the Republicans, and, although he declared himself ready to die defending the city, the municipality treated with Radetzky for a capitulation.

To him the people of Italy owe a great debt, for if he failed in his object, he at least materialized the idea of the Risorgimento in a practical shape, and the charges which the Republicans and demagogues brought against him were monstrously unjust.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

0md [DE inserts here: “... bloody ...”]

0me [DE inserts here: “... and other festivities ...” — deleted in AT.]

0mf [DE says “that the student-congress could have” rather than “of the student-congress.”]

0mg [DE says “administrative headquarters” rather than “executive authority.”]

0mh [DE says “Among those who wanted to join in this intention, and of those there were not a few, ...” rather than “At last ...”]

0mi [DE says “set about enjoying” rather than “enjoyed” and “excursions” rather than “festivities.”]

0mj [DE says “to and up” rather than “up to.”]

0mk [DE says “a couple kegs of beer and a bite to eat” rather than “a plenteous spread with beer” and “back to Eisenach” rather than “to the town.”]

0mm [DE omits “of citizens” and inserts here “... of Weimar ...”]

0mn [DE says “in the spirit” rather than “as was the custom.”]

0mo [DE inserts here “... to our unprepared surprise ...”]

0mp [DE says “with” rather than “preceded and surrounded by.”]

0mq [DE says “me” rather than “some of us.”]

0mr [DE omits “with other parts of the country,” “outside” and “to me for one” and adds after this sentence: “I said as much to my friends around me as I came back to Eisenach.”]

0n [DE says “after the march had reached Eisenach had gone” instead of “had gone on” and appends here “... called die Erholung” (well-being restored).]

0na [DE says “considerable” instead of “remarkable” and inserts here “... absolutely ...”]

0nb [DE omits “actual.”]

0nc [DE inserts here “... apparently ...”]

0nd [DE says “the next morning” rather than “now.”]

0ne [DE says “agitators” rather than “speechmakers.”]

0nf [DE inserts here “... and where the authorities had reported what had happened ...”]

0ng [DE inserts here “... via railway ...”]

0nh [DE inserts here “... mutinous ...”]

0ni [DE inserts here “..., apparently at least, ...”]

0nj [DE says “these people seduced by the students' crazy prank” rather than “them” and omits “in consequence of this escapade.”]

0nk [DE says “yet another address” rather than “an address.”]

0nm [DE omits “unanimously.”]

0nn [DE appends here “..., discussed and adopted.”]

0no [DE says “other places” rather than “of various other public buildings” and omits “for further publication.”]

0np [DE says “still more” rather than “several patriotic.”]

0nq [DE inserts here “... as close as possible to the smoke stack in order to warm myself, ...”]

0nr [DE inserts here “..., among other things, ...”]

0ns [DE gives this sentence as “I easily resolved to face this fate courageously.”]

0nt [DE inserts here “... Eisenach ...”]

0nu [DE omits “Viennese.”]

0nv [DE says “within the Austrian empire” rather than “under a 'personal union' with Austria.”]

0o [In 1872, Pesth and Köbánya, on the left bank of the Danube, were merged with Buda and old Buda, on the right bank of the Danube, to form Budapest, the current capital and largest city of Hungary. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition, “Budapest,” v. 4, p. 734, where Pesth is spelled Pest, and old Buda is spelled O-Buda.]

0oa [DE says “tread on its lands” rather than “enter within those boundaries.”]

0ob [Stephan Victor (1817-1867) Archduke of Austria, palatine of Hungary (1847-1848). His father, Joseph, also held the office of Hungarian palatine. In 1839, Stephan was called to Vienna to be introduced to the workings of the empire. After two years, he completed his apprenticeship with the assignment to tour locations in Italy and the Tyrol and file a written report on his observations with the emperor. The report by the sensitive observer was remarkable for its candor, and Kolowrat, the minister who was its immediate recipient, by no means found it uplifting.

His first assignment was as governor of Bohemia. There were discussions regarding his marrying a Russian princess, but these fell through when the Hungarian legislature indicated they would never approve Stephan as palatine if he was linked in this manner to Russia. Thus Stephan entered on his new duties unmarried. He worked tirelessly to improve the quality of life in Bohemia.

When his father died in 1847, Stephan succeeded him as Hungarian palatine, in spite of the unfounded suspicion in the imperial government that he might be interested in a crown, as king of an independent Hungarian state. Stephan swore to his dying father that he would repel the offer of a crown if he received it. Nevertheless, Stephan resolved not to be a blind tool of the government, but to work with the Hungarians as much as possible. As unwelcome as this news might have been to Metternich, Stephan — as a Habsburg — could not merely be set to one side. The Hungarians received him jubilantly.

When the political storm from the west broke out over Hungary in early 1848, Stephan still felt confident that the loyalty of the Hungarians would keep them in the fold of the empire. But still he felt the imperial reaction was inappropriate given the new political institutions changed circumstances seemed to require. Even when reports of the uprising in Vienna arrived, he could not see the same thing happening in Hungary. He assumed the leadership of the liberal movement in Hungary when he agreed to Kossuth's request to lead a delegation to Vienna to present its petition. If the imperial court was not receptive to the petition, he could only see resignation as a possibility for himself, since he was in no way willing to govern in opposition to the court. The court accepted the petition, as well as a further request that the emperor sanction the appointment of Lajos Batthyány as prime minister.

With these achievements, Stephan reached the peak of his popularity in Hungary, and Hungary found itself in the possession of a liberal constitution. Kossuth pronounced himself satisfied and verbally rejected the bloodshed of a civil war necessary for further concessions, but still Stephan kept his resignation speech ready. Indeed, Kossuth later came to him offering a Hungarian crown. Stephan indignantly rejected it. In September, he found the crisis beyond his control; he quietly left the country and resigned. Banned by a imperial court suspicious that he coveted a crown, and immensely unpopular with a Hungarian populace which felt betrayed, he retired to private life. After a decade, he reconciled himself with the court, but he still never obtained another office. In 1867, his earthly remains were laid to rest in Budapest in the family crypt.

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 36, pp. 71-78.]

0oc [DE omits “an Austrian prince.”]

0p [DE gives more detail here: “In preparation for its subjugation, the court encouraged an uprising of the viceroy of Croatia, Jellachich, against the Hungarian authorities. In July the emperor found himself forced to disavow Jellachich and arraign him for high treason. But in September he gave back to Jellachich, now a faithful and trusted servant to the crown, his old position and authority. The Hungarian government protested this, and the Archduke resigned his office as palatine. At this point, the imperial government unveiled its plan to subjugate Hungary and sent Count Lamberg to Pest as an imperial commissioner. According to an imperial order, Lamberg was to command the obedience of all the Hungarian authorities and troops. Since naturally this order didn't have the sanction of the Hungarian government, it was declared unconstitutional and invalid by them. In place of the Archduke, they appointed a governing commission headed by Count Batthyány. On Lamberg's arrival in Pest, he was killed by an outraged mob. At this point, the Austrian emperor proclaimed the Hungarian government dissolved and declared all laws passed without his sanction invalid. He also named Jellachich as absolute ruler with regard to Hungarian affairs. This completed the rupture.”

Lajos Count Batthyány (1806-1849), Hungarian statesman, was indifferently educated, but while serving in the hussars remedied some of the deficiencies. It was his marriage to the noble-minded and highly-gifted countess Antonia Zichy which motivated him to work earnestly for the national cause. He became leader of the opposition in the upper house of the legislature. In 1848, he became the first constitutional prime-minister of Hungary. His position became extremely difficult when Jellachich and the Croats took up arms. He journeyed frequently to Innsbruck to persuade the court to condemn Jellachich and establish a strong national government at Pest. Unfortunately, he consented to the despatch of Magyar troops to quell the Italian uprising before the Croat difficulty had been adjusted, and thenceforth his authority in Hungary declined before the rising star of Kossuth. He raised a regiment among the peasantry and led it against the Croats, but was incapacitated for military service by a fall from his horse. Eventually he was arrested at Pest, and sentenced to be hanged for violating the Pragmatic Sanction, overthrowing the constitution and aiding and abetting the rebellion. To escape this fate, he stabbed himself with a small concealed dagger, and bled to death. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.

Josef Jellachich (1801-1859) Croatian statesman and military leader. Though his separatist measures at first brought him into disfavor at the imperial court, their true objective was soon recognized, and, with the triumph of the more violent elements of the Hungarian revolution, he was hailed as the most conspicuous champion of the unity of the empire, and was able to bring about that union of the imperial army with the southern Slavs by which the revolution in Vienna and Budapest was overthrown. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.

Franz Philipp Count von Lamberg (1791-1848), Austrian soldier and statesman, was born in Moor, Hungary. He entered the third Uhlan regiment in 1810. In 1848, the circumstance that, as a member of the upper eschelons of the Hungarian nobility, he had been entrusted with Hungarian relations with Austria brought him the difficult, but also distinguished, assignment as imperial commissioner charged with bringing about a peaceful adjustment between the emperor and the people. But before his arrival in Pest, Kossuth had incited the legislature to forbid his taking office as palatine of Hungary, and the army was instructed not to obey him. After his arrival in Pest, and a short and fruitless discussion with General Hrabowsky, he took a cab to a bastion. On a bridge, a mob which had been advised of his arrival fell upon the cab, murdered Lamberg, mutilated the body, and triumphantly carried it, impaled on scythes, to the disabled soldiers' home. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 17, p. 537.]

0pa [DE says “on the 5th and 9th of” rather than “in” — an AT change.]

0pb [Theodor Franz, Count Baillet von Latour (1780-1848), Austrian soldier and statesman. After a military and engineering training, he entered the corps of engineers in 1799. He took part in various military campaigns in which he distinguished himself and was highly decorated. He filled an array of leadership rolls in the military ranks, and in addition served as the head of the military commission attached to the diet of the German Confederation at Frankfurt, contributed to the design of the fortifications at Rastatt, and finally was director of engineering. In 1848, he was called to head the war ministry, whose direction he selflessly and tirelessly saw to without regard to his advanced years. His well-intentioned efforts especially sought to give the public no cause for unrest. For these strivings, a lawless mob misled by power-hungry agitators had no understanding. In October, a rabble sought him out in the war ministry, and in a forever infamous act, murdered him. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 18, pp. 16-17.]

0pc [DE adds here: “... Jellachich and ...”

Prince Alfred Windischgrätz (1787-1862), Austrian field-marshal. Having gained a reputation as a champion of energetic measures against revolution he was called upon to suppress the insurrection of March 1848 in Vienna, but finding himself ill-supported by the ministers he speedily threw up his post. Having returned to Prague he there showed firmness in quelling an armed outbreak of the Czech separatists (June 1848). Upon the recrudescence of revolt in Vienna he was summoned at the head of a large army and reduced the city by a formal siege (October). Appointed to the chief command against the Hungarian rebels he gained some early successes and reoccupied Budapest (January 1849), but by his slowness in pursuit he allowed the enemy to rally in superior numbers and to prevent an effective concentration of the Austrian forces. In April 1849 he was relieved of his command and henceforth rarely appeared again in public life. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

0pd [DE adds here: “... with that ...”]

0q [DE adds here: “... or captives.”]

0qa [DE inserts here: “... sincere ...”]

0qb [DE omits “in Frankfort” and inserts here: “... sincerely and ...”]

1 Pfuel, Ernst von (1779-1866), Prussian general and statesman. Before the War of Liberation (1813-1815) he became a soldier of fortune in the Russian and then in the Austrian service. In 1815 he saw service in Blücher's army in the campaign against Napoleon. From that time he served in the Prussian army, and in 1847 was appointed governor of Berlin. In 1848 he proved “incompetent” in the Revolution, and was transferred from the army to the diplomatic service. His “incompetency” consisted in being favorable to the insurgents. He was sent on a confidential mission to Paris. In September, 1848, he was asked to form a new ministry. As prime minister he chose for himself the Department of War. “In consequence of the tumultuary excesses of 31 October, he offered his resignation.” This last statement taken from a well-known German publication, is sharply at variance with Schurz's account of the removal of Pfuel, and leads the reader to suspect the charge of “incompetency” above, which is taken from the same source. As this same highly respected work of reference conscientiously refrains from making any statement of fact disparaging to former kings of Prussia, there is perhaps ground for accepting Schurz's statement as authentic. Pfuel was evidently in sympathy with the Revolution.

2 [Friedrich Wilhelm, Count Brandenburg (1792-1850), German soldier and politician. He was the son of King Frederick William II and Countess Sophie von Dönhoff. He and his sister were made count and countess in 1794, and he was raised with the sons of Fieldmarshall von Massow. In 1807, he entered the regiment Gardes du Corps. By 1848, he had distinguished himself in several battles and was a cavalry general. In November 1848, the king called him to Berlin to be Prussian prime minister, signaling the king's intention to quell the ongoing uprising. In 1850, he traveled to Warsaw to meet with Czar Nicholas. Shortly after his return, he took ill and died, it is said from the humiliation of the Czar's abandonment of the Erfurt policy. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 3, pp. 238-239. Brandenburg is] also the name of a large province of Prussia, of which Berlin is nearly the geographical center. A city of the same name lies to the west of Berlin.

3 Manteuffel, [Otto] Theodor, Freiherr von (1805-1882), Prussian statesman. In 1844 he became counselor to the Prince of Prussia. In 1848 in the second Landtag he declared against constitutionalism. In November, 1848, he received the portfolio of the Interior in the Brandenburg Cabinet. For the next ten years he held various positions in the government and was high in the favor of King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. In 1858 the king gave up the throne, and the Prince of Prussia (afterwards Emperor William the Great) became regent. Then Manteuffel had no further share in the government, being retired without delay.

3a [DE omits “solemnly.”]

3b [DE says that place was the city of Brandenburg.]

4 [Friedrich Heinrich Ernst Graf von Wrangel (1784-1877), Prussian general field marshal. In Westphalia, in 1834, when riots occurred owing to differences between the archbishop of Cologne and the crown, the determination and resolution with which he treated the clerical party prevented serious trouble. In the autumn of 1848 he was summoned to Berlin to suppress the riots there. As governor of Berlin and commander-in-chief of the Mark of Brandenburg, he proclaimed a state of siege and ejected the Liberal president and members of the Chamber. Thus on two occasions in the troubled history of Prussian revival Wrangel's uncompromising sternness achieved its object without bloodshed. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

4a [DE says it voted to refuse to pay taxes.]

4aa [DE omits “all” and appends here “... as quickly as possible.”]

4b [DE uses the first person plural rather than the third person plural to refer to the democrats — an AT change.]

4ba [DE says “sufficiently protracted persistence” rather than “inflexible steadiness” and appends here: “A difficulty with this plan which immediately came to mind was that its implementation required an immense unity in the popular mind and required much fearlessness on the part of individual citizens. Also, the major taxpayers were not sympathetic with revolutionary politics. Nevertheless, it was thought that the pressure of public opinion could set much straight and so public meetings were organized everywhere and resolutions adopted.”]

4c [DE says “necessary” rather than “unnecessary”.]

4bb [DE says “made sure such demonstrations were not wanting” rather than “were zealous in demonstrating their determination to support the Constituent Assembly.”]

4bc [DE appends here “..., and this challenge we took up in its most general interpretation.”]

4bd [DE says ““‘battle and meal tax’” rather than “octroi duties.”]

4be [DE inserts here “... in great numbers ...” and says “at least at the beginning” rather than “however.”]

4c [DE says “necessary” rather than “unnecessary” and omits “general.”]

4ca [DE inserts here “... binding ...,” says “supreme law-making authority” rather than “Constituent Assembly” and “divert” rather than “amuse.”]

4d [DE inserts here “... in march time ...” and appends a line from the song to the end of this sentence: “I am a Prussian, you know my colors!”

The lyrics were written in 1830 by Bernhard Thiersch (1793-1855). The melody is said to have been composed by August Neithardt (1793-1861) though Thiersch's biographer in ADB suggests the melody came from another song, and choir director Neithardt only artfully arranged it. Neithardt's arrangement for choir and humming prompted Hoffmann von Fallersleben to quip: “Only one Prussian sings; the others hum along.” The anthem was quite popular in its day. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie.]

4da [DE says “seemed to fill the entire market-place” rather than “filled a large part of the square in front of the city hall.”]

4db [DE begins this sentences with “With that ...,” omits “sudden” and says “his presence after all” rather than “the building undisturbed.”]

4dc [DE says “put our attempt to refuse payment of taxes into action” rather than “began to refuse the payment of taxes.”]

4e [DE gives the location of the meeting as a pub called ''der Römer'' (the name of a type of drinking cup; see "Glass" in 1911 Britannica, Rummer in English Wikipedia or Römer (Glas) in German Wikipedia) and inserts here “..., including other trusted people as well, ...”]

4ea [DE begins this sentence with “Now ...”]

4eb [DE begins this sentence with “So ...”]

4ec [DE omits “quietly and” and inserts here “... as possible ...”]

4ed [DE says “around us” rather than “in Bonn.”]

4f [DE says “in a certain location and to make munitions” rather than “and to make cartridges,” omits “which was done with great zeal” and adds here “The same night we already had a quantity of people busy casting bullets and making cartridges.”]

4fa [DE begins this sentence with “To wit ...”]

4fb [DE inserts here “... with an incautious escapade ...” and says “the” rather than “very.”]

4fc [DE says “with the admonition” rather than “and” and inserts here “... in as large numbers as possible ...”]

4g [DE adds that they waited in “The Roman.” When they met again later after their short rest they met somewhere else.]

4ga [DE inserts here “... and further agitation ...” — deleted in AT.]

4gb [DE inserts here “..., following the orders from Cologne, ...”]

4gc [DE says “practical attempt to set afoot the refusal to pay taxes in Bonn” rather than “whole affair.”]

4gd [DE omits “and that we had to expect our arrest any moment.”]

4ge [DE inserts here “... who had not been compromised ...”]

4gf [DE inserts here “... knew how to ...” and omits “by the police.”]

4gg [DE inserts here “... threat ...” and omits “good.”]

4gh [DE says “this once nothing should happen to us” rather than “for once we should escape harm.”]

4gi [DE inserts here “... where we had been concealed a short time ...”]

4h [DE adds: “The time I could spare for my studies kept getting less and less.”]

4ha [DE says “the king” rather than “Frederick William IV.”]

4hb [DE gives the theater director's name as Löwe.

Wilhelm Löwe (1807-1853) made a name for himself as a theater director in Bonn, Düsseldorf, Cologne and Aachen and for a German opera company he led which toured Holland, Belgium, Alsace and Switzerland. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 19, p. 300.]

4hc [DE appends here “... who covered dramatic and musical performances with great expert knowledge and also great benevolence.”]

4i [DE adds here: “... which was the source of a bitter humiliation. It happened so:” — deleted in AT.]

4ia [DE gives this sentence as “Until this time I had been no way intimate with a feminine being outside of my immediate family-circle, partly because I felt no inclination driving me that way, and partly due to my persistent bashfulness which kept me back from all female acquaintance.” — heavily edited in AT.]

4ib [AT inserts here “... a jewess, ...”]

4j [DE, making it clear the name is not her real one, says rather: “Let's call her Betty.” In AT, this replaces the crossed-out name “Rebecca,” but this was apparently only an earlier alias.]

4ja [DE begins this sentence with “To be sure ...”]

4jb [DE inserts here “... half-ashamed ...”]

4k [DE adds here: “... and had friendly thoughts of me. This naturally gave fresh nourishment to my enthusiasm, and Betty often appeared in my daydreams.”]

4ka [DE says “my” rather than “the” — an AT change. ]

4kb [Friedrich Ferdinand Adolf Freiherr von Flotow (1812-1883), German composer, was born in Mecklenburg. His passion for music induced his father to send him to Paris to study under Reicha. But the outbreak of the revolution in 1830 caused his return home, where he busied himself writing chamber music and operetta until he was able to return to Paris. His first real success was with Le Naufrage de la Méduse at the Renaissance Théâtre in 1838. Greater was the success which attended Martha (1847), which made the tour of the world. In 1848 Flotow was again driven home by revolution, and in the course of a few years he produced several operas. From 1856 to 1863 he was director of the Schwerin opera, but in the latter year he returned to Paris, where in 1869 he produced L'Ombre. From that time to the date of his death he lived in Paris or on his estate near Vienna. Of his concert-music only the Jubelouvertüre is now ever heard. His strength lay in the facility of his melodies. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

4kc [DE says “front row of a box” rather than “one.”]

4kd [DE inserts here “... like the arm of an easy chair ...” After this sentence AT has an extended passage inserted which is crossed out: “At first I felt a glow of happiness, but then came a torturing embarrassment. What should I do? Look at her without speaking to her? That would have been very indecent. But should I address her? To be sure I had not been formally introduced to her, but through our common friend we had a sort of indirect acquaintance. But no, that would not do. Such boldness might have offended Rebecca, at any rate it might have embarrassed her in the presence of her older companion.”]

4ke [DE gives this sentence as “Soon the ladies began to move and look around for something in their chairs and the pockets of their clothing which apparently they could not find. Their conversation, which I strained to understand, enlightened me. They had left their opera-glasses at home on the table.”]

4m [DE gives more detail to the events of the last two sentences: “So I pulled myself together. I started turning around, when I felt a warm blush spread over my face and my heart went into my throat. I couldn't say a word. Around men I had already conquered this childish shyness, but the presence of this woman made me helpless. And the little secret of my enthusiastic inclination, as I felt, was written across my forehead. No, I could not look at her, and my tongue would not budge. I returned to my normal posture. I sat through all of "Martha" with a burning agony in my soul, hardly hearing or seeing what was happening before me, berating myself for my lack of courage to take advantage of this opportunity. Finally the opera came to an end.”]

4ma [DE says “rose to leave” rather than “left” and “I looked after them once they had turned their backs toward me” rather than “with them my long hoped-for opportunity.”]

4n [DE gives a more elaborate conclusion to this paragraph in place of the last two sentences: “I rushed from the theater. Self-reproach stormed upon me with redoubled vigor. It had been my intention after the opera to go to the Franconia Kneipe and talk with friends, but I felt ashamed to look at them in the eyes even though they knew nothing of my disgraceful defeat. So I took a long, lonely walk through the dark night. How I reproached myself for what I called a childish, miserable, incomprehensible cowardice. How often I said to myself the words which I should have said to Betty. I was appalled by my disintegration. I could only see missed opportunity and a future of regret and self-reproach before me. Finally I settled on the solemn resolution to, without fail, as soon as I should see her again, speak with Rebecca and ask her pardon for my impoliteness in the theater. But I was never to see her again, and soon this love-dream became more shadowy than ever, for events occurred which tore me altogether out of my surroundings.”]

4na [The last phrase could also be translated as “looked upon the Frankfurt parliament as the embodiment of the sovereignty of the people with regard to their national consciousness.”]

4nb [DE omits “if any.”]

4nc [DE omits “Of course.”]

4o [DE omits “which might then have almost been called the orphan of the revolution.”]

4oa [DE inserts here “... and tendencies ...”]

4ob [DE omits “that is to say.”]

4oc [DE inserts here “... previous ...”]

4od [DE inserts here “... intellect, ...”]

4p [DE omits “theoretical.”]

4pa [Johann, Archduke of Austria (1782-1859), Austrian statesman, was born in Florence, Italy, the ninth son, one of sixteen children, of Grand-duke Peter Leopold of Tuscany and Maria Ludovica, daughter of the king of Spain. His mother tongue was Italian, but he early learned French and then German. He showed a special interest in the natural sciences, and frequently kept his father company in the latter's private chemistry laboratory. When the emperor Joseph II died in 1790, Johann's father — Joseph's brother — succeeded him as Leopold II; and the family moved to Vienna. Within two years, both Johann's parents died, and his older brother assumed the throne as Franz I. Franz directed Johann's upbringing which now emphasized military and language study and an austere lifestyle. Johann still devoted himself to the study of history and science as his free time allowed. In 1798, he got to know the historian Johann von Müller, then advising the Austrian court, and who Johann later said was the primary influence in the development of his intellect and values. They corresponded (mostly in French) until 1806, that is even after Müller's protestant beliefs obliged him to move to Berlin in 1804.

By 1800, Johann was commanding troops battling the French and their Bavarian allies. During one truce, he made a trip through the Tyrol as general director of Austria's fortification and engineering efforts. He was quite taken by the land and its people. His tour continued through other regions of the Alps, and he developed a fortification plan which however was rejected by the court. His participation as a commander in the wars continued, though in Napoleon's final defeat he only participated in the siege of scattered garrisons holed up in fortifications in upper Alsace. After the victory, Johann undertook a five-month tour of Europe in the company of his brother Ludwig. His interest was mostly in scientific and industrial establishments. But in his travels he found nothing so attractive as his favorite destinations in the Alps.

Back at his castle near Vienna, Johann pursued studies in agriculture, history and science and patronized the arts and literature. He gave attention to improving mining technology in the Alpine regions. His restless explorations of the mountains brought wider attention of the value to science of such travels. As “Hans the Thernberger of Austria,” for a time he got involved in a fanciful sort of society which included such noteworthies as Karl August from Weimar and Prince Wilhelm from Prussia, and even the emperor Karl of Austria visited once. The society cultivated romantic notions of knights and such which were popular at the time. However, in 1823 the police authorities under Metternich dissolved the group as not in the public interest. For many years, Johann had been critical as to how Austria was managed: in the administration's lethargic course on its accustomed path, nothing was improved or invented; the emergence of an innovation or anyone talented was seen as a threat and suppressed, and there was little to stimulate thought in the schools. In 1819 he got to know the daughter of a Steiermark postmaster, and in 1828, after overcoming the misgivings of the court, he married her.

The events of 1848 summoned Johann from his quiet industry in the Steiermark. During the uprising in Vienna, he facilitated the discharge of Metternich, and when the Emperor Ferdinand fled Vienna, Johann was appointed to stay behind as Ferdinand's representative. Johann's popularity, due to his personality and his known opposition to Metternich, did much to pacify the situation. But though he seemed indispensible in this role, he was soon called to another: the Frankfort parliament found in him a solution satisfactory to all sides for heading the provisional central government then being formed. This authority over both the great German powers, Austria and Prussia, was deemed necessary to maintain order — which had already been disturbed by Hecker in Baden — while the parliament engaged in its constitutional deliberations. There had been much debate over how the authority should be composed, but finally, with Johann in mind, the choice lingered on a single supreme administrator. Johann was well known for his enthusiasm for a united Germany. To the imperial regent was given the power to decide, in consultation with the parliament, on peace and war and to make treaties with foreign powers, but the implementation of the constitution was specifically excluded from the powers.

In Frankfurt, Johann's position soon became difficult. In spite of his commission, parliamentary resolutions were ignored or carried out imperfectly. Some of the requests were outside his jurisdiction; the nature of others defied the possibility of action. The reputation of the central power suffered its first significant blow when the troops of the German Confederation refused the power's summons to demonstrate its allegiance to Johann. Then Prussia concluded the Schleswig-Holstein hostilities with the truce at Malmö without consulting Johann. His efforts to mediate, via commissioners, disorders in Austria and Prussia further demonstrated the impotence of his situation. Several foreign powers, including France, refused to recognize him. When the parliament decided for a hereditary emperor, and to tender the offer to the King of Prussia, Johann declared his intention to resign. He explained he would have made this move even if the offer had been made to the Austrian emperor. He later consented to defer his resignation until the peace and welfare of Germany would not be put in jeopardy. He and the parliament came to loggerheads over his refusal to act on their resolutions to take steps to implement the constitution. The parliament finally moved to Stuttgart and dismissed Johann. For his part, Johann turned the central power over to an “interim” resolved upon by Prussia and Austria, and then left Frankfort and went home.

The imperial regency was Johann's last significant public appearance. He returned to Graz, the Steiermark and his family and devoted himself continuously to their welfare. He was particularly attentive to agricultural and forestry concerns and renewed his correspondence with artists and the learned and promoted scientific endeavors as he was able. His remains were finally buried in a newly completed family tomb in the Tyrol. The Steiermark honored his memory with an imposing fountain in Graz.

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 14, pp. 281-305.]

4pb [DE inserts here “... his minister of the fleet had no ships ...” and omits “except such as were lent to him by some of the several state governments,” “no fiscal machinery, no tax-levies and” and “except what the several state governments contributed.”]

4q [DE adds here “..., and the disposition of the national parliament and the central power over them stretched only as far as what the individual governments wished to concede, and this was only as much as the individual governments believed the tenor of the times to require.”]

4r [DE starts this paragraph with the sentence “This was no easy task.” and says “It was to determine not only what kind of civil rights“ rather than “It was still engaged in learned and arduous debates about the fundamental right.”]

5 [Felix Schwarzenberg] (1800-1853), Austrian statesman called in 1848 to lead the new ministry as Metternich's successor. He opposed the German Confederation proposed by the Frankfurt Parliament. His policy was to restore Austrian influence in Middle Germany with the purpose of compelling Prussia to give up its pretensions to the leadership of the German-speaking peoples.

6 among whom may be mentioned Bohemians, Hungarians, Tyrolese, Dalmatians, Croatians, Poles, Roumanians, and Italians.

7 [In 1913, it was] a kingdom, one of the independent states of South Germany between Bohemia and the Rhine. Its people speak German. Its leading city is Munich (München).

8 [In 1913, it was] a kingdom just north of Bohemia. Its capital is Dresden.

9 formerly a kingdom; later [in 1913] a province of Prussia, west of Berlin.

9a [Frederick II (1712-1786), king of Prussia, known as the ”Great,“ had an extraordinarily severe upbringing. At one point, his confidante Katte, at his father's request, was executed in front of him for aiding Frederick's attempt to escape to England. His mother encouraged his interest in French and literature, and he even managed to study Latin, which his father had forbidden as not practical. Frederick took the severe lesson of Katte's execution to heart and eventually won his father's esteem. At his father's behest, he married Princess Elizabeth Christina of Brunswick-Bevern instead of his original intended, Amelia, daughter of George II. He became quite content with his lot as crown prince, and two of his best works were published during this time — Considérations sur l'état présent du corps politique de l'Europe and Anti-Macchiavel. The former calls attention to the growing strength of Austria and France, and insists on the necessity of some third power, clearly meaning Prussia, to counterbalance their influence. The second, issued by Voltaire in Hague in 1740, presents some favourite ideas of the 18th-century philosophers respecting the duties of sovereigns.

He became king in 1740. He maintained the forms established by his father, while at the same time he abolished torture, promoted religious toleration and established exact and impartial justice. He looked upon the army and sound finances as the pillars of the Prussian state. When Austrian emperor Charles VI died in 1740, Frederick departed on his first military expedition to reclaim Silesian lands he thought rightfully belonged to Prussia. After initial resistance, these claims were conceded to him by Charles' successor, the empress Maria Theresa. A second expedition to Bohemia confirmed the claims in 1745.

He contributed much to Prussia's economic development. He despised German as the language of boors, although at a later period, in a French essay on German literature, he predicted for it a great future. He habitually wrote and spoke French. He was passionately fond of playing the flute, and was a skilled performer. For a time Voltaire resided at his court, though this relationship ended in discord.

In 1756, the Seven Years' War began in which, supported by England, Brunswick and Hesse-Cassel, he had for a long time to oppose Austria, France, Russia, Saxony and Sweden. Virtually the whole continent was in arms against a small state which, a few years before, had been regarded by most men as beneath serious notice. The war ended with his claim to Silesia once again confirmed, and Prussia was recognized as one of the great powers of the continent.

The war severely drained Frederick's treasury. Unfortunately, he adopted the French ideas of excise, and the French methods of imposing and collecting taxes — a system known as the Regie. This system secured for him a large revenue, but it led to a vast amount of petty tyranny, which was all the more intolerable because it was carried out by French officials. It was continued to the end of Frederick's reign, and nothing did so much to injure his otherwise immense popularity. After the war, he cultivated the goodwill of Russia. In 1764 he concluded a treaty of alliance with the empress Catherine for eight years. Six years afterwards, unfortunately for his fame, he joined in the first partition of Poland.

During his reign, he undertook to reform the legal system. The end of his reign found the army and the treasury in very good circumstances, and German literature entering the age of Goethe and Schiller, unappreciated by Frederick. Taking his reign as a whole, it must be said that he looked upon his power rather as a trust than as a source of personal advantage; and the trust was faithfully discharged according to the best lights of his day. He is seen to have been in many respects one of the greatest figures in modern history.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

9b [See note on the translation of this quote for the next chapter.]

10 Rhenish Bavaria or the Rhenish Palatinate or the Pfalz, in 1848 a part of Bavaria, though not adjoining it. It lies on the west bank of the Rhine north of Alsace. It is now called the Palatinate or die Pfalz.

11 [In 1913,] a duchy on the east bank of the Rhine between Switzerland and Heidelberg.

12 the scene of several treaties in former times, but of no great importance in later history. “The large palace is conspicuous for its high tower.”

12a [DE says “troops” rather than “bayonets.”]

12b [DE inserts here “... not unlike that which provoked the ill-fated October uprising in Vienna — ”]

12c [DE inserts here “... the ‘insurgents,’ ...”]

12d [DE appends here “... in any circumstances” — deleted in AT.]

12e [DE appends here: “... which were successful for a short time.” Perhaps this is what AE translates as “apparently formidable.”]

12f [DE appends here: “..., against their own commanders.”]

12g [DE adds here “Whether the Landwehr could be brought to do this, whether they were ready in general to follow the example of Düsseldorf, Iserlohn and Elberfeld, first had to be shown.”]

12h [DE says “a few hours by foot” rather than “a short distance.”]

12i [DE adds here: “... over to our side ...”]

12j [DE gives the location of the assembly as “der Römer.” Here the assembly would remain until they headed for Siegburg. DE names Anselm Unger as the citizen elected to preside.]

12k [DE adds here: “... for the defense of the national constitution and ...”]

12m [DE adds here: “... among us ...” and appends to this sentence “... and thus to take over the government's planned arming of the Landwehr itself.”]

12n [DE says “nocturnal march to Siegburg” rather than “expedition.”]

12o [DE gives the location of the executive committee, or Direktorium, as a back room in Kamm's establishment. It also says Schurz spent the larger part of his time with the Direktorium — changed in AT.]

12p [DE says “assignments were distributed“ rather than “instructions were given to every member” and adds “Kinkel and Unger were to keep together and organize, as well as possible, the militia members and others who were to take part in the expedition, so that then they could be put under Anneke's command and taken across the Rhein. In the meantime, Kamm, Ludwig Meyer, myself and another student were to see that the ferry, or ‘flying bridge,’ which was usually tied up on the other side of the Rhein at the town of Beuel during the night, would be ready to serve our undertaking at the right time.”]

12q [DE adds here: “This was the way I spoke to my friends, without making further attempts to convince them.” — deleted in AT.]

12r [DE says “what was to happen” rather than “what had happened.”]

12s [DE adds here: “... as well ...”]

12t [DE and AT add here: “... honor and ...”]

13 [In DE, this sentence begins with the phrase: “At that time we lived on Koblenzer Straße, and ...”] Koblenzer Straße: starting at an arch under the university library this street or road runs north paralleling the Rhine, though at some distance from it. As the name implies, its destination is the city of Koblenz. Seven Mountains: five or six miles up the Rhine from Bonn on the east bank. They “extend along the Rhine for about four and a half miles from north to south, with a breadth of two and a half miles. Their peaks, cones, and ridges, mostly covered with forest, form a highly picturesque group from whatever part of the (Rhine) valley they are seen.” [In DE, the sentence ends with the phrase: “... that vista which one would have to explore the world over to find its equal.”]

13a [DE ends this paragraph with the sentence: “I left everything laying as it was, turned my back to the past, and went to meet my fate.”]

13aa [DE inserts here “... and consequences ...”]

13ab [DE inserts here “... as he did to risk all ...”]

13b [Instead of this sentence, DE says: “In the meantime, I thought on the fulfillment of my assigned task. I wended my way yet another time by Betty's house, and looked up to that window which I had so often seen. It was dark.” “It was dark” would seem to apply more to Betty's window than to the time when Schurz headed for the river. In DE, this declaration of darkness isn't bound with the next sentence as it is in the American edition.]

13c [In DE, Schurz doesn't seem altogether sure the person he met up with was Ludwig Meyer. In this edition, rather than meeting a “troop of companions” on the other side, they find Kamm, who had arrived earlier, wearing a travel coat, with a saber at his side and a shotgun in his hand. Nothing is said about a ferryman. The trip back to the right side of the Rhine is made about midnight. “a crowd of armed” is omitted.]

13d [Instead of this sentence, DE says: “Kinkel appeared with a musket on his shoulder.”]

13e [DE gives more detail for this part of the sentence: “Unger was on horseback, armed with a saber. A teamster by the name of Bühl, said to be the leader of a notorious element in Bonn, also appeared on horseback.”]

13ea [DE omits “Our commander” — added in AT.]

13f [DE mentions fatigue due to the lateness of the hour as a factor.]

13g [DE adds here: “Quietly we went in the dark toward Siegburg.”]

13h [A dragoon (Fr. dragon, Ger. Dragoner) was originally a mounted soldier trained to fight on foot only. This mounted infantryman of the late 16th and 17th centuries, like his comrades of the infantry who were styled “pike” and “shot,” took his name from his weapon, a species of carbine or short musket called the “dragon.” Dragoons were organized not in squadrons but in companies, like the foot [soldiers], and their officers and non-commissioned officers bore infantry titles. The invariable tendency of the old-fashioned dragoon, who was always at a disadvantage when engaged against true cavalry, was to improve his horsemanship and armament to the cavalry standard. Thus “dragoon” came to mean medium cavalry, and this significance the word has retained since the early wars of Frederick the Great, save for a few local and temporary returns to the original meaning. The phrases “to dragoon” and “dragonnade” bear witness to the mounted infantry period, this arm being the most efficient and economical form of cavalry for police work and guerrilla warfare. The “Dragonnades,” properly so called, were the operations of the troops (chiefly mounted) engaged in enforcing Louis XIV.'s decrees against Protestants after the revocation of the edict of Nantes. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

14 empties into the Rhine immediately below Bonn. [DE mentions more specifically the goal being to “reach the Sieg crossing at Siegburg-Müldorf and dispute the enemy's passage there.”]

14a [DE inserts here “... furious ...” and says “me” rather than “us” — the latter an AT change.]

14aa [DE starts this sentence with “Without firing a shot ...”]

14ab [DE says “sacrifice life, limb and property for the cause of liberty and unity of the German people” rather than “the cause of German liberty and unity.”]

14ac [Instead of “others of my nearer friends,” DE mentions only Kamm.]

14b [DE gives the name of the tavern as Der Reichenstein.]

14ba [DE inserts here “... which increased upon the arrival of new reports from Elberfeld ...”]

14bb [DE says “others” rather than “their friends.”]

14bc [DE begins this sentence with “My speeches became ever more vehement ...”]

14c [DE says that Unger also joined them.]

14d [DE gives this sentence as “‘There is nothing here,’ I said to Unger, ‘I'm going to the Palatinate.’ Meyer was ready to accompany me.”]

14e [DE omits “home” and “my parents” and describes Nathan more elaborately as “our brave Franconia friend Nathan at Sanct Goarshausen who I have already mentioned.”]

15 not mentioned anywhere else by Schurz. [DE omits “who, while not compromised politically, had followed us from friendship.” — added in AT.]

15a [DE adds here “He thought there was not much evidence against him.”]

16 in the industrial system of the Middle Age a boy who desired to learn a trade served an apprenticeship (die Lehrjahre), at the end of which he was supposed to be a competent workman in his trade. He was now a journeyman (der Gesell(e)), and worked for days' pay. He was supposed to go from place to place, working a while in this town and a while in that, to get experience and observe different methods and processes of work or manufacture. This period in his career was called die Wanderschaft or die Wanderjahre, and he was a Wanderbursch or Wandergesell. Possibly this custom arose out of respect for the uncontrollable Wanderlust which many young Germans have felt, and more dignified reasons were invented to explain it. The student may be interested in the analogy between the words journey and Wander-, both implying travel, though their derivations by no means justify it. Our term journeyman is most safely explained as one who works at a trade for days' pay.

Notes to Chapter VII

0 [DE gives Zitz the title “Volksführer” (leader of the people) rather than “Mr.” and spells the name of the town as Kirchheimbolanden. AT attempts to correct the spelling to Kircheimbolanden, but the DE spelling seems most likely to be correct. DE says “from Rhine-Hesse to aid the Palatines” rather than “in the neighborhood.”]

0a [Dr. Franz Heinrich Zitz (1803-1877) was a prominent Mainz attorney and enjoyed much success with women due to his comeliness. He was a restless and at times dissolute man. As a member of the Frankfurt parliament, he played a respected roll on the far left, and as the head of the militia in Mainz he was highly esteemed and trusted by the people of that town. He sported a remarkably full and unkempt beard during the 1849 uprising, and when it failed, toward the end of that year, he emigrated to America, settling in New York as a notary, a partner in the firm Kapp, Zitz and Fröbel (which became Zitz and Kapp when Fröbel withdrew). When amnesty was offered, he returned to Europe and died in Munich. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 45, pp. 374-375; Carl Wittke, Refugees of Revolution: The German Forty-Eighters in America, Philadelphia: Univ. of Penn. Press, 1952.]

0aa [DE gives this sentence as “The camp did not make a bad impression.” — changed in AT.]

0b [DE appends here “... which is to say they looked something like toys.”]

1 one of the chief towns of the Palatinate, situated in a hilly and wooded district. It is a prominent manufacturing center.

2 [DE inserts here “... zum Schwan, where for now I should, as Kinkel said, honestly nourish myself and enjoy a good Palatine night's sleep.”] zum Schwan: the chief hotel of Kaiserslautern at present is the Swan. The zum originally meant at the sign of the.

2a [DE appends here: “..., refreshed and eager for something to do.”]

2ao [DE omits “for the festivity.”]

2b [DE expresses this as follows: “To my Rhineland notions, the concepts ‘police’ and ‘freedom’ were incompatible.” It is the Swan's innkeeper who, with some effort, makes Shurz understand the police are entirely good fellows.]

2ba [DE omits “of the revolutionary movement” and inserts here “... alert, ...”]

2c [In DE, this sentence is: “Since time immemorial the Palatines have possessed and cultivated these qualities.” “Pfaelzer” is not an English word. “Palatine” is what the American College Dictionary says a resident of the Palatinate is called.]

2ca [DE inserts here “... easily ...”]

2cb [DE inserts here “... — people who lacked the essentials — ...”]

2d [DE calls it “the great haggling over peoples at the Vienna Congress.”]

2da [DE inserts here “... alert, ...”]

2db [In an immense gathering in the Palatine castle of Hambach, inflammatory addresses were made, vengeance vowed against tyrants, and the sentiment uttered that “the best prince by the grace of God is a born traitor to the human race!” — Ernest T. Henderson, A Short History of Germany, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1902, Volume II, Chapter VIII.]

2dc [DE inserts here “... immediately ...”]

2e [DE omits “perhaps” and appends here: “... and some places where a priesthood disposed toward old Bavaria exercised influence. Within the Palatinate, with these exceptions, the authority of the Committee was commonly accepted.”]

2f [Instead of “came now to light in an almost grotesque manner,” DE says “came now blatantly to light.” The “grotesque” qualification only comes later in DE. DE says “irremediable” rather than “terrible.”]

2fa [In DE the quotation given here exactly matches the corresponding one given in the previous chapter. In AE the translations are somewhat different in the two chapters. That one's omission of “German” in “German states” seems more accurate, while this one's “constitution of the German Empire” (or perhaps “German national constitution” would be the best?) seems a more accurate translation than that one's “national constitution.”]

2fb [DE says “support.”]

2fc [DE inserts here “..., as noted, ...” and notes Dr. Eisenstuck was an “old liberal.”]

2fca [Bernhard Eisenstuck (1806-1871), factory co-owner and president of the Chenmitz town council, was a prominent agitator for a trade policy, when only in the sense of a protective tariff. In 1848, he was a member of the Frankfurt preliminary parliament and then elected from Chemnitz to the succeeding Frankfurt parliament where he sat on the left. In May, he was sent as an imperial commissioner to the insurgent Palatinate, but recalled for overstepping his authority. He was vice president of the leftovers of the Frankfurt parliament when it emigrated to Stuttgart. Before its forced dispersal, he resigned and went to Belgium. After a long absence, he returned home and was a representative in Saxony's parliament where his name and decisive stance lent prestige to the thinly populated liberal ranks. He died as director of a thread-spinning factory. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 5, p. 775.]

2fd [DE inserts here “... adherence to ...”]

2fe [DE says “then, the imperial regent” rather than “of course” and omits “who had sent him.”]

2ff [DE says “wish and the hope” rather than “desire.”]

2fg [DE says “urgent directive” rather than “suggestion.”]

2g [DE omits “including its Hungarian and Slavic populations.”]

2ga [DE appends here “..., and had to be prevented using all means.” — deleted in AT.]

2gb [DE inserts here “... now ...”]

2h [DE inserts here “... truly grotesque ...” — deleted in AT.]

2ha [DE inserts here “... by far ...”]

2hb [DE inserts here “... German ...”]

2i [“had refused” would be more grammatical here than “refusing.” DE appends “... which had fallen to him” to this sentence.]

2j [DE inserts here “... German ...” and says “see to the recognition and adoption” rather than “enforce.”]

2ja [DE says “unheard of” rather than “monstrous” and inserts here “... especially ...”]

2k [DE omits “to a certain extent.”]

2m [DE omits “if the king of Prussia and his brother-kings had” (added in AT) and says “neutralized” rather than “neutralized, disintegrated, and rendered powerless.”]

2ma [DE says “those in power” rather than “kings” and says “the national sentiment and loyalty of the princes” rather than “their national sentiment.”]

2n [DE says “nationally inclined Germans” rather than “the German people” and “and all the national freedom, might and greatness that would come with it” rather than “and political freedom.”]

2na [DE appends here “... Eisenstuck.”]

2nb [DE inserts here “... exactly ...”]

2o [DE adds here: “Not a few of the leaders were also of this view, and, since now the ‘regional committee’ even had the official title of ‘provisional government,’ people rejoiced in the feeling that now ‘happy Palatinate, God's protectorate’ would be forever apart from Bavarian administration — as a beautiful little republic and part of the great German free state it would from now on benevolently govern itself.”]

2oa [DE says “more comprehending and farther-seeing” rather than “cooler.”]

2p [DE begins this sentence with “Indeed ...,” omits “left their colors,” says “representatives or emissaries of the Regional Committee had administered to them” rather than “taken” and adds at the end “and, in the place of their officers who declined to be sworn in, chose their officers from among the subordinates. But they (the defecting troops) numbered only a few hundred.”]

2pa [DE omits “regular soldiers” and “some of.”]

2q [DE says “Rhine-Hesse” rather than “little,” “similar” rather than “small,” says of Blenker “who later made a name for himself in America” (deleted in AT) and omits “but which so far were insignificant as a fighting force.”]

2r [DE uses “young” and “robust” to describe these potential recruits.]

2s [DE inserts here “... scythes and ...”]

2t [DE says “watchful Prussians having been naively sent up the Rhine through Prussian territory” rather than “Prussian customs officers on their way through Prussian territory.”]

2u [DE doesn't mention Blenker and appends to this sentence “... of the provisional government” which allows it to start out the next sentence with “This” rather than “The provisional government.”]

2ua [DE omits “military.”]

2ub [Ferdinand Daniel Fenner von Fenneberg. He spent 10 years in the United States, having emigrated there after his escape from Germany. He was on the editorial staff of the New Yorker Abendzeitung and the Cincinnati Republikaner. He was committed to an asylum for the insane in 1858 which left his wife and two children destitute. In 1861, on the eve of the Civil War, he published Transatlantische Studien in Stuttgart where he espoused an anti-slavery position. — Carl Wittke, Refugees of Revolution: The German Forty-Eighters in America, Philadelphia: Univ. of Penn. Press, 1952.]

2v [DE says “existing and still to be organized fighting force” instead of “such military organization as they had” and adds here: “He later wrote a book to point out the deficiencies of the provisional government, and thereby pointed out most forcefully his own.”]

2va [DE inserts here “... mainly ...”]

2vaa Friedrich (von) Beust (1817-1899), German soldier and political activist and Swiss reform pedagogue, was the son of a military man. Beust was born in the Odenwald, in whose great forests, as a young man, he observed Nature in her large and small aspects and collected her creatures. He learned to ride a horse in the royal stables. In 1834, he became an ensign in the 17th Prussian regiment. Under the guidance of a captain, he drew maps in his free time. He entered the division school at Düsseldorf where he was especially interested in geography which students of Karl Ritter were teaching. He continued his studies of cartography and also science, especially anatomy. In 1845, he was ordered to Fortress Minden, where he came to the conclusion he could not fit into Prussian military discipline, bitterly resigned in 1848, and became a political activist.

Beust took over the operations of the republican Neuen Kölnischen Zeitung when the previous publisher, Friedrich Annecke, was arrested for reporting on the Frankfurt Democratic Congress. Despite the efforts of Annecke's wife, Mathilde Franziska (née Giesler), the newspaper was suppressed. He got to know Ferdinand Freiligrath who was helping Frau Annecke put out the Westfälischen Jahrbuch, and who, anticipating the coming emigration which would be necessary, wrote him some letters of introduction to people in Paris. He also got to know the social democrat Karl Marx, who was putting out the Neuer Rheinischer Zeitung with Freiligrath. He took over the command of the Cologne militia, and when it interfered with the departure of Prussian troops to Düsseldorf to dissolve a regiment there, a "state of siege" was declared for Cologne and Beust's arrest was sought for high treason. At that point he emigrated to Paris. Later he was elected to the military commission for the Baden-Palatinate uprising. Beust soon saw that the chaotic leadership, among other things, would not allow the uprising to accomplish anything useful, and after the Ubstadt und Waghäusel battle, lost through ineptitude, he fled with a detachment across the Swiss border at Rheinfelden on June 15.

Beust settled in Zürich where he learned the trade of a pedagogue with the innovative teacher Meier while studying botany and chemistry at the university. He obtained an appointment at Karl (nephew of the famous Friedrich) Fröbel's school. At this point, he stopped using “von” when he gave his name, but he never formally renounced his claims to nobility. Seeing a return to Germany was out of the question, he joined A. Kirchner in the leadership of his establishment. In 1854 he married Anna Lipka. Then he founded his own school, and for the rest of his life devoted all his resources to that, and became a Swiss citizen. The school taught 25 children, and was attended by children living in Zürich and those of well-situated familes in Germany. In 1894, his son, Dr. Fritz von Beust, took over its direction. Beust was especially interested in the teachings of Pestalozzi and Fröbel on activities for children, and himself published works on early childhood education.

When he died, he was one of the last of the "48ers" living in exile.

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 47, pp. 754-758.]

2vb [DE inserts here “... in the field ...”]

2w [DE says merely “who was reputed to really be named Schneider” rather than “of whom it was rumored that he was really not a Pole, but a German by the name of Schneider.” DE gives the amount of money as 10,000 gulden.]

2wa [Jósef Zachariasz Bem (1794-1850), Polish soldier. He was educated at the military school at Warsaw, where he especially distinguished himself in mathematics. Joining a Polish artillery regiment in the French service, he took part in the Russian campaign of 1812, and distinguished himself in the defense of Danzig enough to win the cross of the Legion of Honour. On returning to Poland, he was for a time in the Russian service, but lost his post, and his liberty as well for some time, for his outspokenness. He was about to write a treatise on the steam-engine, when the Polish War of Independence summoned him back to Warsaw in 1830. His skill as an artillery officer won the battle of Igany, and he distinguished himself at the indecisive battle of Ostrolenká. He took part in the desperate defense of Warsaw, and then escaped to Paris.

A wider field for his activity presented itself in 1848. First he attempted to hold Vienna against the imperial troops. After the capitulation, he offered his services to Kossuth, first defending himself, in a long memorial, from the accusations of treachery to the Polish cause and of aristocratic tendencies which the more fanatical section of the Polish emigrant Radicals brought against him. In the defense of Transylvania, he performed miracles with his little army, notably at the bridge of Piski. On the collapse of the rebellion he fled to Turkey, adopted Mahommedanism, and under the name of Murad Pasha served as governor of Aleppo, at which place, at the risk of his life, he saved the Christian population from being massacred by the Moslems.

As a soldier Bem was remarkable for his excellent handling of artillery and the rapidity of his marches.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

2x [DE adds here: “The field of action he saw himself put into was totally alien to him.” — deleted in AT.]

2xa [DE omits “that was to aid him.”]

2xb [DE omits “neighboring.”]

2y [In this sentence, DE says “a more or less combat-ready army” rather than just “an army”, and “without too much trouble” rather than “in a comparatively short time.”]

2ya [DE says “the powers of the two small lands” rather than “their strength.”]

2yb [DE says “the boundaries of Baden and the Palatinate” rather than “its present boundaries.”]

2z [DE gives this sentence as “To this end the to provisional governments should have thrown all the only to a certain extent march ready people over the borders to draw the troops and people of neighboring states into the revolutionary movement, first those of Hessen and Württemberg, and, if successful, press on further in the same manner.”]

2za [Franz Sigel (1824-1902), German and American soldier, American journalist, politician and civil servant, was born in Baden. There, he became an officer in the grand ducal service, and soon became known for revolutionary opinions. In 1847, after killing an opponent in a duel, he resigned his commission. When the Baden insurrection broke out, Sigel was a leader on the revolutionary side in the brief campaign of 1848, and then took refuge in Switzerland. He returned to Baden and took part in the second outbreak under General Louis Mieroslawski. Working as journalist and schoolmaster, Sigel subsequently lived in Switzerland and England and emigrated to the United States in 1852. At New York and St Louis, whither he removed in 1858, he conducted military journals.

When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, Sigel was active in raising and training Federal volunteer corps, and took a prominent part in the struggle for Missouri. He served with Nathaniel Lyon and J. C. Frémont as a brigadier-general of volunteers. In 1862, he took part in the battle of Pea Ridge, which secured Missouri for the Federals. As a major-general, he was placed in command of the First Corps of Pope's “Army of Virginia,” taking part in the second Bull Run campaign. Afterward, he remained in command of his corps (now called the Eleventh) and the Twelfth. Early in 1863, bad health obliged him to take leave of absence. In June 1863, he was in command of large forces in Pennsylvania. In 1864, he was placed in command of the corps in the Shenandoah Valley, but was defeated and superseded. Subsequently he was in command of the Harper's Ferry garrison at the time of Early's raid upon Washington.

After the war, he became editor of a German journal in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1867, he removed to New York City. He was appointed collector of internal revenue in 1871, and in the following October he was elected register of New York City by Republicans and “reform Democrats.” From 1885 to 1889, having previously become a Democrat, he was pension agent for New York City, on the appointment of President Cleveland. General Sigel's last years were devoted to the editorship of the New York Monthly, a German-American periodical.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition. Carl Schurz discusses Sigel's service in the American Civil War in Volume Two, Chapter VII of his Reminiscences.]

2aa [DE says “after a short time” rather than “after an unfortunate engagement.”]

2ab [DE says “propagandistic” in addition to “offensive.”]

2aba [DE says “shoot” rather than “fight against.”]

2ac [Before this sentence, DE says “I cannot give myself credit for having seen through the situation so clearly at that time as I did later. I did have a glimmer, but I consoled myself with the thought that the leaders, much older people than myself, must know better what to do; and ultimately I fell back on my hopeful young fortitude which told me again and again that such a just cause as ours could not possibly fail.” — AT notes this passage was (inadvertently?) omitted from the proofs.]

2aca [DE omits “four,” says “Rhine-Hesse free corps” rather than “corps commanded by Zitz” and inserts here “... similar ...”]

2acb [DE inserts here “... very ...”]

2acc [DE inserts here “... even ...”]

2acd [DE inserts here “... as a commissary of the provisional government ...”]

2ace [DE describes these two items as “a Calabrian hat with a plume and a black-red-gold sash.”]

2ad [DE and AT append here “..., some of them with plumes on their hats.”]

2ada [DE says “some of them” rather than “mostly.”]

2ae [DE says “and keep it under surveillance” rather than “after having discovered it” and adds here “And so it happened.”]

2aea [DE inserts here “... sunny ...”]

2aeb [AT inserts here “... treasonable ...” DE says “dire traitor” rather than “culprit” and omits “in front of the house.”]

2af [DE inserts here “... as I had heard and read ...” AT just inserts “... I heard ...”]

2afa [DE says “It vexed me” rather than “I did not like” and omits “resented.”]

2ag [DE adds here: “... get ready to go, ...”]

2ah [DE inserts here “... to death ...” and appends to the end of this sentence “... and more nothing.”]

2aha [DE inserts here “... armed ...”]

2ahb [DE says “began” rather than “seemed.”]

2ahc [DE says “our troops” rather than “my men” and omits “of his ability.”]

2ahd [DE inserts here “... strongly ...” and says “quietly” rather than “without delay.”]

2ahe [DE omits “again.”]

2ai [DE appends to the priest's remarks: “And I — oh, what a great joke!”]

2aia [DE says“little ready for a fight” rather than “ill-equipped and undisciplined” — an AT change.]

2aib [DE says“it jumped around with me in rather wild leaps until I mastered it” rather than “I had to keep my seat as well as I could on my prancing steed.”]

2aj [DE adds here: “I also got equipped with some cavalry riding breeches whose heavy leather made them very difficult to walk in.”]

2ak [DE begins this sentence with “Although the well-instructed had been expecting the entrance of the Prussians and the order to retreat for several days ...” and ends the sentence with “... the comfortable confusion which had reigned since the outbreak of the uprising in Kaiserslautern and brought it to the point where it was really uncomfortable.”]

2am [DE inserts here “..., and the disorder grew from hour to hour ...”]

2ama [DE inserts here “... I have already said ...”]

2amb [DE omits “and were off” — added in AT.]

2an [DE says “striking beauty” and “poetic fiery patriotism” and adds “great kindheartedness” to the list and says “much intelligence” rather than “vivacity” and “excellent character traits” rather than “noble character” and appends to the end of the sentence “... on horseback.”

Mathilda Franziska Giesler Anneke (1817-1884), writer, women's rights advocate, and teacher. During the Revolution of 1848, she cut her hair short and joined her husband Fritz in the Palatine People's Army as an orderly. — German Life (April/May 2008, p. 58).

Thrown on her own resources in her early years, with the collaboration of distinguished writers such as Freiligrath and Levin Schücking she had edited the Westfälische Jahrbuch, and written poems, short stories, and a drama. An ardent revolutionist of the period of 1848, she had married Fritz Anneke, who was imprisoned in 1848, but released soon after. During this epoch, she founded the Neue Kölnische Zeitung, soon suppressed by the government. She changed the paper to a woman's journal, wherein she argued for equality of the sexes and the opening of channels for woman's work. This “Frauenzeitung” was also soon suppressed. After the collapse of the 1848 revolution, she came to America. In Milwaukee, she founded the Deutsche Frauenzeitung in 1852, but soon removed to New York, then to Newark, where her husband edited a political newspaper. In Switzerland for her health from 1860 to 1865, she was a frequent correspondent of the Belletristisches Journal of New York and the Illinois Staatszeitung of Chicago. After her return to America in 1865, she founded a private school for girls in Milwaukee. Her literary work continued until her death in 1884, and included novels, short stories, and poems. — Albert Bernhardt Faust, The German Element in the United States, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1909, Vol. II, pp. 458-459.

Trefousse (p. 117, 123, 312 note 55) characterizes Mathilda Anneke as Schurz's determined enemy once they had both emigrated to the U.S.]

3 the name of which is taken from a band of robbers who figure prominently in the plot. It was published in 1781. The title is Die Räuber. [After this sentence, DE adds: “Among our warriors was a full array of painterly effects.”]

4 [DE adds here: “and in possession of an odd assortment of armament”]

5 [DE adds here: “and so they not only gave their beards every imaginable freedom, but covered their hats with feathers (among which red ones were especially favored), wore cloaks in garish colors, and, if they had them, stuck lethal looking daggers or hunting knives in their belts. And so we found ourselves with enough figures out of one of Wallenstein's encampments to fill a heart with terror ...”] Wallenstein's soldiers in the Thirty Years' War were regular soldiers of fortune living on the countries which they conquered. As a result they did not present the appearance of soldiers of a regular army, systematically uniformed and equipped, but lived and dressed nearly as they pleased. Wallenstein was a general of Ferdinand II., Emperor of Austria, and of the Holy Roman Empire, 1619-1637. He was of a noble Bohemian family. He lost his parents early in life, and was reared by the Jesuits. He joined the Imperial army, and distinguished himself in the campaigns against the Turks and Venetians, and as a result was first made colonel, then count. Through marriage with a rich woman advanced in years he became a wealthy landed proprietor by 1614. The Emperor made him a prince in 1623. In the Thirty Years' War he offered to advance the money to organize an army which would be of no further expense to the Empire, as it would live on the conquered countries. Thus he came to be named commander-in-chief of the Imperial forces. In 1629 the German princes and the Jesuits forced the Emperor to dismiss him, but in 1631 Swedish successes compelled Ferdinand to offer him the command again. He had designs for making an empire for himself, and was proclaimed a traitor in 1634. His army abandoned him and he fled to Eger, where he was assassinated. Wallensteins Lager is a play by Schiller — the first of a trilogy based on events in the Thirty Years' War — intended to show us the state of mind of the army, which had made Wallenstein its idol. The other plays are Piccolomini and Wallensteins Tod.

6 a picturesque point, with the ruins of a castle of the same name.

6a DE omits “dry.”

6b DE inserts here “... entirely ...”

7 so called to distinguish it from the thirty other Neustadts. Hardt: a mountain range in the Rhenish Palatinate, a northerly continuation of the Vosges. [DE appends here “... and Edesheim.”]

7a [DE inserts here “... with metal dippers beside them ...” and adds after this sentence “The emptied pails were usually replaced immediately by full ones.”]

8 [Ludwig Blenker (1812-1863), German and American soldier, was born in Worms. After being trained as a goldsmith by an uncle in Kreuznach, he was sent to a polytechnical school in Munich. Against his family's wishes, he enlisted in an Uhlan regiment which accompanied Otto to Greece in 1832. Due to his gallantry, he soon became an officer. A revolt in Greece obligated him to leave, with an honorable discharge, in 1837. He studied medicine in Munich and then, at the wish of his parents, opened a wine trading business in Worms. He also married. In 1848, he became a colonel in the Worms militia. A large majority of the citizens also preferred him for mayor of Worms, but the otherwise liberal Jaup ministry failed to confirm him due to intrigues by the opposition party. This drove him into the hands of the democratic ultras, and when the revolution broke out in Baden, he led an insurgent corps in spite of the poor prospects. He was noted on both sides for his fearlessness. His wife accompanied him on his campaigns. When the cause was lost, they went to America via Switzerland. When the Civil War broke out in 1861, he formed a German regiment and soon became a brigadier general. He was noted for his coverage of the retreat at Bull Run and for his performance at Cross Keys. But then a series of deficiencies plagued his command, the main accusation being carelessness with respect to supplies. These and an illness he contracted in the field obligated him to resign his command in 1862. He died soon thereafter leaving behind his wife, son and three daughters in dire circumstances. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 2, p. 703.] See Schurz's Reminiscences, Vol. II., Chapter V, pp. 233-236 [for an account of his meeting with Blenker in the United States.]

8a [DE gives this sentence as: “He presented a stately and martial figure and was an excellent horseman, and his splendidly accoutered appearance at the head of his staff impressed me mightily.”]

8aa [DE notes the crossing was made by Knielingen.]

8ab [DE inserts here “at all” and omits “for liberty.”]

8b [DE appends “and repugnance.”]

8ba [DE omits “high and low” and says “during the last weeks” rather than “since his flight” and begins the next sentence with “After all ...”]

8bb [Eduard von Peucker (1791-1876), Prussian general and statesman, after completing his gymnasium education in 1809, responding to rumors of an uprising against the French, entered a Silesian artillery brigade. To his chagrin, he was obligated to instruct a Prussian corps helping the French in 1811 and participated in the Russian campaign in 1812. But he did finally distinguish himself in the war of liberation against the French and was raised to the nobility in 1816. In 1825, he was entrusted with making over of the Prussian artillery as well as equipping the infantry with needle guns. In 1848, he was appointed as the minister of war in the provisional German central government. He answered the parliament's questions well, but a maneuver where soldiers all over Germany were supposed to turn out and give a cheer for the imperial regent did not work out, and he resigned. On June 10, 1849, he was appointed commanding general of the armies which were to suppress the Baden rebellion, the so-called “Neckar Corps.” His march on the Murg and from there south through the Black Forest to Constanz enclosed the rebellion and prevented its spread into Württemberg. In October 1849, he was appointed military governor of the Rhineland and Westphalia. In November 1850, he was sent as Prussia's representative to Hesse to help resolve some constitutional questions there in coöperation with his Austrian counterpart, Count von Leiningen. Various political problems, made his work there mostly futile. After 1854, he was occupied with looking after training for the Prussian army. In 1858, he was named a general in the infantry. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 25, pp. 556-559.]

8c [DE omits “commander of a corps formed of regular Würtemberg and Hessen troops.”]

8ca [Ludwik Mieroslawski (1814-1878), Polish revolutionary, was born in Nemours, France, the son of a Polish officer in the army of the grand duchy of Warsaw. In the 1830 uprising, he joined a Polish regiment as an ensign. He later became a sub-lieutenant and took part in the struggle against Russia until the effort failed in 1831, at which time he went to France and devoted himself to literature. By 1838, he had completed a four-volume history of the Polish revolution. In 1842, he was elected to the leadership of the Polish emigrants in Paris. In 1845, he was sent to Posen to participate in a new uprising in Poland, but was betrayed and arrested and sentenced to death in Berlin after a trial which lasted a year and a half. The sentence was commuted to life in prison, and he was freed in the revolution of 1848. He immediately went to Posen to organize a Polish regiment. He first had to deal with the Prussian authorities: Since he wanted even the German part Posen for the future kingdom of Poland, he terrorized the German population; General Colomb quickly drove the insurgents back to Paaren, and they had to capitulate in Bardo on the Russian border. Mieroslawski was released from custody, and returned to Paris. At the start of 1849, he went to Sicily to direct the troops of an uprising there, but enjoyed as little success in that endeavor as he did later in Baden where in the beginning of June he was called to direct the troops of that uprising. When the Baden uprising was crushed, he returned again to Paris via Switzerland. In 1863, he was named as dictator by the Polish authorities for an uprising against the Russians, but in less than a month his troops were decisively defeated and he returned to Paris where he remained for the rest of his days. — Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 1888.]

8d [DE omits “and the reserves which approached from the south of Baden.”]

8da [DE says “towards them” rather than “northward.”]

8e [DE appends “and fight.”]

8f [DE says “maid of 25 years” rather than “young maid” (an AT change) and “spirit” rather than“expression of face.”]

8fa [DE says “not unimportant” rather than “important.”]

8g [DE says “flashing tips of lances which” rather than “some cavalrymen who.”]

9 cavalrymen armed with long lances. They originated in Poland in the sixteenth century. In 1741 Frederick the Great instituted a regiment of Uhlans, but they did not distinguish themselves, and were discontinued for a while. At present [1913] there are twenty-six regiments.

9a [DE adds here: “which our side returned.”]

9aa [DE adds here “I saw a battalion of ours which had been led against a Prussian battery come back in disorder, and, obeying a strong impulse, I galloped among the men for the purpose of helping to restore order and renewing the attack, but I was quite content when I saw that the commander of the battalion took good care of that business himself.” — deleted in AT.]

9ab [DE says “be able to conduct myself properly” rather than “be likely to retain my presence of mind.”]

9b [DE says “similar” rather than “more considerable” and notes that the retreat wasn't as orderly as before.]

9c [DE inserts here “at Durlach” and says “mutinous volunteers” rather than “mutineers.”]

10 the Murg is a river rising in the Black Forest, and flowing northwest past Rastatt into the Rhine.

10a [DE says “afternoon” rather than “evening.”]

11 [DE specifies its name as Fort B.] B: in signs and notices the Germans quite generally use Roman (English) letters, which are not only more legible, but are easier to paint.

11a [DE inserts here “... shortly ...”]

11aa [DE omits “from sheer fatigue” — added in AT.]

11ab [DE inserts here “... castle ...”]

11aa [DE calls it a “calamitous fate” rather than “extremely undesirable” and omits “and this not in obedience to orders, but by mere accident.”]

12 [Gustav Nikolaus Tiedemann (1808-1849), German soldier. After completing high school in Mannheim, on a suggestion from an uncle, he attended a military school. From there, he worked his way up to appointments as regimental adjutant in two locations in succession. Then he entered veterinary school and was trained in English at the royal stables in Hannover. Through conflicts with superiors, he ended up in prison and resigned from the service in 1833. He then entered the Greek service as an under officer and again became a regimental adjutant and finally director of the military school in Piræus. Then a change of administration in 1843 deprived all foreigners of their posts, and having a Greek wife, he looked to find another occupation in Greece. This was unsuccessful, and in 1847 he returned to Germany hoping to find something in the postal or railroad service. This did not work out either, and his wife started getting homesick, so he returned to Greece in 1848, shortly after inducing some peasants to lay down their arms in Heidelberg. Again he failed to find an occupation in Greece, and after a year, in 1849, he was in Baden thinking of entering the Schleswig-Holstein service.

Instead he became a revolutionary, his younger brother having married a sister of Hecker. He was appointed a major and belonged to the staffs of Sigel and Mieroslawski. He took part in a battle near Neckar, but then went to Karlsruhe as he did not feel well. There he displeased Mieroslawski by seeking the discharge of incapable adventurers from the service. He was put into custody and taken to Rastatt. Once the defense against the Prussians had failed outside the fortress on June 30 — the same day Carl Schurz entered the fortress — Sigel appointed him as fortress commander. Sigel himself evacuated with the rest of the unsuccessful revolutionary army. Tiedemann's duties mostly consisted in suppressing the residents and soldiers who wanted to surrender the fortress.

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 38 (Leipzig, 1894), S. 278-280.]

After the surrender he was tried by a Prussian court martial and shot, 11 August, 1849. Prussia visited a similar punishment on his brother. Their father [Friedrich Tiedemann (1781-1861)] was an eminent anatomist and physiologist, professor at the University of Heidelberg. [The portrait of Tiedemann in Volume One of AE seems misplaced, since it represents Fritz Tiedemann rather than Gustav. This portrait appears again in Volume Three in a correct context. The text of Schurz's Reminiscences nowhere suggests any relationship between these two Tiedemanns even when he discusses family relationships for both of them: Schurz mentions Fritz Tiedemann will be his son-in-law in Volume Three, p. 29, and discusses Colonel Tiedemann's family relationships in Volume Two, p. 9, and Volume Three, pp. 153-154.]

12a [ DE only notes that Tiedemann became an officer in the Greek army and doesn't mention Prince Otto.

Otto (1815-1867), the second son of Ludwig I of Bavaria, was king of Greece from 1833 to 1862. Otto was well intentioned, honest and inspired with a genuine affection for his adopted country; but it needed more than mere amiable qualities to reconcile the Greeks to his rule. With the grant of the constitution Otto's troubles increased. Ultimately he was deposed by the military and returned to Bavaria. For this unfortunate issue, his father Ludwig was not without blame: owing to an exaggerated idealism and love of antiquity, Ludwig totally misunderstood the national character of the Greeks and the problems involved in the attempts to govern them by bureaucratic methods. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

12b [DE omits “listened to my report” and also the entire next sentence.]

12c [DE notes Nusser's house was located by the marketplace.]

12d [DE inserts here “... apparently townspeople of excellent character ...”]

12e [DE says “youthful optimism” rather than “hopeful imagination.”]

12f [DE inserts here “... only ...”]

12g [DE omits “Now” — at AT addition.]

12h [DE omits “of Baden.”]

12i [DE omits “from other parts of the country.”]

12j [DE inserts here “... and celebrated ...”]

13 one story how this nickname was gained is as follows: at a battle in Baden perhaps near Durlach (see p. 268) some troops from Iserlohn under the command of Prince Wilhelm refused to attack or shoot at the insurgents. The Prince placed behind them some cannon loaded with grapeshot and manned by soldiers from another division of the army. Then he told the mutinous soldiers to obey or they would be raked with grape.

13a [DE appends here: “... — especially those, who, like myself, were right at the age at which military service was required. At that point I remembered that, shortly before the Siegburg affair, I had to make an appearance before the royal draft board which arbitrarily overlooked my petition to be a ‘one-year volunteer’ and assigned me to a cavalry regiment with the prospect of being called up very soon. For me therefore there would certainly be no leniency shown. —”]

13aa [DE says “Finally” rather than “Then” and appends here “... when he found me conveniently at hand.”]

13b [DE inserts here “... from a randomly clad volunteer ...”]

13c [DE says “The siege brought greater” rather than “We had also other.”]

13d [DE inserts here “... and the garrison ...”]

14 Corvin, Otto von Wiersbitzki [Otto Julius Bernhard von Corvin-Wiersbitzki]: a German author, born 12 October, 1812. [He attended military school in Potsdam, eventually becoming a lieutenant in the army. He left the military in 1835 to devote himself to writing. His novels and dramas did not attract notice, but a book of instruction on swimming — he was very talented in this area having organized the swimming pool at his army post and taught the people there how to dive and swim — was quite popular. He also founded magazines on outdoor life and horses, the first of their kind in Germany, and they did well. With this success, he was able to marry. In Leipzig, he put out a sports almanac for 1844 and Taschenbuch für Jäger und Naturfreunde (Handbook for Hunters and Friends of Nature). His circle of friends crystalized into the first literary club in Germany, and they waged a small war against the police and bureaucracy. An enthusiastic protestant, he wrote historical studies of which Historische Denkmale des christlichen Fanatismus (Historical Monuments to Christian Fanaticism) is a typical title. This particular book was released in conjunction with the inauguration of the German Catholic movement in Leipzig. A political magazine, Die Locomotive, was shut down by the government censors. His Illustrirte Weltgeschichte für das Volk (Popular Illustrated History of the World) did very well. In search of an effective and cheap reproduction technology for the illustrations in his History, he developed a process eventually called “Corviniello,” later fine-tuned while he was in prison, which became widely used.

In 1848, he fought in the barricades in the French uprising. The French provisional government then offered him generous support for democratic uprisings in Germany, however his offer to the Frankfurt parliament to form a national army was sharply rebuffed.] In 1848-1849, [after participating in the Berlin uprising,] he took part in the Baden revolt, first as a colonel of militia [under Mieroslawski] in Mannheim, then as chief of the general staff in Rastatt [when he, as did so many others, found himself trapped there on June 30]. In September 1849, a court martial condemned him to death, but the sentence was commuted to six years' solitary confinement, which he passed at Bruchsal.

[On his release, he went to London where he taught German and worked for Charles Dickens on All the year round and Household words. In 1857 in Soden, he finished the memoirs of his prison experience. An attempted return to Germany at Hamburg was frustrated by police chicanery, and he returned to London, his memoirs finally being published in 1861 in Amsterdam. That year he traveled to the United States of America to cover the Civil War (or Secessionskrieg — War of Secession — as it was called in Germany) for the London Times and Augsburg Allgemeinen Zeitung, returning to Berlin in 1867 as a special correspondent for the New York Times. In Berlin, the Corvins lived with Prince Felix Salm and his wife, who they had met in America. Corvin edited the Salms' memoirs of Mexico and Emperor Maximilian. He covered the Franco-Prussian War for papers in America, London and Germany. In 1878, he founded an association of German writers in Leipzig.]

He died 2 March, 1886.

[— Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 47 (Leipzig, 1903), S. 531-538.]

14a [DE says “Maler” instead of “Mahler.”]

14aa [DE inserts here “... as fate would have it ...”]

14aaa [DE says “across” rather than “toward the north” and inserts here “... the flourishing valley bordered by ...” After the description of the south, it inserts a description of the north: “toward the north the broad plain down below;” Perhaps another town (or direction?) is meant besides Baden-Baden since Baden-Baden is directly south of Rastatt.]

14ab [DE omits “over.”]

14b [DE inserts here “... many thousands of ...”]

14c [DE omits the second “cruelly” — added in AT.]

14d [DE appends here “in these strange circumstances.”]

14e [DE omits “officer.”]

14f [DE inserts here “... long since ...”]

14g [DE inserts here “... weary ...” and notes the sofas comprised the major portion of the furniture.]

14h [DE gives the family name, Zähringen.]

14i [In DE, it is referred to as “my yellow damask sofa” rather than “the sofa” and Schurz resorts to it “in the grey light of dawn after making my nightly rounds.”]

14j [DE omits “down.”]

14k [DE adds here: “..., indeed no resistance to Prussian troops of any kind, ...”]

14m [DE inserts here “probably.”]

14n [DE starts this paragraph with “It was a beautiful summer day.” and omits “watchful and dreamy” — AT deletion and addition respectively.]

14na [DE inserts here “... also ...”]

14nb [DE says “castle tower” rather than “tower of observation.”]

14nc [DE inserts here “... whose favorite I was ...” — an AT deletion.]

14nd [DE inserts here “... competent or ...”]

14o [DE appends here: “... as if I wanted to the very last moment to look upon the beautiful world.”]

14oa [DE says “for” rather than “when” — an AT change.]

14ob [DE inserts here “... provide the most necessary services and ...”]

14p [DE omits “by the Prussians” and says “and perhaps tomorrow already” rather than “to be.”]

14pa [DE begins this sentence with “I took leave of Rebecca in the picture on the ceiling, and ...” — deleted in AT, but apparently not by Schurz.]

14q [DE says “before the” rather than “between two lines of.”]

14r [DE adds here “by the marketplace.”]

14s [DE adds here “or badly repaid their devotion.”]

14sa [DE says “the town” rather than “communications” — an AT change.]

14sb [The “-er” suffix on “Steinmauerner” is a Germanism which should be omitted, that is it should say “Steinmauern gate.” Shortly below it is stated that Steinmauern is a neighboring village.]

14t [This phrase in DE could also be translated as “I intended to try.”]

14u [DE adds here “He was very devoted to me.” — deleted in AT.]

14ua [John Albert Neustätter. He was an artillery officer for the Union during the Civil War. — Carl Wittke, Refugees of Revolution: The German Forty-Eighters in America, Philadelphia: Univ. of Penn. Press, 1952.]

14v [DE identifies the cloak as a sleeveless cycling cape (Radmantel) lined with red flannel which Schurz had recently had made from cloth he supplied. In AT the source is changed in the typescript to Rastatt's stores, and an annotation changes red flannel to scarlet. Going ashore in Edinburgh after his and Kinkel's flight from Germany, Schurz, in both DE and AE, is wearing an overcoat lined with bright blue flannel made in Switzerland from a "large soldier's cape." In the Paris chapter, DE also identifies the source as his Baden officer's coat, and says the transformation was made in Switzerland. So it appears DE is erroneous on this issue in the Rastatt chapter. The description Schurz gives of the cape he got from the Rastatt stores is strikingly similar to the one he describes the Viennese academic legionnaries wearing at the Eisenach conference in Chapter 6. In Paris, Strodtmann burns a big hole in it. There Schurz notes it was the most valuable article in his wardrobe.]

14w [DE gives the dimensions of the sewer as 4 to 4½ feet high by 3 to 3½ feet wide where they found themselves in an “uncomfortable hunched position.”]

14x [DE indicates the manholes were positioned at regular intervals, and “provided spots of light in the otherwise dark canal.”]

14xa [DE omits “happened to.”]

14xb [DE begins this sentence with “After it had become a little quieter, ...” and says “tower” rather than “church.” This tower clock is referred to here and four other places below.]

14xc [DE inserts here “... to us entirely ...”]

14xd [DE says “water voles” rather than “undoubtedly rats.”]

14xe [DE omits “although disagreeable.”]

14xf [DE says "Halt! Who goes there?" and omits “‘good friend’”]

14xg [DE appends here “..., always farther away.”]

14xh [DE inserts here “... in the dark rainy night ...”]

14xi [DE says “Our council on what was to be done now” rather than “Our next council of war.”]

14xj [DE inserts here “... earnest ...”]

14xk [DE says “not wanting” rather than “keen” — an AT change.]

14y [DE omits “as is always the case under such circumstances.”]

14ya [DE inserts here “..., along with the excitement, ...”]

14yaa [DE gives this last phrase as “... and it seemed like my brain remained entirely clear withal.”]

14yb [DE doesn't mention her being a widow.]

14yba [DE says “hostile” rather than “Prussian.”]

14ybb [DE omits “another.”]

14yc [DE adds here: “It was broad daylight.”]

14yca [DE inserts here “... feed and ...”]

14yd [DE inserts here “... the good ...”]

14ye [DE omits “little.”]

14yf [DE inserts here “... toward the garden ...”]

14yfa [DE inserts here “... to over the height of a man ...”]

14yfb [DE says “brush-covered ditch” rather than “brush.”]

14yfc [DE says “as we sat there” rather than “as well as our sitting there.”]

14yfd [DE says “the” rather than “my.”]

14yg [DE inserts here “otherwise.”]

14yh [DE adds here “and stick it out until the worst might happen.”]

14yi [DE appends here “... on our blocks of wood.”]

14yia [DE says “saw” rather than “tool.”]

14yj [DE inserts here “... which lay next to us ...”]

14yk [This sentence takes the place of two in DE which could be translated “The surface that we stretched out on was composed of planks and covered with an inch thick white dust. In this dust we now laid with our wet clothes.” In DE the extreme disagreeableness of the condition is left implicit.]

14yka [DE says “Now our situation again” rather than “Our situation.”]

14ym [DE says “the friend” rather than “the man.”]

14yma [DE inserts here “... cousin's ...”]

14yn [DE says “several people snoring” rather than “heavy snoring.”]

14yo [DE says “still not our helper” rather than “not the friend whom we so longingly expected.”]

14yp [DE says “at most” rather than “perhaps.”]

14yq [DE adds “and smallest.”]

14yr [DE omits “soldiers'.”]

14ys [DE inserts here “... even only ...”]

14yt [DE omits “said Neustädter.”]

14yu [DE says “disappeared” rather than “slipped.”]

14yv [DE says “Everything went well.”]

14yw [DE adds here “firmly.”]

14yx [DE omits “much.”]

14yy [DE omits this sentence — added in AT.]

14yz [A hussar was originally a soldier belonging to a corps of light horse raised by Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, in 1458, to fight against the Turks. The Magyar huszar, from which the word is derived, was formerly connected with the Magyar husz, twenty, and was explained by a supposed raising of the troops by the taking of each twentieth man. According to the New English Dictionary the word is an adaptation of the Italian corsaro, corsair, a robber, and is found in 15th-century documents coupled with praedones. The hussar was the typical Hungarian cavalry soldier, and, in the absence of good light cavalry in the regular armies of central and western Europe, the name and character of the hussars gradually spread into Prussia, France, &c. Frederick the Great sent Major H. J. von Zieten to study the work of this type of cavalry in the Austrian service, and Zieten so far improved on the Austrian model that he defeated his old teacher, General Baranyai, in an encounter between the Prussian and Austrian hussars at Rothschloss in 1741. The typical uniform of the Hungarian hussar was followed with modifications in other European armies. It consisted of a busby or a high cylindrical cloth cap, jacket with heavy braiding, and a dolman or pelisse, a loose coat worn hanging from the left shoulder. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition]

14z [DE says “a trumpet” rather than “the trumpeters.”]

14za [DE omits “But.”]

14zb [DE says “at first sight” rather than “when she first looked at him.”]

14zc [DE omits “tenderly.”]

14zd [DE says “the pair left, and we wished him Heaven's blessing.” rather than “the wooing vows died away in the distance.”]

14zda [DE says “four days” rather than “days and nights.”]

14ze [Instead of these last two sentences, DE says “I succeeded in jumping to the ground and hiding myself before the patrol turned the corner of the lane. I found Neustädter already in the little house, and Adam came a few minutes later.”]

14zf [DE appends here “... to avoid being seen. We succeeded in this, ...”]

14zg [DE says “steps” rather than “feet.”]

14zh [DE says “there” rather than “in the darkness of our refuge.”]

14zi [DE appends: “... to clear our way.”]

14zj [DE says “stepped out of the corn” rather than “joined us a moment later.”]

14zk [AT and DE say “said” rather than “growled” and DE says “gulden” rather than “florins.”]

14zka [DE omits “most cordially.”]

14zkb [DE omits “unexpectedly.”]

14zm [DE says “the growth seemed difficult to penetrate” rather than “the surroundings seemed to be rather uninviting.”]

14zma [DE says “Baden customs guard” rather than “frontier guard of the grand duchy of Baden” — an AT change, but not in Schurz's hand.]

14zn [DE omits “it looked as if” and “as if.”]

14zna [DE adds here “... tightly ...”]

14znb [DE inserts here “... greatly ...”]

14zo [DE adds here “..., a worthy Alsatian, promptly ...”]

14zp [DE adds here “... on both sides ...”]

14zpa [DE says “four days of silence or whispering” rather than “a silence of four days.”]

14zpb [DE says “horrible” rather than “like savages” — an AT change.]

14zpb [DE says “laid” rather than “squatted.”]

14zq [DE says “unrecognizable” rather than “streaked with dirt.”]

14zr [DE omits “heartily” and “at once.”]

14zs [DE omits “and shouldered his musket.”]

14zt [DE says “wanted to” rather than “would.”]

14zta [DE inserts here “... by a hostile bullet, toppled to the ground ...”]

14ztb [DE begins this sentence with “Now, it was said, ...” and says “have him shot” rather than “which would, no doubt, order him to be shot.”]

14zu [DE also mentions Techow and Schimmelpfennig explicitly.]

14zua [DE says “checked into” rather than “slept my first night in freedom.”]

14zv [DE omits “mischance.”]

14zw [DE has two, rather more awkward, sentences here and says “to see his son once more if possible” rather than “to look for his son.”]

14zwa [DE inserts here “... from whom he hoped ...”]

14zwb [DE inserts here “... to look for me.”]

14zwc [DE omits “a ray of.”]

14zx [DE adds here “... where the refugees gathered.”]

Notes to Chapter VIII

0 [DE says “in summer” rather than “afternoon.”]

0a [DE inserts here “... large ...,” says “unleashed the full consciousness of our freedom with joyful high spirits” rather than “been more joyful” and “under the enemy's power” rather than “in this dungeon.”]

0aa [DE inserts here “... with kindly curiosity ...”]

0ab [DE inserts here: “... the main outline of ...”]

0ac [DE inserts here: “... with our travel permits ...”]

0b [DE adds here: “As soon as possible we had to choose from among several cities in the interior of France, whose names he recited to us, to one of which we would be conveyed.”]

0c [DE inserts here “... who had fallen into the hands of the Prussians, and ...”]

0ca [DE inserts here “... immediately ...”]

0cb [DE omits “my efforts to find him out remained unsuccessful” and “thus it happened, that, as he did not write to me.”]

0d [DE says “light” rather than “alpaca.”]

0e [DE inserts here “..., whose name I have forgotten, ...”]

0f [DE inserts at the beginning of this sentence: “After a long discussion, carried on on her part ...”]

0g [DE expresses this sentence as: “While the omelet sizzled in the pan and spread its fragrance, the innkeeper walked in.”]

0h [DE inserts here “... honest ...” and appends to this sentence “... or other credentials.”]

0i [DE says “detailed” rather than “surprising.”]

0j [DE expresses this sentence as: “After dark he accompanied us part of the way, and then gave us a very clear description of a trail on which we would avoid all the customs officers and, after a not much longer walk, reach the Swiss village of Schönebühl. There we would find on the way a barn, which he described to us, that would probably be open, and where we would have a good night's rest on the stored hay.”]

0k [DE inserts here “... exactly ...” and appends to this sentence “... on the fragrant stock of hay.”]

0ka [DE omits “who seemed to be.”]

0m [DE adds here “It was a sunny day.” — deleted in AT.]

0ma [DE says “country people” rather than “men and women.”]

0n [DE inserts here “... of serene tranquility ...”]

0na [In DE Schurz refers to himself in the second person in this quote and says “no longer have one” rather than “have none.”]

0o [DE appends here “... which seemed to have been ripped open by a powerful movement of the earth.”]

0p [DE says “to see the Alps” rather than “to take a look directly at the high Alps.”]

0q [DE inserts here “... beyond Moutiers ...”]

1 a mountain the summit of which is 4000 feet above the sea. It is fifteen miles from Basel on the road to Neufchatel. It is much visited for the view it affords of the snow-capped mountains in the distance.

1a [DE begins this sentence with “To me ...”]

1aa [DE says “small” rather than “wayside.”]

1b [DE says “a drink and a bite to eat” rather than “wine and bread and cheese.”]

1c [DE inserts here “... which he had left a few days before ...”]

1d [DE says “many” rather than “several.”]

1e [DE omits “he was sure.”]

1f [DE inserts here “... in the valley ...”]

1g [DE inserts here “... on a neighboring hill ...,” omits “moss-covered” and says “ruins of walls” rather than “masonry.”]

1h [DE adds here “The innkeeper's daughter, a sturdy maid of 25 years who was in charge of housekeeping, was the only humane soul who seemed to take note of my sickly mood, and was compassionately solicitous. In a fearsome Basel dialect which I could only understand with difficulty, she gave words of consolation and encouragement, prepared for me some of her tastiest morsels, and gave me her best book to read. It was ‘Stifter's Studies,’ a book which, at first, I thought beyond her understanding. But I soon learned that this young Swiss woman had benefited from sound schooling, and, in spite of her Basel dialect, was not unacquainted with German literature. But ...” Adalbert Stifter (1805-1868) was an Austrian author whose “fame chiefly rests upon his Studien (1844-1851) in which he gathered together his early writings. These sketches of scenery and rural life are among the best and purest examples of German prose.” — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition]

1i [DE appends here “and in the next instant he stood before me.” DE omits “my Schleswig-Holstein friend.”]

1j [DE says “full of money” rather than “bursting with gold.”]

1k [DE inserts here “... — for Strodtmann was a gourmet — ...” and qualifies “celebrated” with “appropriately.”]

1m [DE inserts here “... merry ...”]

1ma [A variant of an older form, Habichtsburg (hawk's castle). The castle was built about 1020 not far from the junction of the river Aar with the Rhine. One of the builders' sons, Werner, was called count of Habsburg, and he represents the root of the European royal family, the house of Habsburg (also Hapsburg). — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition]

1mb [Albert I. (c. 1250-1308), German king, and duke of Austria, eldest son of King Rudolph I., the founder of the greatness of the house of Habsburg. Although a hard, stern man, he had a keen sense of justice when his selfish interests were not involved, and few of the German kings possessed so practical an intelligence. The serfs, whose wrongs seldom attracted notice in an age indifferent to the claims of common humanity, found a friend in this severe monarch, and he protected even the despised and persecuted Jews. The stories of his cruelty and oppression in the Swiss cantons first appear in the 16th century, and are now regarded as legendary. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition]

1mc [DE omits “his nephew.”]

1md [John of Swabia (1290-c. 1320), surnamed the Parricide. Having passed his early days at the Bohemian court, when he came of age he demanded a portion of the family estates from his uncle, the German king Albert I. His wishes were not gratified, and with three companions he formed a plan to murder the king. In May 1308, Albert in crossing the river Reuss at Windisch became separated from his attendants, and was at once attacked and killed by the four conspirators. The character of John is used by Schiller in his play Wilhelm Tell. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition]

1n [DE appends here “... since it seemed a more appropriate way to arrive, and the condition of our finances permitted such luxuries. It was my last student excursion.”]

1na [DE inserts here, “perched on top of the coach.”]

1o [DE omits, “as if I had dropped from the clouds.”]

1oa [DE begins this sentence with, “In Switzerland ...”]

1ob [DE omits, “in the casemates.”]

2 [In DE, the widow is identified as “Landolt”, and the sentence is extended with the phrase, “with the privilege of using a large adjoining room furnished with a long table and two benches.” In DE the paragraph begins with, “Immediately accommodations were sought for me.”]

2a [DE appends here “... of Enge.”]

2b [DE omits “although extremely simple.”]

2c [DE appends here “... faithfully.” It omits “after a time” and “fully.”]

2d [DE appends here “... to earn a living with.”]

2e [In place of the rest of the sentence, DE appends here “... by no means looked favorably upon this massive influx of refugees, at least for the time being.”]

2f [DE appends here “... and who should not.”]

2g [DE adds here “To avert such frittering away of our time it was therefore best to discuss the interests of freedom and the fatherland with the like-minded, and, with regard to this patriotic work, at most to grant oneself the relaxation of a masked ball or game of nine-pins or excursion to a nearby resort.”]

2h [DE omits “I was still only twenty years old.”]

2ha [DE inserts here, “and useful.”]

2i [DE inserts here “... critically ...”]

2j [DE omits “the historian.”]

2ja [Leopold von Ranke (1795-1886), German historian. Generally regarded as the first of modern historians, the recognition he obtained was due not only to his published work, but also to his success as a teacher. His public lectures, indeed, were never largely attended, but in his more private classes, where he dealt with the technical work of a historian, he trained generations of scholars. His classicism led to his great limitations as an historian. He did not deal with the history of the people, with economic or social problems. He dealt by preference with the rulers and leaders of the world. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition]

2k [DE indicates that the lodging at “the good widow Landolt's” became uncomfortable due to a lack of heat.]

2m [DE omits “Prussian” and indicates that the name of the merchant was Dolder and that the rooms were on the fourth floor. DE says “lodging” rather than “two cozy rooms”.]

2n [DE notes he was in his fifties.]

2o [DE inserts here “... untroubled ...”, and adds at the end of this paragraph: “Some twenty years later my friend Emmermann died as forester for Herr von Planta in Graubünden, in whose service he had entered, when the new revolution in Germany had not yet deigned to arrive.” After this paragraph it inserts an additional paragraph: “Our landlord, Dolder the merchant, at whose table we had our meals, was a man of average Swiss education, which is not too bad even next to the excellent public education in the canton of Zürich. He took a lively and intelligent interest in current events. He was especially proud of the fact that he had served as a major in the Federal army during the Sonderbund war, yet his only ‘battle’ was a minor skirmish by Lunnen, but, even though there were few shots exchanged in this affair, he loved to recite the tale. He also had a small collection of military books which he was very willing to put at my disposal, and when I needed other study material, he tried eagerly to do what he could. With warm gratitude I also think of his wife, a woman of middle age, neither beautiful nor clever, but compassionate to a high degree and with a noble motherly personality. She not seldom reminded me vividly of my own mother, so in her presence I felt almost as if I were at home.”

In 1841, in the Swiss canton of Aargau, where Catholics and Protestants were evenly balanced, the cantonal legislature voted to suppress the monasteries in the canton. This was contrary to the Switzerland-wide Federal pact of 1815. The Federal Diet ultimately upheld the pact, but then compromised saying the men's convents only were to be suppressed, and declared the question closed. In response, the Sonderbund (separate league) coalition was formed in 1843 by the seven Catholic cantons Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Lucerne, Zug, Fribourg and the Valais. They demanded the reopening of the question and the restoration of all the monasteries. They went further and officially invited in Jesuits and gave them high posts. In 1845, the Sonderbund turned itself into an armed confederation, ready to appeal to war in defense of the rights of each canton. In 1847, the Federal Diet declared that the Sonderbund was contrary to the federal pact, and subsequently, when the unyielding cantons had left the Diet, it ordered that its decree should be enforced militarily. The war was short (November 10-29), and the loss of life trifling. The Sonderbund cantons were forced to surrender and condemned to pay the costs of the war, which had been waged on religious rather than on strict states-rights grounds. Soon the federal constitution was modified and Christians were guaranteed the exercise of their religion, but the Jesuits and similar religious orders were not to be received in any canton. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition (“Switzerland”)]

2oa [A heroic epic written in a Middle High German dialect. The story on which the poem is based belongs to the general stock of Teutonic saga and was very widespread under various forms. Thus it is touched upon in Beowulf, and fragments of it form the most important part of the Icelandic Eddas. It has primitive and medieval components. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition]

2p [DE omits “as much as possible.”]

2pa [DE inserts here, “undoubted.”]

2q [DE omits “utterly.”]

2qa [DE inserts here “Confederation.”]

2qb [Hermann Heinrich Becker (1820-1885), German political activist and politician, received his doctor of laws degree from Berlin after also attending Heidelberg and Bonn. As early as his gymnasium years, he had acquired the nickname “red” because of the color of his hair. He worked in Cologne as a junior barrister where he made the acquaintance of Marx, Engels, Freiligrath, Bürger, Wolff and Lassalle. But he was not closely involved with the last “red” issue of the Neuen Rheinischen Zeitung which this circle put out, and which was to come back to haunt him; quite the contrary — he was putting out the Westdeutsche Zeitung which was a focus for struggles with Prussian authorities for those who had not taken vows with the “red reaction.” His journalistic activities stymied his legal career. In the legal actions against the press, he showed himself a talented speaker who could competently defend himself. He did less well in the 1851 actions against the communists in which he and Bürger were enveloped. There some evidence, which he denounced as a malicious fabrication, resulted in him being sent to prison for five years.

After his release, the police forbid his return to Cologne, and he finally settled in Dortmund as a merchant. His political activities resulted in his later election to many public offices: as representative to the Prussian Diet (where he sat with the Progressives, and was an expert in postal and rail matters), to the Reichstag of the North German Confederation (where he denounced the new constitution as lacking in substance in comparison to the old Prussian one, but still in 1870 ratified German unification since he had been working for that his whole life), and to the Reichstag of the German Empire. In 1870, he was also elected mayor of Dortmund, an office the king confirmed him in — on Bismarck's recommendation — despite opposition to the old democrat. By this time, he had left the Progressives as they had become too doctrinaire for him. In 1872, after resigning his office in the Diet, he became Dortmund's representative to the House of Lords. In 1875, he was elected mayor of Cologne. In 1884, he was called to the privy council. He also got married that year.

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 46 (Leipzig, 1902), S. 315-317.]

2r [DE doesn't say where he got the nickname “red Becker”.]

2ra [DE inserts here, “... meet my extremely modest needs and ...”]

2rb [Wilhelm Richard Wagner (1813-1883) German dramatic composer, poet and essay writer. He specialized in opera, and wrote his own librettos. The Flying Dutchman (Der fliegende Holländer}, debuted in 1843, was his first opera to embody his ideals. His participation in political agitations in 1849 made his position in Dresden untenable, and he fled to Switzerland where he lived until 1859. During this time many of his essays were written, some infamous for their anti-Jewish content. He also made occasional visits to Paris. In 1861 he was permitted to return to Germany. In this year he also left his first wife, and in 1870 married Liszt's daughter Cosima. She had been married to Hans von Bülow until she took up with Wagner.

Eventually, in Bayreuth, he founded a theater where his operas could be performed to his tastes. His most colossal work was a tetralogy called The Ring of the Nibelungs (Der Ring des Nibelungen), but there were a variety of others as well. Ludwig II of Bavaria aided his financing substantially.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition]

2rc [DE inserts here, “... also ...”]

2s [DE omits “of friends.”]

2t [DE says “shabbily” rather than “neglectfully”.]

2u [DE inserts here “... whose establishment had not been undertaken in earnest ...” and omits “minor”.]

2v [DE says “to such an extent, that I could not ignore a call for help which came to me” rather than “all the more as it had taken an unexpected and particularly shocking turn.”]

2va [DE inserts here “... the uprising had reached its end with ...”]

2w [DE appends here “along with other notables from the Palatinate-Baden uprising.”]

2x [DE inserts here “... accustomed to the bloody privileges of victors and ...”]

2y [DE omits “alternate.”]

2z [DE says “the individual Kinkel” rather than “Kinkel” (two places).]

2za [Karl Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Moritz von Hirschfeld (1791-1859), Prussian soldier, got his schooling in a military academy. In 1806, he entered into his father's regiment and participated in the unhappy campaign of that year. In 1809, he participated with his older brother Eugen in an uprising against the French occupation forces. This ended in their fleeing to England in 1810. Both joined the Spanish dragoons in their struggles against the French. His brother was killed in battle in 1811. Lieutenant Moritz received severe wounds two times in battle, and ended in French captivity. He escaped in 1813, under very dangerous circumstances. His 15 wounds made him barely recognizable when he received a medal for his actions.

Hirschfeld returned to the Prussian army in 1815, and in the succeeding peaceful years climbed the ranks in the military. 1849 found him commander of the 15th division of the Prussian army under the command of the Prince of Prussia. He participated in the battles which drove the rebel army out of the Palatinate and into the arms of the Baden forces under Mieroslawski. After relieving the Landau fortress, which was in the hands of the officers who had not gone over, he led two divisions against Mieroslawski, and at Waghäusel, he obligated that numerically far greater force to retreat. Then he participated in the battle at the Murg which obligated the rebel army to disperse and resulted in the collapse of the uprising.

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 12 (Leipzig, 1880), S. 473-474.]

2zb [DE says “unheard of” rather than “monstrous.”]

2zc [An alternative, and perhaps clearer, translation could be obtained by inserting here “... conforming to all regulations ...” and omitting “regular.”]

2zd [DE says “into a sentence of penal servitude” rather than “such as I have described, into something infinitely more cruel, something loaded with debasement and infamy — a sentence of penal servitude.”]

3 a small city east of the Rhine between Heidelberg and Karlsruhe, an attraction of which is an artistically decorated Schloss. It was here that Corvin (note 14 for Chapter 7) served his sentence.

3a [DE omits “in Baden.”]

4 in the extreme northeastern part of Germany. [Or at least Germany before World War II. Naugard, and much of old Pomerania, is now part of Poland. The Polish name of Naugard is Nowogard.]

4a [DE appends here “and further punished.”]

4b [DE inserts here “... only wrings its hands and ...”]

4ba [DE inserts here “..., courage and skill ...” — deleted in AT.]

4c [DE says “judgment” rather than “knowledge of the situation.”]

4ca [DE begins this sentence with “As his friend, ...” — deleted in AT.]

4d [DE says “intellectual” rather than “great” and “fatherland and freedom” rather than “German people.” — the latter an AT change.]

4e [DE appends here “and soothed by this resolution, I went to sleep.”]

4f [DE says “committed and prudent” rather than “bold.”]

4g [DE says “also said to myself” rather than “cheered myself with the thought” — an AT change.]

4h [DE omits “also.”]

4i [DE says “your” rather than “our” — an AT change.]

4ia [DE says “With this” rather than “And thus.”]

4ib [DE says “Johanna” rather than “Kinkel.”]

4j [DE inserts here “... domestic and foreign ...”]

4k [DE adds another sentence here: “Now it was appropriate to my design to take the greatest possible advantage of my association with the refugees without letting my friends know the intent of my plans.”]

4m [DE says “to organize there” rather than “as an emissary to visit various places in Germany for the purpose of organizing.”]

4n [DE omits this sentence.]

4o [DE says “without farewell” rather than “entirely unnoticed.”]

Notes to Chapter IX

0 [DE starts this paragraph with: “It was later said that at this time I traveled through Germany in a disguise which made me unrecognizable. This was in no way the case. I looked for and found my security in the fact that I could move amidst the company of other people with all possible tranquility. Admittedly I didn't show myself any more than was necessary, and avoided calling the attention of others to myself. In this way, I traveled from Basel through the grand duchy of Baden ...”]

0a [DE says “perfectly” rather than “so completely that not one of my Zürich friends suspected me in the least of ulterior designs.”]

0b [DE says “Everywhere there were still ...” rather than “There were still among them ...”]

0c [DE says “my being endangered by an accidental meeting with otherwise-minded acquaintances” rather than “trouble.”]

1 or Bad Godesberg, four miles up the Rhine from Bonn. As the latter name implies, it has mineral springs and is popular as a watering place.

1a [DE begins this sentence with “As I have already mentioned, ...”]

1aa [DE omits “a fortunate.”]

1b [DE omits “about my sudden appearance.”]

1c [DE says “take no one else into confidence on the matter, tell no one my name” rather than “speak to nobody about it.”]

1ca [DE says “recipe” rather than “receipt” — an AT change.]

1d [DE says “recounted” rather than“told me” and adds at the end of this paragraph: “Those were my letters.”]

1e [DE says “most trusted” rather than“oldest.”]

1f [DE says “am always learning to value it more highly” rather than“hope to enjoy it to the last.”]

1g [DE inserts here “... a couple of times ...”]

1h [DE says “spectral outings” rather than “expeditions.”]

1i [DE says “night time” rather than “accidental.”]

1j [DE says “bestower” (with a feminine inflection) rather than “girl.”]

1m [DE says “decision” rather than “being that one” and adds the following sentence after this one: “As much as I would have liked to, I didn't share my decision with them as I looked upon the deepest secrecy as a condition for success.”]

1n [DE inserts here “... comfortable and secure ...”]

1na [DE says “the editor of a democratic newspaper” rather than “the democratic editor.”]

1o [DE inserts here “... law ...”]

1p [DE says “in student fashion as a perennial scholar or an incipient alumnus” rather than “in the old way.”]

1q [DE gives this sentence as “Nobody would have anticipated at that time that this jolly comrade, who could still find so much satisfaction in bumming around for a week with his old fraternity, and who had already, at a comparatively young age, acquired in a high degree the oddities of an incorrigible old bachelor, would later distinguish himself as a most excellent public administrator and as a popular major of Cologne, and would die a member of the Prussian House of Lords.”]

1r [DE gives this sentence as “With true Cologne good nature, the secret of my presence was soon communicated by my nearest friends to so many others, and I was so often induced to visit, in broad daylight, public places of amusement, that I soon thought it was time to leave.”]

1s [DE gives the itinerary as “by way of Aachen to Brussels and from there to Paris.”]

1t [DE says “lengthy” rather than “venturesome.”]

1ta [DE says “The” rather than “Some.”]

1u [DE inserts here “... understand and ...” and after this sentence adds, “I had spent the night sitting, almost entirely without sleep, in a filled train coach.”]

1v [DE inserts here: “... had myself shown to a room, and stretched out on the bed to catch up on the sleep I had lost in the night. But the thought that I was now really in Paris kept sleep from coming,” — deleted in AT.]

1va [Blouse: a word (taken from the French) used for any loosely fitting bodice belted at the waist. In France it meant originally the loose upper garment of linen or cotton, generally blue, worn by French workmen to preserve their clothing, and, by transference, the workman himself. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

1vb [Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (1758-1794), French revolutionist, completed his law studies with distinction and was appointed as a criminal judge in Arras in 1782. He soon resigned, to avoid pronouncing a sentence of death, but speedily became a successful advocate. He now turned to literature and society, and came to be esteemed as one of the best writers and most popular dandies of Arras. He was elected a member of the academy of Arras, the meetings of which he attended regularly; and, like all other young Frenchmen with literary proclivities, he began to compete for the prizes offered by various provincial academies.

A pamphlet he is thought to have written secured his election to the states-general in 1789, and already he possessed the one faculty which was to lead him to supremacy: he was a fanatic — without the courage and wide tolerance which make a statesman, without the greatest qualities of an orator, without the belief in himself which marks a great man. Nervous, timid and suspicious, Robespierre yet believed in the doctrines of Rousseau with all his heart. To the end that these doctrines would eventually succeed and regenerate France and mankind, he was ready to work with unwearied patience.

He joined what was to be the Jacobin Club, and by 1791 his followers dominated it. He was esteemed by the people of Paris as an incorruptible patriot. In 1793, a major concern was preserving France against the armies of the other countries of Europe. Robespierre was elected to a new Committee of Public Safety. He had not solicited, so it seems, nor even desired this election. The success of this Committee in suppressing an insurrection strengthened its powers. It is necessary to dwell upon the fact that Robespierre was always in a minority in the Committee in order to absolve him from the blame of being the inventor of the Terror.

In 1794, Robespierre retired for a month, apparently to consider his position; but he came to the conclusion that the cessation of the Reign of Terror would mean the loss of that supremacy by which he hoped to establish the ideal of Rousseau. When he returned, Hébert and his friends were arrested and guillotined followed by Danton, Camille Desmoulins and their friends. A new law removed even the pretence of justice from the Committee's actions, and at least 1285 were guillotined over the month and a half which ended with Robespierre himself being guillotined. He had been arrested and imprisoned and then freed by supporters and taken to the Hôtel de Ville. There the national guards arrested him again, and he was shot in the jaw in the process. The next day he was executed.

His admission to the Committee of Public Safety gave him power, which he hoped to use for the establishment of his favourite theories, and for the same purpose he acquiesced in and even heightened the horrors of the Reign of Terror. Robespierre's private life was always respectable: he was always emphatically a gentleman and man of culture, scrupulously honest, truthful and charitable. In his habits and manner of life he was simple and laborious; he was not a man gifted with flashes of genius, but one who had to think much before he could come to a decision.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

1vc [Lucie Simplice Camille Benoist Desmoulins (1760-1794), French journalist and politician. The sudden dismissal of Necker in 1789 by Louis XVI was the event which brought Desmoulins to fame. Leaping upon a table outside one of the cafés in the garden of the Palais Royal, Desmoulins announced to the crowd the dismissal of their favourite. Losing, in his violent excitement, his stammer, he inflamed the passions of the mob by his burning words and his call “To arms!”

He wrote several influential pamphlets and published periodicals during the Revolution. He started as a protégé of Mirabeau, then of Danton and finally of Robespierre. He was an early advocate of a republic and voted for the death of Louis XVI. He fell out with Robespierre, and he was guillotined in 1794, along with a group that included Danton. A short time later his wife was guillotined as well.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

1vd [DE inserts here, “... famous ...”]

1ve [Louis XVI (1754-1793) became king of France when he was twenty years old. He began his reign under good auspices, with Turgot, the greatest living French statesman, in charge of the disorganized finances; but in less than two years he had yielded to the demand of the vested interests attacked by Turgot's reforms, and dismissed him. Turgot's successor, Necker, however, continued the regime of reform until 1781, and it was only with Necker's dismissal in 1789 that the period of reaction began: there were riots in Paris, and the Bastille was stormed.

In 1790, Louis swore loyalty to the constitution then in preparation. He attempted to flee France in 1791, but was caught. In 1791, he took his oath as a constitutional king. He found himself impelled to a war with Austria which failed. Royalty was abolished in 1792, and he was executed in 1793. His diary shows how little he understood, or cared for, the business of a king. Days on which he had not shot anything at the hunt were blank days for him. The entry on the 14th of July 1789, the day the Bastille fell, was “nothing”!

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

1w [DE inserts the following sentence here: “Later I will come back to treat in more detail my method for learning foreign languages.”]

1wa [DE says “individual” rather than “some.”]

1x [DE inserts here: “... and drawing my acquaintances out with most penetrating questions ...”]

1y [DE says “an, until then, unsuspected world” rather than “a world of charming vistas.”]

1ya [DE appends “... to get me out of a temporary embarrassment.”]

1z [DE notes the remittance from Becker was for honoraria Schurz had earned and that it was three days overdue, to Schurz's amazement.]

1za [DE inserts here “... of coffee ...” — an AT deletion.]

1zb [DE says “Quartier Latin” rather than “French” — an AT change.]

1zc [DE omits “very.”]

1zd [DE says “half an hour already” rather than “more than an hour” and inserts here “... seemed to ...”]

1ze [DE says “agile” rather than “amiable.”]

1zf [DE says “the whole staff had noticed” rather than “both had become annoyed at.”]

1zg [DE begins this sentence with “This was highly uncomfortable for me, ...”]

1ba [DE says “stone slab” rather than “marble.”]

1bb [DE says that Schurz caught a quick glance from the two rather than that they looked at each other — an AT change.]

1bc [DE says “ridicule and laughter” rather than just “laughter.”]

1bd [DE's version of this sentence is more elaborate: “In the excitement of the moment, I made a reckless decision. I said to myself that, just like the other guests, some of my friends could show up at such a late hour. I ordered another cup of coffee, sat down and took up a newspaper again. But I could no longer read. I suffered from the pains of a guilty conscience. With anxious expectation, every moment I looked up from the newspaper to the door.”]

1be [DE says “anxiously awaited draft on a Paris bank” rather than “delayed check.”]

1bf [DE appends here “... and I have now and then asked myself whether I did the right thing when I ordered the second cup of coffee” — deleted in AT.]

1bfa [DE says “my posterity” rather than “those who read this story” and appends here “... without outlook for payment ...” and omits “a happy” and “for payment” — AT changes.]

1bg [This first part of this sentence (everything before “or on occasion” — the rest of the sentence is not in DE) is given more elaborately in DE: “It was just a case of false pride — that false pride — that false pride which has pushed so many people, originally with good intentions and honest, onto the downward path of ruin. Many have become liars, perjurers, forgers, thieves and even murderers whose criminal paths began because they did not have the moral courage to expose themselves to a humiliation rather than risk a step of doubtful honesty” — all AT changes.]

1bh [DE says “campaign” rather than “affair.”]

1bha [DE says “12th” rather than “10th.”]

1bi [DE says “gray convict's jacket” rather than “penitentiary garb.”]

1bia [DE says “in this man disfigured by” rather than “with.”]

1bib [DE gives the charge as “perpetrating an action designed to upset the present constitution of the kingdom, to excite the citizens or inhabitants of the state to arm themselves against the royal authority and thereby bring about a civil war, to arm the citizens or inhabitants of the state against one another or incite them to arm themselves against each other.”]

2 [DE is more specific: “Of the defendants, Gottfried Kinkel, Anselm Unger, Ludwig Meyer and Johann Bühl were in the hands of the authorities, — the six others, Friedrich Anneke, Joseph Gerhardt, Friedrich Kamm, Matthias Rings, Franz Joseph Klinker and Karl Schurz, having fled.”] Karl: spellings in the text conform to the reformed orthography. Schurz was named Carl before the spelling was reformed.

2a [DE begins this sentence with “Already at dawn on the day the trial was to take place, ...” and says “reprieved” rather than “condemned.”]

2b [DE says “the convict” rather than “he.”]

2c [DE inserts here “... impenetrable ...” and notes he was greeting the crowd during his walk.]

2d [DE adds here the following sentence: “The proceedings followed the usual route.”]

2e [DE inserts here “... rather clearly ...”]

2f [DE omits “in his own defense” and says “took the stand in his own defense” rather than “asked to be heard.”]

2g [DE inserts here “... appalling ...”]

3 Kinkel's speech was published in Bonn in 1886. [DE presents the beginning of his speech as narrative rather than quotation; later parts of the speech are quoted.]

4 organized to draft a constitution.

5 Great Charter of (English) Liberties granted by King John to his barons in 1215. It is the basis of English political and personal liberty. Here the term is used metaphorically.

5a [DE omits “the 18th of” and “and freedom.”]

5aa [DE inserts here “... the last chance for ...”]

5aaa [Otto Maußer disputes Schurz's assertion. He says Kinkel's works showed a good understanding of socialist concepts, though he admits it is an open question to what extent Kinkel embraced socialist solutions. He calls Kinkel one of the most colorful and interesting examples of the early days of democratic intelligence in Germany. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 55, p. 527]

5ab [DE says “as well as them” instead of “within itself” and “attainment” rather than “developments.”]

6 a standardization of French law. The Consulate assembled the best jurists of France in 1800 and set them to work codifying the laws. The results of their labors were published in 1804 under the title of Code civil des Français. In 1807, after Napoleon had become emperor, the title was changed to Code Napoléon. [After 1870, other laws again referred to it as Code civil. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

6a [DE appends here “... from above.”]

6b [DE puts this sentence as “We set out to protect it.”]

7 Iserlohn (see note 13 for Chapter 7) is an important manufacturing town of Westphalia. There are factories around the town, the chief products of which are brass, iron, needles, and wire.

8 fierce battles occurred here between the Prussians and the Baden insurgents with their allies, 25 June, 1849. Durlach is two miles east of Karlsruhe. Near by is the Turmberg, on which is an ancient Roman watch tower.

9 see note 14 for Chapter 7. [Also, DE says “the spinning wheel” rather than “penal labor.”]

10 Bürgerkrone: a garland of oak leaves and acorns conferred in ancient Roman days on one who had saved the life of a Roman citizen in battle. [DE says “demand” rather than “receive”, “Rhenish prosecuting attorney” rather than just “prosecuting attorney” and “in collusion with” rather than “according to” and appends here “... to wear upon our heads.”]

10a [DE omits “of citizens.”]

10a [DE inserts here “... for twelve years ...”]

11 Kinkel had saved from drowning the lady who afterward became his wife. She was a divorcée and a Roman Catholic. This marriage caused Kinkel's dismissal from his pastorate in Cologne.

11a [DE inserts “But ...” at the beginning of this sentence.]

11b [DE says “speaker's platform” rather than “platform of the citizens' meeting.”]

11c [DE says “in this state of mind I dissuaded” rather than “I warned.”]

11d [DE says “woman who mixes poison” rather than “murderer.”]

11e [DE inserts here “... however sharp your speech ...”]

11f [DE says “who is accused in this arena” rather than “whom the public prosecutor has insinuatingly dared to accuse.”]

11g [DE inserts here “... composed himself and ...”]

11h [DE appends here “... to continue the proceedings” and omits the next sentence.]

11i [DE appends here “... so she could embrace him.”]

11j [DE omits “by the court-martial in Baden” — added in AT.]

11k [DE inserts here “..., as in Pomerania generally, ...”]

11m [DE says “they and their captive were” rather than “they intended.”]

11ma [DE inserts here “... for an escape ...” — deleted in AT.]

11n [DE says “left the vicinity of the door to come to the window” rather than “stepped to the window.”]

11o [DE adds a sentence here: “While all this was going on, it had become completely dark.”]

11p [DE inserts here “... on ...”]

11q [DE appends here “... by the blow.”]

11r [DE appends here “... to struggle with” — deleted in AT.]

11s [DE inserts here “..., however, ...”]

11t [DE says “powerful fist blows” rather than “his fist.”]

11u [DE inserts here “... innkeeper and the ...”]

11v [DE inserts here “... notorious and ...”]

11w [DE's reward offer is “and whoever caught him would be sure to get a reward of 100 thalers” — an AT change.]

11x [DE appends here “... who had slipped out of the house and yard unnoticed” and also “outside” after “look.”]

11y [A more literal translation of DE would be “discovered by the postillion, still in his benumbed condition” rather than “in his benumbed condition discovered by the postilion.”]

11z [DE omits “in an extraordinary degree” and says “back to” rather than “for.”]

11aa [DE omits “where I hoped to establish useful connections” — added in AT.]

11aaa [Moritz Karl Georg Wiggers (1816-1894), German politician, started out as a lawyer and a notary in his home town of Rostock. The revolution of 1848 prompted him to enter public life as a representative to the Mecklenburg constitutional convention, of which he was also elected president. Once the constitution was adopted in 1849, he was elected to its legislature, again being named president. A court of arbitration in Freienwald declared the constitution as invalid, and the legislature was dissolved in 1850. Wiggers regarded this action as illegal and called the legislature to meet again, but this was prevented by force. He was also tried for aiding the flight of Gottfried Kinkel from Spandau prison, but was acquitted. Nevertheless, he was caught up by the “Rostock high treason proceedings.” A police agent had infiltrated Wiggers' democratic club, and in 1853, he was tried for conspiracy and imprisoned. On his release in 1857, he remained a private citizen for a decade. In 1867, he was elected as representative from the third Berlin precinct (not being permitted to run in Mecklenburg) to the Reichstag of the North German Confederation. In 1871, he was elected as representative, from Berlin and Mecklenburg, to the German Reichstag. There he served with the German Progressive Party until 1881. After this time, he devoted himself to the construction of a canal between Rostock and Berlin. He was the author of several historical studies, political pamphlets and reports on the progress of the canal. His outstanding traits were his unyielding commitment to his liberal convictions and his peaceable nature. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 42 (Leipzig, 1897), S. 465-468.]

11ab [DE and AT add a passage here:

“During this trip, there was only one time when I seemed to be in real danger. I had a two-hour layover at a post hotel in Hamm, and sat in the restaurant waiting for the meal I had ordered. I began an innocuous conversation with a Prussian lieutenant who sat at the same table opposite from me drinking a cup of coffee. Where possible, this was my practice at public places with soldiers or officials, preferably police officers, in order to show myself as an entirely free and easy and unsuspicious individual.

“While I spoke with the lieutenant in Hamm about indifferent things, I noticed an odd commotion outside. A coach stopped and an elderly gentleman in a bright travel overcoat stepped out, with him two policemen, one of whom remained standing at the door of the building while the other came in with the elderly gentleman and posted himself in the hall by the staircase. The elderly gentleman stepped into the restaurant, and I noticed that a dark red uniform collar peeked out of the buttoned-up overcoat. So the man was an official — probably a police official. He asked for the proprietor. When the proprietor came in, the two fell into a quiet and earnest conversation. This situation disquieted me.

“In the meantime, the beefsteak which I had ordered had arrived. I directed the waiter to an empty table near a window which exited into the hotel yard. In order to reach this table, I stepped as closely as possible by the man in the overcoat and the proprietor and tried to catch a word which might give an explanation of the subject of the earnest conversation. I heard the official say the words ‘a young man with blond hair and eyeglasses,’ whereupon the proprietor rather loudly answered: ‘I believe that must be him.’ This could pertain to me, and I became rather uneasy.

“I went to the table where my steak awaited me, moved my chair close to the window, and asked two men sitting nearby if they would mind if I opened the window as the air in the room was oppressively warm. They consented, and I examined the yard through the open window to see if I would have a chance of escape if I had to try a jump through the window. The outlook was very doubtful. Then I sat down and busied myself with the beefsteak.

“The proprietor had in the meantime left the restaurant in the company of the official. After a few minutes they returned, and at the same time a murmuring arose from which the words ‘They have him’ were audible. Soon afterwards the proprietor came by my table, and I asked him what was going on. He said that a young man had arrived early in the morning, gotten a room and ordered his meals brought there. And just then he was arrested.

“He was a clerk in a post office in a small town close by and had stolen about 300 thalers from the post office cash in order to go to America. ‘The poor guy!’ continued the proprietor contemptuously. ‘It was just surprising to me that he ordered his lunch in his room instead of coming to the restaurant. And for only 300 thalers!’ I felt very relieved and couldn't refrain from fetching a match from the table at which the official had sat down to a snack and a glass of wine so I could light a cigar to have with my cup of coffee.”]

11aba [DE says rather “She was happy to hear that I thought ...” — an AT change.]

11abb [“Trustworthy” seems a better fit than “confidential” here.]

11abc [In DE the word here is Fuge which means “fugue” in English.

A fugue is a musical composition in which a subject announced by one part is imitated, or answered, by the other parts successively — not canonically, but with interruptions, possible modifications, etc. Subject and answer appear in all the parts, at intervals, throughout the movement. The term is from fuga (a flight) because, it is alleged, the parts seem to fly from, or chase, one another. In former times, the term was applied to imitative counterpoints generally. — Henry Charles Banister, Music, New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1887, p. 189.]

11abd [DE says “untimely” rather than “unnecessary.”]

11abe [DE appends here “... for a moment” — deleted in AT.]

11abf [Christian Lassen (1800-1876) German orientalist and professor at the University of Bonn for his entire career. He translated inscriptions and literature from ancient India and Persia and other cultures.]

11ac [DE inserts here “..., also ...”]

11ad [DE omits “and fitting me admirably in the personal description” and “as the passports of political offenders venturing upon dangerous ground usually are” and says “where otherwise travelers were carefully scrutinized” rather than “the gates and railroad stations of which were supposed to be closely watched by an omniscient police bent upon arresting or turning away all suspicious characters.”]

11ae [DE says “Next” rather than “Without delay”. In DE the students Schurz looks up are identified only as university friends from Bonn who had moved to Berlin, and not as members of Franconia. DE omits “although they were not a little astonished to see me suddenly turn up in Berlin.”]

11af [DE says in place of this sentence: “I confided in them my personal affairs, but not the secret of my plans.”]

11ag [DE gives the names of the two students Schurz roomed with as Müller and Rhodes, and only they are identified as former members of Franconia and as giving him a hearty welcome. DE omits “a good many of whom lived in that neighborhood.”]

11ah [DE says “a fugitive with a warrant out for my arrest” rather than “who was then virtually an outlaw.”]

11ai [DE gives the signal trait of the Berlin police as “omniscience” rather than “efficiency.”]

11aj [Rather than “did not resist the temptation to see”, DE is more elaborate at this point and says “did some thoughtless things which could have come to great consequence. While I made connections and arrangements to prepare for Kinkel's liberation, and about which I will speak more exactly later, I could not avoid the tempting enjoyments of the big city, and among these enjoyments there was one which was especially precious, but which also became especially dangerous.” The rest of the sentence, becomes a new sentence and paragraph which starts out “The famous French actress, Rachel, was ...” — “was” replaces “who.”]

11aja [Rachel (1821-1858), French actress, whose real name was Elizabeth Felix. At Reims she and her elder sister, Sophia, afterwards known as Sarah, joined a troupe of Italian children who sang in the cafés, Sarah singing and Elizabeth, then only four years of age, collecting the coppers. In 1830, they came to Paris, where they sang in the streets. Etienne Choron, a famous teacher of singing, was so impressed with the talents of the two sisters that he undertook to give them gratuitous instruction. After his death in 1833, they were received into the Conservatoire. In 1837, Rachel made her first appearance at the Gymnase in Paul Duport's La Vendéenne, with only mediocre success. But the following year she succeeded in making a début at the Théâtre Français as Camille in Corneille's Horace, and her remarkable genius at once received general recognition. It was in Racine's Phèdre, which she first played in 1843, that her peculiar gifts were most strikingly manifested. Her range of characters was limited, but within it she was unsurpassable. She excelled particularly in the impersonation of evil or malignant passion, in her presentation of which there was a majesty and dignity which fascinated while it repelled. By careful training, her voice, originally hard and harsh, had become flexible and melodious, and its low and muffled notes under the influence of passion possessed a thrilling and penetrating quality that was irresistible. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

11ak [DE inserts here “... to the accompaniment of a harp ...”]

11am [DE inserts here “... shortly ...”]

11an [DE omits this sentence.]

11ao [DE gives a more elaborate critique of these French tragedies: “I had never found much pleasing in these works. The feelings represented in them seemed artificial, the passions unauthentic, the speech stilted, the Alexandrine verse form with its inexorable caesura stiff and tedious more than the average.”]

11aoa [DE says “affected cothurnus” rather than “stage” and “quiet” rather than “intense” and inserts here “... loud ...”

The cothurnus is a thick-soled high boot reaching to the middle of the leg. It was used in the ancient Athenian tragedy to increase the stature of the actors, in opposition to the soccus, “sock,” the light shoe of comedy. Greek actors stood some 6 ft. 6 in. high when wearing the cothurnus and tragic mask. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition (“buskin,” “costume,” “theatre”).]

11ap [DE omits this phrase which seems to be an alternative translation of the last phrase of the paragraph.]

11aq [DE describes her forehead as “beautiful, vaulted” rather than “not remarkably high, but broad and strong.” Her eyebrows are described there as “dark as thunder clouds,” the nose as “fine and slightly curved” with no mention of “chiseled,” the line of the mouth as “aristocratic” as well as “severe.”]

11aqa [DE says “full of strength” rather than “the attitude betraying elastic strength” and inserts here “... expressive ...” and says “mysterious” rather than “intense.”]

11ar [DE omits this phrase.]

11as [DE says “had never been” rather than “you had never” and “supernatural” rather than “phantomlike” and adds “so powerful and yet so soft” to this list.]

11asa [DE says “had to yield” rather than “yielded.”]

11at [DE omits “As her speech went on“ and “without the slightest effort or artificiality.”]

11au [DE says “caesura” rather than “forced rhymes.”]

11av [DE gives these last two sentences as three phrases: “Her speech flowed on like a quiet stream through green meadows, or it hopped with cheerful playfulness like a brook over a pebbly bed, or it plunged down like a mountain stream rushing from boulder to boulder.”]

11aw [DE inserts here “... and roared ...”]

11ax [DE says “on the beach” rather than “of the sea.”]

11ay [DE says “or a” rather than “and how then the” and “us” rather than “you.”]

11az [DE says “persuasive, gripping” rather than “powerful” and “in this voice” rather than “in the intonations of that voice and to subjugate the hearer with superlative energy.”]

11ba [DE says “fearful” rather than “terrific” and “passion” rather than “wrath and fury.”]

11bb [DE inserts here “..., without anyone on stage, would have ...” and omits “even if he did not understand the language, or if he had closed his eyes so as not to observe anything of the happenings on the stage.”]

11bc [DE omits “sadness” from this list and adds “raging vengfulness.” It says “unbounded wrath” rather than “wrath and rage.”]

11be [DE combines this sentence with the next one omitting the question mark and “They in their turn seemed to make” and appending “... with which Rachel overwhelmed the spectator and made ...”]

11bf [DE inserts here “... seem ...”]

11bfa [See Act III Scene ii of The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark by William Shakespeare. DE says “miserable mechanical artifices” rather than “perfunctory doings.”]

11bg [DE starts this sentence out with “But ...”]

11bh [DE says “rose or descended” rather than “moved” and “every beholder” rather than “the beholder.”]

11bi [DE says “sculptor” rather than “artist.”]

11bj [DE says “she thus conceded the fullest, most satisfying understanding” rather than “they made everything intelligible and clear; at once you understood it all and were in accord with her.”]

11bja [DE says “as if she ruled” rather than “as if born to rule.”]

11bk [DE says “forehead” rather than “front.”]

11bka [DE says “seemed” rather than “began.”]

11bm [DE omits these last two sentences.]

11bma [DE says “murderous” rather than “the veriest.”]

11bmb [DE inserts here “... involuntarily ...”]

11bmc [DE inserts here “... all ...”]

11bn [DE says “artistically experienced persons of cultivated taste and calm judgment” rather than “persons of cultivated artistic judgment” and “uncontrollable” rather than “bewildered.”]

11bna [DE says “often” rather than “sometimes.”]

11bo [DE expresses the second half of this sentence and the next sentence as: “but the attractive power of her genius was so strong that I could not resist it. So I went to the theater to see her as often as the purpose I was in Berlin for, which required frequent nightly visits to Spandau, left sufficient time.”]

11boa [DE says “as close as possible to the exit” rather than “near the entrance.”]

11bp [DE appends here “... and occasionally I held my handkerchief in front of my face as if I had a toothache” — deleted in AT.]

11bpa [DE says “my exit” rather than “I.”]

11bpb [DE says “the sight of which gave me a fright” rather than “which I knew but too well for my comfort.”]

11bpc [DE says “peculiar incidents” rather than “exceedingly questionable transaction.”]

11bq [DE adds a sentence here: “And now I found myself in this knot of people closely opposite him.”]

11bqa [DE says “straight in the eye” rather than “in a manner clearly indicating that he recognized me, but.”]

11bqb [DE says “leave” rather than “disappear among the passersby on the street.”]

11bqc [DE inserts here “... a year ...”]

11br [DE inserts here “... at various times ...” and says “her lung disease was already very apparent” rather than “her fatal ailment had already seized upon her.”]

11bt [DE says “beings” rather than “women.”]

11bu [DE inserts here “... and vain ...”]

11bv [DE and AT omit “Virginia.” AT adds “Medea.”]

11bw [DE inserts here “... the ideal embodiment of ...”]

11bx [DE adds joy and pain to this list and omits anger.]

11by [DE says “graphic completeness” rather than “an ideal grandeur” and substitutes “clear or exact” for both “satisfactory” and “precise.”]

11bz [DE inserts here “... enthralled and ...”]

11ca [DE adds “compassion” to the list and omits “critical.”]

11cb [DE appends here “... in her quality.”]

11cc [DE says “senseless” rather than “futile.”]

11cd [DE says “in level of excellence” rather than “of degree” and appends here “... of essence.”]

11cda [Adelaide Ristori (1822-1906), Italian actress, was born the daughter of strolling players. As a child she appeared upon the stage, and at fourteen made her first success as Francesca da Rimini in Silvio Pellico's tragedy. She was eighteen when for the first time she played Mary Stuart in an Italian version of Schiller's play. It was not until 1855 that she paid her first professional visit to Paris which, after an initial cold reception to her Francesca, she took by storm in the title rôle of Alfieri's Myrrha. Furious partisanship was aroused by the appearance of a rival to the great Rachel. Paris was divided into two camps of opinion. Humble playgoers fought at gallery doors over the merits of their respective favourites. The two famous women never actually met, but the French actress seems to have been convinced that Ristori had no feelings towards her but those of admiration and respect. A tour in other countries was followed (1856) by a fresh visit to Paris, when Ristori appeared in Montanelli's Italian translation of Legouvé's Medea. She repeated her success in this in London. In 1857 she visited Madrid, playing in Spanish to enthusiastic audiences, and in 1866 she paid the first of four visits to the United States, where she won much applause, particularly in Giacometti's Elizabeth. She retired in 1885. Her Studies and Memoirs (1888) provide a lively account of an interesting career, and are particularly valuable for the chapters devoted to the psychological explanation of various characters, in her interpretation of which Ristori combined high dramatic instinct with the keenest and most critical intellectual study. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

11cdb [Charlotte Wolter (1834-1897), Austrian actress, was born at Cologne, and began her artistic career at Budapest in 1857. Her performance of Hermione in the Winter's Tale took the playgoing world by storm, and she was given in 1862 an appointment at the Vienna Hofburg theatre, to which she remained faithful until her death. According to her wish, she was buried in the costume of Iphigenia, in which rôle she had achieved her most brilliant success. Charlotte Wolter was one of the great tragic actresses of modern times. Her repertory included Medea, Sappho, Lady Macbeth, Mary Stuart, Preciosa, Phèdre, Adrienne Lecouvreur, Jane Eyre and Messalina. She was also an inimitable exponent of the heroines in plays by Grillparzer, Hebbel, Dumas and Sardou. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

11cdc [Sarah Bernhardt (Rosine Bernard) (1845-[1922]) French actress, was born in Paris, of mixed French and Dutch parentage, and of Jewish descent. She was, however, baptized at the age of twelve and brought up in a convent. At 13 she entered the Conservatoire. Her début was made at the Comédie Française that year, in a minor part without any marked success, nor did she do much better in burlesque at the Porte St-Martin and Gymnase. In 1867 she became a member of the company at the Odéon, where she made her first definite successes as Cordelia in a French translation of King Lear, as the queen in Victor Hugo's Ruy Blas, and, above all, as Zanetto in François Coppée's Le Passant (1869). When peace was restored after the Franco-German War she left the Odéon for the Comédie Française, thereby incurring a considerable monetary forfeit. From that time she steadily increased her reputation, two of the most definite steps in her progress being her performances of Phèdre in Racine's play (1874) and of Dona Sol in Victor Hugo's Hernani (1877). Her amazing power of emotional acting, the extraordinary realism and pathos of her death-scenes, the magnetism of her personality, and the beauty of her “voix d'or,” made the public tolerant of her occasional caprices. She had developed some skill as a sculptor, and exhibited at the Salon at various times between 1876 and 1881. She also exhibited a painting there in 1880. In 1878 she published a prose sketch, Dans les nuages; les impressions d'une chaise. Her comedy L'Aveu was produced in 1888 at the Odéon without much success. Her relations with the other sociétaires of the Comédie Française having become somewhat strained, a crisis arrived in 1880, when, enraged by an unfavourable criticism of her acting, she threw up her position. This obliged her to pay a forfeit of £4000 for breach of contract. Immediately after the rupture she gave a series of performances in London. These were followed by tours in Denmark, America and Russia, during 1880 and 1881, with La Dame aux camélias as the principal attraction. In 1882 she married Jacques Damala, a Greek, in London, but separated from him at the end of the following year. She became proprietress of the Porte St-Martin, where she remained till she became proprietress of the Renaissance theatre in 1893. During those ten years she made several extended tours, including visits to America (North and South), Australia, and the chief European capitals. In December 1896 an elaborate fête was organized in Paris in her honour. By this time she had played one hundred and twelve parts, thirty-eight of which she had created. Early in 1899 she removed from the Renaissance to the Théâtre des Nations, a larger house. In the same year she made the bold experiment of a French production of Hamlet, in which she played the title part. She also appeared (1901) as the fate-ridden son of Napoleon I., in Rostand's L'Aiglon. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

11ce [DE says “unmistakable” rather than “very great.”]

11cea [DE says “true” rather than “unique.”]

11cf [DE inserts here “... police ...”]

11cg [DE inserts “In the compartment where I put my clothes back on after the bath, ...” at the beginning of this sentence, and then adds after this sentence “My friends put me, in great pain, into a cab.”]

11ch [In DE, Schurz notes that one of the friends who examined him was “Dr. Tendering who had been a fellow student at the university in Bonn, and at this time was the company surgeon for an infantry regiment.” Schurz goes on to say: “Since I was in great pain, I was put under chloroform for the first time in my life. I remember very clearly the dream which the chloroform evoked. It was as if I was sitting on a pink-colored cloud which slowly lifted me from the earth, but my left foot was bound fast to the earth and the upward sailing of the cloud occasioned a somewhat painful tension. Actually, the two doctors were busy pulling my left leg and turning it this way and that way, for they were afraid that I had broken my thigh bone.” In the next sentence, “They finally convinced themselves” is substituted for “It turned out.”]

Notes to Chapter X

1 formerly a suburb of Berlin, but now a manufacturing district in the city. [DE appends to this sentence: “... and whose character and whose circumstances seemed to me the most suited for the exploit I had in mind.” DE omits “and practiced.”]

1a [DE appends here: “... in town.”]

1b [DE appends here: “... to goals he thought were worthy.”]

1c [DE appends here: “... of an alert policeman even though it was in the best order.”]

2 [DE calls the street cab a Lohnfuhrwerk rather than a Droschke (an AT change), and the strategy reads: “I would pass by foot through Brandenburg gate, usually at nightfall, and then catch a street cab in Charlottenburg or Moabit, each time a different one.”] Charlottenburg: really a part of Berlin, though a separate municipality. [DE and AT start out the next paragraph with the sentence: “Herr Krüger was well informed about what was going on in Spandau prison, and what he did not know he could easily find out from officials he knew who worked there.”]

2a [DE inserts here “... limited ...”]

2aa [DE inserts here “... instantly ...” and appends “... to the spot” to this sentence.]

2ab [DE says “beginning” rather than “venture.”]

2ac [DE inserts here “... their cells ...” and says “sawing through bars and breaking through walls” rather than “breaking through barred windows and tunneling walls.”]

2b [DE moves the last two sentences of this paragraph to the the middle of the next paragraph. The second sentence gets phrased a bit differently: “But what would I not do to rescue a shamefully-treated friend and freedom fighter from the clutches of tyrannical willfulness?”]

2c [DE omits “as the liberation of such a prisoner as Kinkel.”]

2d [DE inserts here “... small ...” and gives the turnkey the fictitious name of Schmidt. The omission of the alias is an AT change.]

2e [DE inserts here “... over the husband and father ...”]

2f [DE inserts here “... some strengthening food, ...”]

2g [DE omits this sentence.]

2ga [DE omits “At the close of our conversation.”]

2gb [DE omits “I intimated that.”]

2gc [DE omits “comparatively.”]

2gd [DE and AT prefix this sentence with “On a small piece of paper ...”]

2ge [DE inserts here “... Spandau ...”]

2gf [DE says “laudable” rather than “splendid.”]

2gg [DE says “the Rhineland” rather than “my home on the Rhine.”]

2gh [DE inserts here “... when he heard this ...”]

2gi [DE says “the Rhineland” rather than “my home.”]

2h [DE inserts here “... I moved to a dark way of speaking in which ...”]

2i [DE says “to do the same” rather than “to remain his friend.”]

2j [DE says “I disappeared for him also” rather than “I dismissed him.”]

2k [DE and AT insert here “..., where by this time time the things already described had happened, ...”]

3 Germany's greatest seaport, situated on the Elbe, about eighty miles from the mouth. It is honeycombed with waterways and canals, which render access easy to a large number of warehouses. Hamburg is the home city of the Hamburg American Steamship Company, and is the focus of an enormous import and export business. It ranks as one of the world's foremost ports. The quaint old overhanging warehouses on the canals are giving way very rapidly to modern buildings.

3a [DE says “faithful Adolph” rather than “friend.&rdquo and notes that Strodtmann provided Schurz with secure lodging.]

3b [DE appends here “... who exercised their public spirit in the small free state with many useful activities, and from whom I was able to learn what citizen initiative could accomplish with free state institutions.” AT appends here “... among them Mme. Goldschmidt, the mother of the musician of the same name who later became the husband of Jenny Lind, and with an excellent man who soon after became a professor at a German university.”

Jenny Lind (1820-1887), the famous Swedish opera singer, first performed in an opera in 1836. Her first great success was in 1838 in Weber's Der Freischütz. She started for Paris in 1841. Her success in Sweden was more for her acting ability than for her voice. Her wonderful vocal art was only attained after a year's hard study under Manuel García, who had to remedy many faults that had caused exhaustion in the vocal organs. Her last performance in a fully-staged opera was in 1849. She came to America in 1850. In Boston, in 1852, she married Otto Goldschmidt (1829-1907), whom she had met at Lübeck in 1850, and returned to England, her home for the rest of her life, where she appeared in oratorios and concerts. For some years, she was professor of singing at the Royal College of Music. Her last public appearance was at Düsseldorf in 1870.

The supreme position she held so long in the operatic world was due not only to the glory of her voice, and the complete musicianship which distinguished her above all her contemporaries, but also to the naïve simplicity of her acting in her favorite parts, such as Amina, Alice or Agathe. In these and others she had the precious quality of conviction, and identified herself with the characters she represented with a thoroughness rare in her day. Unharmed by the perils of a stage career, she was a model of rectitude, generosity and straightforwardness, carrying the last quality into a certain blunt directness of manner that was sometimes rather startling.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition. Jenny Lind appears again in Schurz's Reminiscences in Chapter II of Volume Two.]

3c [DE inserts here “... itself ...”]

3d [DE omits “my friend.”]

3e [DE says replaces the rest of this sentence with: “that they had at that time gotten together with me and were in my confidence, but this was pure imagination.”]

3f [DE inserts here, “... in Moabit ...”]

3fa [DE omits “always.”]

3g [DE inserts here, “... to Spandau ...”]

3h [DE says “right man” rather than “man I wanted.”]

3i [DE says “what” rather than “the helper whom” — an AT change.]

3j [Trefousse (p. 32) gives his full name as Georg Brune.]

4 Westphalia is a district northeast of Cologne. It is rich in coal and iron, and is therefore a great manufacturing district.

5 an ancient city located in a fertile area of Westphalia. It was an important Hanse town. The old fortifications and some of the medieval frame houses still remain. In and about the city are many interesting old churches with elaborate decorations.

5a [DE says “not distant” rather than “near” and appends here “... compatriot.”]

6 Les Trois Mousquetaires, a novel by the elder Dumas (1803-1870), was published in 1844. It is the first in a trilogy, the others being Vingt Ans Après and Le Vicomte de Bragelone. They deal with events in the reigns of Louis XIII. and Louis XIV. Dumas is described as “endowed with a lively imagination, tremendous productiveness, and remarkable facility. He was the most popular novelist and playwright of his time.” His novels were as “historical” as most of that class.

7 a French poet and statesman (1790-1869). His Histoire des Girondins (1847) is a “brilliant narrative, but often somewhat fanciful when dealing with events in which the Girondists participated.” The Girondists were a political party in the French Revolution (1789). They came into control of the government in 1792. They opposed the radicals in the policy of violence; lost control, and the most of their representatives were executed 31 October, 1794.]

7a [DE gives this sentence as “I wanted to hug him.”]

7b [DE poses this paragraph as a dialog between Schurz and Brune and starts it out with: “‘But,’ Brune added, ‘it will still take some time before everything is set up right.’”]

7c [DE says “friends or admirers” rather than “personal admirers.”]

7d [DE appends here “... with regard to the care of his family.”]

7da [Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (1809-1847), German composer, was a child prodigy. In 1820 he produced nearly sixty movements, including songs, pianoforte sonatas, a trio for pianoforte, violin and violoncello, a sonata for violin and pianoforte, pieces for the organ, and even a little dramatic piece in three scenes. He revived the performance of J. S. Bach's work, in 1829 inducing the Berlin Singakademie to give a public performance of the Passion according to St Matthew. This and other great works had not been heard since Bach's death. Among his compositions are the incidental music for Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, the oratorio Elijah and his collection Lieder ohne Worte. His style, though differing little in technical arrangement from that of his classical predecessors, is characterized by a vein of melody peculiarly his own. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

7e [DE omits “somewhat.”]

7f [DE omits “rare.”]

7g [DE says “a benevolent contralto voice” rather than “one of those mellow voices that touch the soul like a benefaction.”]

7h [DE says “a breast pocket” rather than “the inside pocket of my waistcoat.”]

7i [DE appends here “had succeeded.”]

7j [DE omits “through a hostile country.”]

7k [DE says “flee” rather than “cross over.”]

8 Germany's largest ports on the North Sea. Bremen is the headquarters of the North German Lloyd Steamship Company, and is a nourishing commercial city. It has preserved more of the medieval than Hamburg, which is losing its ancient quaintness at an alarming rate. Both were important Hanse towns. [DE says “brief” rather than “due,” omits “certain” and inserts “with Argus eyes” after “watch.”]

9 an independent state in 1850, but now [1913] a part of the German Empire. It is situated between Berlin and the northern coast, but southeast of Denmark.

10 the most important city in Mecklenburg, eight miles from the Baltic, on a river deep enough to give seagoing vessels access to the town. It was a Hanse city.

10a [DE says “before” rather than “about.”]

10aa [DE inserts here “... with like-minded comrades along it, to the right and the left of it, ...”]

10ab [DE omits “of participants.”]

10ac [DE omits “thus.”]

10ad [DE says “man of eminent standing” rather than “gentleman.”]

10b [DE says “greatest” rather than “indescribable.”]

10ba [DE says “With great pleasure, he explained that, in his opinion” rather than “He became quite eloquent in setting forth his opinion that.”]

10bb [DE omits “and that sort of thing.”]

11 [Adolph Hensel. He died in 1872 in Strehlen (near Dresden).]

11a [DE says “press me with questions” rather than “ask me” and omits “about it.”]

11aa [DE says “another” rather than “a.”]

11b [DE says “attentively” rather than “with some surprise.”]

11c [DE omits “my family.”]

11d [DE says “correctly” rather than “calmly.”]

11e [DE says “I will consider how it is to be done” rather than “Let me do so.”]

11f [DE says “criminal” rather than “great” and omits “after all.”]

11g [DE omits “really.”]

11h [DE omits “most.”]

11i [DE says “my” rather than “such a.”]

11j [DE says “would” rather than “had.”]

11ja [DE omits “if necessary.”]

11k [or remembered. DE actually uses the present tense, “remember,” here but it seems like that is a mistake. DE inserts after this sentence, “At that time it was only being waged, on the German side, by the Schleswig-Holstein army.” — deleted in AT.]

11ka [DE gives this sentence as, “In a quarter of an hour I found Brune there with my friends.” — an AT change.]

11m [DE says “doubt” rather than “load of doubt on your heart.”]

11n [AT and DE insert here “... slept that night in Spandau and ...”]

11o [DE inserts here “..., well counted, ...”]

11p [DE inserts at the beginning of this sentence “Until we see each other again ...” In the next sentence this phrase appears instead of “to-night.”]

11q [DE says “a gate” rather than “one large gate.”]

11r [DE says “prison director” rather than “director of the institution.”]

11s [DE says “soldiers guardroom” rather than “guardroom of the soldiers on duty in the prison.”]

11t [DE says “third floor” and omits “high up.”]

11u [DE puts this sentence as: “This window was guarded by a metal housing which, permanently attached to the wall on its under side, at the top opened obliquely so that daylight from above came in, and from the cell only a small rectangularly bounded piece of firmament was visible, but nothing of the surroundings below.”]

11v [DE inserts here “... a narrow ...”]

11w [DE “grating, with similarly strong diagonal iron rods,” rather than “railing.” The substitution of “grating” for “railing”also needs to be made several places in the text below.]

11x [DE says “an arrangement” rather than “a regulation” and omits the next sentence.]

11xa [DE says “the locks, the grate” rather than “the locks on the railing.”]

11y [DE inserts “prison” here. In addition, “Revier” is a German word, not a proper name, which would seem to require further translation — “rounds” is perhaps a reasonable attempt. So Revierstube becomes “rounds room,” as opposed to Wachtstube which is translated as “guardroom.” There are several places in the text below where this substitution needs to be made.]

11z [This somewhat literal translation of the corresponding German sentence rather overreaches the possibilities of an English sentence. An alternative translation, which breaks things up a bit more, would be: “Brune had no access to the rounds room during the night, the key to which was confided to another, superior, officer. So Brune found an opportunity to take a wax impression of the rounds-room key, which was kept in the lock during the day. My Spandau friends had a key made from the impression which they handed over to Brune to allow him to enter the rounds room during the night.”]

11aaa [DE omits “negligently.”]

11ab [DE inserts here “..., past the corridor of the second floor, and then further down ...” After this sentence it inserts another: “On the second floor on that night, a turnkey named Beyer had the watch.”]

11ac [DE says “second” rather than “lower.”]

11ad [DE says “clothes to be prepared beforehand” rather than “a suit of clothes.”]

11ae [DE says “strengthening” rather than “plentiful supply” and inserts “Already some time previous ...” at the beginning of this sentence.]

11af [DE omits “the night of the attempt.”.]

11ag [DE inserts here “but” and says “to leave his prison” rather than “for the venture” — the latter an AT change.]

11ah [DE omits “all.”.]

11ai [DE says “boots” rather than “feet.”]

11aj [DE describes this weapon as a “foot-long rod with a heavy metal knob, a so-called Totschläger (cudgel).”]

11ak [DE says “and stepped” rather than “to step.”]

11am [DE inserts here “... outside ...”]

11ama [DE mentions the director's name is Jeserich.]

11an [DE omits this sentence.]

11ao [DE inserts here “... deathly ...”]

11ap [DE inserts here “... must have ...”]

11aq [DE inserts here “... ever ...”]

11aqa [DE says “could have come down” rather than “ought to have joined me.”]

11ar [DE says “must have” rather than “had.”]

11as [DE omits “the form of.”]

11at [DE says “the” rather than “your.”]

11au [DE omits “right and left.”]

11av [DE inserts “As we left ...” at the beginning of this sentence.]

11aw [DE says “something had happened to you” rather than “you were trapped.”]

11awa [DE says “rolled” rather than “drove.”]

11ax [DE inserts here “... on that dark November night ...” and says “must have been” rather than “were” — AT changes. Also it says “the driver's box of a carriage” rather than “a black object” and omits the next sentence.]

11axa [DE inserts here “... and ...” — an AT change.]

11ay [DE appends here “... around” — an AT change.]

11az [DE omits “if a part of” and appends here “..., lost in our thoughts.”]

11ba [DE puts “So, ...” at the beginning of this sentence, and says “my” rather than “that.”]

11bb [DE omits “only.”]

11bba [DE inserts here “... months ...”]

11bc [DE says “more severe” rather than “the severest.”]

11bd [DE says “me” rather than “itself.”]

11bda [DE says “thought” rather than “felt sure” — an AT change.]

11be [DE inserts here “... Herr Hensel was familiar with ...”]

11bf [DE inserts here “... now ...”]

11bfa [AT has a crossed out passage after this sentence: “I remember to have opened my eyes with similar feelings twice afterwards — once on the morning after the battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863, and the other time on the morning after the nomination of Horace Greeley as a candidate for the presidency in May 1872.”]

11bg [DE says “farmer” rather than “Mr.”]

11bga [DE says “seen” rather than “met.”]

11bh [DE appends here “... and reassure me.”]

11bi [DE inserts here “... irretrievably ...” omits “to prevent further misfortune” and says “or” rather than “and” and “else” rather than “equally.”]

11bk [DE omits the second phrase of this sentence.]

11bm [DE says “dwelling” rather than “rooms.”]

11bma [DE says “forgetfully ... left them in” rather than “accidentally ... put them into.”]

11bn [DE inserts here “... or ...”]

11bo [DE omits “for my doubts.”]

11bp [DE says “such a dumb” rather than “this.”]

11bq [DE starts this sentence with “By God ...”]

11br [DE says “Just listen to me quietly” instead of “Now listen.”]

11bs [DE says “uppermost story” instead of “upper stories.”]

11bt [DE gives this sentence as “Thereupon he had thought he might, without much difficulty, take Kinkel into the loft under the roof framing, and then with a rope out the dormer window let him down to the street.”]

11bu [DE omits “the accident of” and says “to-night he would certainly leave them” rather than “they would certainly be again.”]

11bv [DE says “will” rather than “may.” A literal approach might lead to translating Dachluke as “skylight” rather than “dormer window,” but consulting a photo of the Dachluke in question in Rüdiger Wersich's book (p. 63) shows it to be a dormer window rather than a skylight.]

11bw [DE phrases this paragraph without quotations.]

11bx [DE omits “three times.”]

11by [DE appends here “... to receive Kinkel.”]

11bz [DE omits “after freeing Kinkel” and “from Spandau” — added in AT.]

11ca [DE omits “but” — added in AT.]

11cb [DE says “had to risk the trip” instead of “resolved then to risk it” and omits “benignant.”]

11cc [DE says “sleep-walker” instead of “reveler” and “the forbidden” instead of “our.”]

11cd [DE omits “long enough.”]

11ce [DE says “Will I detain them!” rather than this sentence.]

11cf [DE says “at the right time” instead of “fortunately” — an AT change.]

11cg [This sentence could also be translated as: “When Kinkel came down out of the skylight on the rope, and the rope played out over the edge, it could easily loosen roof tiles, or even bricks from the wall, which would fall down and make a loud clatter.”]

11ch [DE says “Potsdamerstrasse” rather than “the street” and omits “cobblestone”]

11ci [DE says “around” rather than “shortly before.”]

11cj [DE says “the people stationed themselves to one side” rather than “our friends kept themselves as much as possible concealed.”]

11ck [DE says “unnaturally” rather than “perfectly.”]

11cm [DE says “flickered” rather than “flared.”]

11cn [DE says “quick” rather than “eager.”]

11co [DE says “was coming” rather than “stirred.”]

11coa [DE omits “and brick.”]

11co [DE says “his new” rather than “an honest man's.”]

11cp [DE inserts here “... Berlin ...”]

11cq [DE appends here “... over the humor of the situation.”]

11cr [DE says “soon” rather than “now” and omits “washed and.”]

11cra [DE says “sitting and celebrating” rather than “singing and laughing.”]

11crb [DE inserts here “... from our rapid progress ...”]

11cs [DE appends here “... and ready.”]

11ct [DE inserts here “... more than a quarter ...”]

11cu [DE says “old man” rather than “wreck.”]

11cv [DE omits “with two of them.”]

11cw [DE appends here “... below the lower diagonal rod.”]

11cx [In DE this sentence appears as “Using the ax as a lever, he loosened a few more. The strength of Kinkel's furious exertions moved them further apart and made a narrow opening at the bottom which Kinkel's broad-shouldered body was able to force its way through.”]

11cy [DE appends here “... who was not in on the plot.”]

11cz [DE inserts here “... downward ...”]

12 made in the part of the Rhine Valley above Bingen. Rhine wine has a yellowish color, and is known as a sour wine. It is popular with the Germans.

12a [DE inserts here “... the ‘happy rebirth’ and to ...”]

12b [DE says “work had not yet succeeded completely” rather than “success not yet complete.”]

Notes to Chapter XI

1 Boom op: for (Schlag)baum auf! — up with the toll-gate! At this call the gatekeeper was supposed to come out, raise the barrier, and collect the toll.

1a [DE inserts here “... a short ...” and omits “some.” An old German mile was 4.61 statute miles. DE gives the distance from Gransee to Spandau as eight German miles which would be over thirty-five miles rather than just under. Perhaps this is just a rounding error.]

1b [DE inserts here “... a half hour ...”]

1c [DE says “more closely” rather than “with leisure.”]

1d [fahl could be translated as “pale” here rather than “dead yellow.”]

1e [DE omits “after another” and says “run to” rather than “notify.”]

1f [DE says “gathered together and sent in frantic pursuit of us” rather than “hurried after us.”]

1g [DE appends here “... since the police in Mecklenburg were harmless” and introduces the next sentence with “But ...”]

1h [DE appends here “... and rest again.”]

1i [DE says “the bays” rather than “they” and omits “having put over fifty miles behind them.”]

1j [DE says “only by the afternoon, after a trip of more than sixty miles” rather than “but at last.”]

1k [DE says “the worthy” rather than “our friend.”]

1m [DE omits “our friend” and says “care of our” rather than “management of.”]

2 a seaport and watering place on the Baltic. [DE omits “Rostock” and gives the distance on to Warnemünde as nine miles (two German miles). Warnemünde is at the mouth of the Warnow River on the Baltic Sea and Rostock is nine miles upstream.]

2a [DE says “institutions” rather than “conditions.”]

2aa [DE inserts here “... and the Prussian police should request our arrest ...”]

2ab [DE omits “the shore of.”]

2b [DE says “Moreover” rather than “However” — an AT change.]

2c [DE gives this sentence as: “We were extremely fatigued and soon went to our room and, almost helpless, fell asleep in each other's arms.” It also adds the following passage: “I was still conscious enough of our situation that I put my pistols under the pillow. Herr Blume later told how when, during our six hour sleep, he slipped quietly into my room, immediately I opened my eyes, called ‘Who's there?’ and grabbed my pistol, whereupon he got out quickly. This certainly could be true, but I have no recollection of it.”]

2d [DE inserts here “... — we saw her dancing on the waves in front of us — ...”]

2e [DE says “Ernst” rather than “Mr.” and inserts here “... was prepared ...”]

2f [DE gives the second phrase as “... for the dingy of a Warnemünde pilotboat, and, with a sharp northeast wind in our sails, we flew across the wide inlet up the Warnow River.”]

2g [DE inserts here “... in some woods ...”]

2ga [DE says “sideburns” rather than “whiskers.”]

2h [DE omits “just.”]

2i [DE inserts here “... and advocate ...”]

2j [DE inserts here “... in Brockelmann's carriage ...” and gives the name of the suburb as Mühlentor.]

2k [DE says “idle luxury” rather than “plenty.”]

2m [DE inserts here “... worthy ...”]

2n [DE inserts here “... excellent ...” and spells his name as Schwarz (without the ‘t’).]

2o [DE inserts here “..., who had been taken into confidence, ...” and says “kind” rather than “lavish.”]

2p [DE says “when possible” rather than “sometimes.”]

2q [DE inserts here “..., from early in the morning until late at night, ...”]

2r [DE says “evening gatherings with streams of wine” rather than “evenings.”]

2s [DE adds “And the late night walks to take some air in the garden when the servants were in bed!” — deleted in AT.]

2sa [DE gives the ship's weight as 40 Last. Cassel's German Dictionary says a Last is about 2 tons, which would make 80 tons a closer equivalent to 40 Last.]

2t [DE expresses the conditional part of this sentence as: “if by that time the still constantly blowing strong northeast wind should have abated.”]

2ta [Christoph Joseph Rudolf Dulon (1807-1870), a pastor of the Reformed Church (Calvinist) and a socialist agitator in Bremen, was descended from a Huguenot family. After completing his time in the gymnasium and theological studies, he was ordained in Magdeburg in 1836. Even at this time, he put himself in opposition to Church authorities, but in so mild a way that they could be lenient. In 1843, Dulon left the Prussian state Evangelical Church to become pastor for a German Reformed congregation in Magdeburg.

His work as an agitator dates from this time. He worked together with the so-called Friends of Light and the "Free Congregations," though without adopting their dogmas. What attracted him to them was their common fight against the validity of the articles of faith in the Reformed Church and the Catholicizing tendencies in the Evangelical Church. He was reprimanded, but this only seemed to encourage him. In 1848, a vote apparently excluded him from his church, but a majority of the congregation overturned the decision and installed him as pastor; and the senate, the highest church authority in Bremen, initimidated by the upheavals of the time, dispensed with many of the initiation requirements only insisting on adhesion to "the word of God." In undertaking his examination, Dulon explained that the Bible and God's word were for him two very different things.

Followers streamed to him from all quarters and levels of society, and he moved to the front of the democratic movement. Democracy and revolution were to him the true Christianity. The passion of his polemics assured for him absolute superiority, at least for the fascinated masses. His sermons were characterized by their socialist content.

His string of victories became his fate. In 1851, his newspaper was forbidden in Prussia. The senate drew courage from the changing tenor of the times. In 1852, an intervention in Bremen was resolved upon by the German Confederation, and 10,000 troops stood on the outskirts of town. Dulon's days were numbered. Even in 1851, members of the Friends of Light had complained to the senate, accusing him of denying essential articles of faith, mocking the gospel and open hostility to Christianity. The senate had referred the charges to theologians in Heidelberg who had confirmed them (though some thought the senate was outside its jurisdiction) and declared Dulon unworthy of spiritual office in the Evangelical Church. Dulon was suspended, then dismissed and sentenced to six months in jail. He fled to Helgoland, which belonged to England at that time.

A year later, he emigrated with his numerous family to the United States where he supported himself by lecturing and teaching young people. In 1855, he bought the Feldner School in New York City, and later, in 1866, directed the Realschule in Rochester, New York. At the end of his life, he published a book, The German School in America.

In the history of the Evangelical Church, there has hardly been another, except possibly Thomas Münzer, who has put religion in the service of revolutionary socialism so much as Rudolf Dulon.

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 48, pp. 160-162; Carl Wittke, Refugees of Revolution: The German Forty-Eighters in America, Philadelphia: Univ. of Penn. Press, 1952.]

2u [DE omits “in disguise.”]

2v [DE adds “Wiggers described this departure in a very lively and attractive way in 1863 in the Leipzig Gartenlaube.”]

2w [DE says “that they, as Wiggers said, ‘could resist a not unusually heavy attack by the police’” rather than “as they believed, to resist a possible attack by the police.”]

3 a port on the east coast of England.

3a [DE says “unfavorable winds” rather than “stress of weather.”]

3b [“precisely” seems a better translation of DE here than “punctually.”]

3c [DE omits “in an elaborate description of the scene in a German periodical.”]

3ca [DE says “should” rather than “shall” (two places).]

3d [DE begins this sentence with “As a last farewell, ...”]

3e [DE says “native shore” rather than “shore of the fatherland” and adds the sentence “And so we bade a silent farewell to the fatherland.”]

3f [DE inserts here “... indeed ...”]

3g [DE says “fatherland” rather than “home.”]

4 a short war in 1866, between Austria and Prussia. Prussia acquired Holstein.

4a [DE omits “and commander of the forces that had taken Kinkel prisoner near Rastatt.”]

5 formed under a plan proposed by the Prussian cabinet in August, 1866, by a union of all the German states north of the Main, under the presidency of Prussia. This was an important step toward German unity, which was to come with the war against France.

6 granted in 1866. [The biography of Kinkel in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (v. 55, p. 522) seems to imply that Kinkel was not benefitted by any of the amnesties Germany offered to exiles, although he apparently visited and lectured in Germany (Wiesbaden) late in his life.]

6a [DE prefixes this sentence with: “Just ...” and omits “fond.”]

6b [DE starts this sentence with: “Judging from the ship's width ...” and ends with “not over six” rather than “hardly more than six.”]

6c [DE inserts here: “..., after the initial disillusion, ...”]

6d [DE says “dark hints” rather than “some hint.”]

6e [DE omits “even” says “showered” rather than “treated.” and “he” rather than “the skipper” — the latter an AT change.]

6f [DE gives these last two sentences as: “In the meantime, he reassured himself with the thought that Herr Brockelmann had ordered him to do everything in his and his people's capacities for the Herren Kaiser and Hensel — in an emergency even beach his ship on a non-German coast. Were the emergency to have appeared, he would have honestly done this.”]

6g [DE inserts here “... among which was an apple-stuffed goose ...” and says “but” rather than “foreseeing that” and “was” rather than “would be” and ends the paragraph with the sentence: “Fortunately the guests were easy to satisfy.”]

6h [DE says “with gentle movements through an only slightly agitated sea” rather than “pleasantly.”]

6i [DE inserts here “..., when it came time to get up, ...”]

6j [DE omits “as the day progressed.”]

6k [“encourage him” seems clearer than “lift him up” here.]

6ka [DE appends “... here”]

6m [DE omits “recognized as” and inserts here “... comfortable ...”]

6ma [DE inserts here “... this way and that way ...”]

6mb [DE says “easiness” rather than “recklessness.”]

6n [DE inserts here “... and the ship groaned under the fearful crashes of the incoming waves upon it.” Then another sentence starts with “I kept myself on deck” instead of “where I kept myself.”]

6na [DE inserts here “... powerful, ...”]

6o [DE inserts here “... either before Kinkel or before me ...” and leaves the impression sometimes he showed up without being dripping wet.]

6oa [DE omits “the surprising intelligence” — added in AT.]

6ob [DE inserts here “... still ...”]

6p [DE puts “Yes” in the next (mate's) quote.]

6q [DE inserts here, “... which is based on the speed of travel measured from the log and conjecture as to the deviation from the steered course ...”]

6qa [DE says, “he did not rightly know where he might be” rather than “he had only a very vague idea of our latitude and longitude.”]

6r [DE inserts here “... sighing ...”]

6s [DE inserts here “..., who sat squeezed in the tiny couch with pencil and compass, ...”]

6sa [DE says “after” rather than “on.”]

6t [DE says “Mac Laren” rather than “McLaren.”]

6u [DE says “smell of tar” rather than “many smells.”]

6ua [DE inserts here “... as well as we could ...”]

6v [DE inserts here “... if we couldn't reach our Scottish friend on Sunday ...”]

6va [DE says “beautiful” rather than “clear” — an AT change.]

6w [DE inserts here “... everything overcome ...”]

6wa [DE appends here “... beyond description.”]

6x [DE omits “of the probable effect such conduct would have on the natives.”]

6y [DE inserts here “..., apparently ...”]

6z [DE inserts here “... so it could return to its former fullness, in its current state ...”]

6aa [DE says “proper” rather than “regulation.”]

6ab [DE adds here “My head gear consisted of an oddly formed black silk cap.”]

6ac [DE begins this sentence with “As we looked each other over ...”]

6aca [Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), poet and novelist, was born in Edinburgh. Erected in 1846, the monument in Princes Street was designed by George Kemp, the statue being the work of John Steell.

Scott first made a literary reputation as a poet by a series of accidents. First came a lecture in 1788 by Henry Mackenzie on German literature. Scott, a legal apprentice and an enthusiastic student of French and Italian romance, thus learned of a fresh development of romantic literature in German. In his early days, he was half-ashamed of his romantic studies, and pursued them more or less in secret with a few intimates; quite as much as Wordsworth, he created the taste by which he was enjoyed. Scott's study of Goethe's Götz von Berlichingen, of which he published a translation in 1799, gave him wider ideas. Why not do for ancient Border manners what Goethe had done for the ancient feudalism of the Rhine? At the time, he was preparing the collection Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border. The countess of Dalkeith was interested, and asked Scott to write a ballad about the legend she had heard of a tricksy hobgoblin named Gilpin Horner. The resulting The Lay of the Last Minstrel (1805) sold more rapidly than poem had ever sold before.

Marmion (1808) aimed at combining with a romantic story a solid picture of an historical period. More popular than the Lay, Marmion's four-beat lines took possession of the public like a kind of madness: people could not help spouting them in solitary places and muttering them as they walked about the streets.

Presently after, he committed the great blunder of his life: the establishment of a publishing house. The Lady of the Lake (1810) was the first great publication. It made the Perthshire Highlands fashionable for tourists, and raised the post-horse duty in Scotland. But it did not make up for heavy investments in unsound ventures. Scott was too much occupied to look into the accounts of the firm, and bankruptcy became inevitable. Constable, another publisher, came to the rescue.

In the midst of these embarrassments, Scott opened up the rich vein of the Waverley novels. The strain of Scott's varied life as sheriff and clerk, hospitable laird, poet, novelist, and miscellaneous man of letters, publisher and printer, soon told upon his health in 1817, but still that year he completed Rob Roy followed in six months by The Heart of Midlothian. Ivanhoe (1820) was dictated through fits of acute suffering.

Towards the close of 1825, Scott suddenly discovered that the foundations of his fortune were unsubstantial. His publishing company was bargained off to Constable for Waverley copyrights and wound up. Eventually he was saddled with a debt of £130,000. He would not consent to try rest till fortunately, as his mental powers failed, he became possessed of the idea that all his debts were at last paid. When his physicians recommended a sea voyage, a government vessel was put at his disposal, and he cruised about in the Mediterranean for the greater part of a year before his death.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

6ad [DE omits “Walter,” and begins this paragraph with the sentence: “As long as the frugal breakfast we had taken on board of the ‘Little Anna’ staved off new hunger, we got along famously.” — both are AT changes.]

6ae [DE says high noon was long since passed.]

6af [DE says “enough” rather than “some.”]

6ag [DE says “was very inopportune” rather than “became very embarrassing.” AT has a crossed out sentence after this one: “Neither Kinkel nor myself knew anything of it.”]

6ah [DE gives this more elaborately as: “We consulted with each other as to what English words we might have at our disposal and found only two.”]

6ai [DE omits “although we both had remarked that when we heard these Scottish people talk at a distance, their language sounded very much like German.” — added in AT.]

6aj [DE inserts here “... occasionally it seemed ...” and says “down toward the harbor city Leith” rather than “toward the harbor.”]

6ak [DE appends here “... and there obtain a meal and lodging for the night.”]

6am [DE notes that the foot of the stairs was located directly adjacent to the front door.]

6an [DE inserts here “... agreeably ...” and omits “coal.”]

6ao [DE says “on both sides of” rather than “near.”]

6ap [DE says “after a few minutes” rather than “soon,” “black dress coat and white tie — apparently a waiter” rather than “the dress of a waiter” and “over” rather than “under.”]

6aq [DE inserts here “... perhaps made more fantastic in appearance by the red flickering of the fire ...”]

6ar [DE inserts here “... and anxious ...”]

6as [DE appends here “... which unintelligibility we indicated by shrugging our shoulders.”]

6at [DE says “also in dress coat and white tie who impressed us as a head waiter since he had something of authority in his mien” rather than “also a waiter” — an AT change.]

6au [DE says “the new arrival smiled as well” rather than “they smiled.”]

6av [DE says “he” (the new arrival) rather than “one of them”, and inserts a sentence after this one: “We replied to him, in German and then in French, that we would like lunch and lodging, but he shook his head as one who doesn't understand.”]

6aw [DE says “So nothing remained to us but to speak” rather than “Again we spoke” — AT changes.]

6ax [DE says “the head waiter” rather than “both.”]

6ay [DE says “The expression in his face was more authoritative than in that of the head waiter, and we concluded he must be the proprietor” rather than “evidently the landlord” — an AT change.]

6az [DE says “Since once again we couldn't understand a word” rather than “Again” — an AT change.]

6ba [DE says “brought a pair of burning candles in silver candlesticks and spread a tablecloth over the round table in the middle of the room. After he had set two places in good style, he appeared again with a soup tureen which he put before the two place settings.” rather than “set the table in fine style” — an AT change.]

6bb [Inserting “... with a considerable flourish ...” here seems clearer than having “with a mighty swing” later. DE omits “of his other hand” and doesn't space out “ox — tail — soup” so much.]

6bc [DE inserts here “... hungry ...” It starts the next paragraph out with the sentence: “Again seated before the fire, we were busy with our after-dinner cigars when the proprietor visited us again and with a friendly mien and said something that sounded like a question, perhaps whether the lunch had tasted good, or whether we wished something further.” — the latter an AT deletion.]

6bd [DE omits “giving further news of our happy arrival on British soil” and adds a sentence after this one: “It was an indescribably happy feeling for us to be able to again speak to our loved ones in complete freedom.”]

6be [DE says “after we had finished writing” rather than “after this was done,” inserts here “... from heaven ...” and adds after this sentence: “Not only their length, but also their breadth, would provide we six footers an abundance of room. What voluptuousness after 14 nights in the coffin-like berths of the "Little Anna"!” At this point a page is apparently missing in AT (page 43 in the local numbering, but not noticed in the global numbering — it would have been between 810 and 811).]

6bf [DE phrases this sentence slightly differently: “The next morning, after an excellent breakfast, we bade farewell to the proprietor of the Black Bull Hotel with mute smiles and hand shakes, but with sincere gratitude. It remained to us an object of curiosity and wonder what the friendly Scot really thought of his uncanny looking guests who so suddenly, without luggage and without any intelligible words except ‘beefsteak’ and ‘sherry’, showed up in his guest room, and why he hadn't immediately shown us the door.” It begins the next paragraph with the sentence: “Now we went back to the "Little Anna" and then, in the company of our captain, went to the merchant McLaren's business offices.”The first phrase of the next sentence is omitted, and “There” is used instead of “in whom.”.]

6bg [DE says “the noteworthy things of Edinburgh” rather than “Holyrood” and doesn't mention the mode of transport used to get to London.

Holyrood Palace was originally an abbey of canons regular of the rule of St Augustine, founded by David I in 1128. The ruined nave of the abbey church still shows parts of the original structure. Connected with this is a part of the royal palace erected by James IV and James V, including the apartments occupied by Queen Mary, the scene of the murder of Rizzio in 1566. The abbey was sacked and burnt by the English in 1544, and again in 1547. Parts of the palace were destroyed by fire in 1650 while in occupation by the soldiers of Cromwell. The construction of the more modern parts was begun during the Protectorate, and completed in the reign of Charles II. They include the picture gallery, 150 ft. in length, with 106 mythical portraits of Scottish kings, and a triptych (c. 1484) containing portraits of James III and his queen. The gallery is associated with the festive scenes that occurred during the short residence of Prince Charles in 1745; and in it the election of representative peers for Scotland takes place. Escaping from France at the revolution of 1789, the comte d'Artois, afterwards Charles X of France, had apartments granted for the use of himself and his train. They stayed until 1799. When driven from the French throne by the revolution of 1830, Charles once more found a home in the ancient palace of the Stuarts. George IV was received there in 1822. Queen Victoria and the prince consort occupied the palace for brief periods. In 1903 Edward VII held his court within its walls. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

6bga [Charles John Huffam Dickens (1812-1870) English novelist. Dickens had no artistic ideals worth speaking about. The sympathy of his readers was the one thing he cared about, and he went straight for it through the avenue of the emotions. In personality, intensity and range of creative genius he can hardly be said to have any modern rival. His creations live, move and have their being about us constantly, like those of Homer, Virgil, Chaucer, Rabelais, Cervantes, Shakespeare, Bunyan, Molière and Sir Walter Scott. As to the books themselves, the backgrounds on which these mighty figures are projected, they are manifestly too vast, too chaotic and too unequal ever to become classics. They are enormous stock-pots into which the author casts every kind of autobiographical experience, emotion, pleasantry, anecdote, adage or apophthegm. The fusion is necessarily very incomplete and the hotch-potch is bound to fall to pieces with time. Dickens's plots, it must be admitted, are strangely unintelligible, the repetitions and stylistic decorations of his work exceed all bounds, the form is unmanageable and insignificant. The diffuseness of the English novel, in short, and its extravagant didacticism cannot fail to be most prejudicial to its perpetuation. In these circumstances there is very little fiction that will stand concentration and condensation so well as that of Dickens. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

6bh [DE adds “I also never met him during my later presence in London.”]

6bha [William Charles Macready (1793-1873), English actor, made a successful first appearance as Romeo at Birmingham in 1810. In 1816, Macready made his first London appearance at Covent Garden as Orestes in The Distressed Mother, a translation of Racine's Andromaque by Ambrose Philips. Both in his management of Covent Garden, which he resigned in 1839, and of Drury Lane, which he held from 1841 to 1843, he found his designs for the elevation of the stage frustrated by the absence of adequate public support. In 1843-1844 he made a prosperous tour in the United States, but his last visit to that country, in 1849, was marred by a riot at the Astor Opera House, New York, arising from the jealousy of the actor Edwin Forrest, and resulting in the death of seventeen persons, who were shot by the military called out to quell the disturbance. Macready took leave of the stage in 1851.

Macready's performances always displayed fine artistic perceptions developed to a high degree of perfection by very comprehensive culture, and even his least successful personations had the interest resulting from thorough intellectual study. He belonged to the school of Kean rather than of Kemble; but, if his tastes were better disciplined and in some respects more refined than those of Kean, his natural temperament did not permit him to give proper effect to the great tragic parts of Shakespeare, King Lear perhaps excepted, which afforded scope for his pathos and tenderness. With the exception of a voice of good compass and capable of very varied expression, Macready had no especial physical gifts for acting, but the defects of his face and figure cannot be said to have materially affected his success.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

6bi [“impure vowels” seems a too literal translation of the German unreinen Vokale. “diphthongs” seems what is meant.]

6bia [Editor's note: Perhaps the explanation for Schurz's initial distaste for English lies in the differences between the language spoken in England and that spoken in the United States at that time. H. L. Mencken explores these issues in the first chapter of his book The American Language (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1946), which is called “The Two Streams of English.” There, on p. 76, he cites John Fiske, writing home from England in 1873, who says, “The English talk just like the Germans. So much guttural is very unpleasant, especially as half the time I can't understand them, and have to say ‘I beg your pardon?’ Our American enunciation is much pleasanter to the ear.” So perhaps Schurz also found the rhythms and musicality of the American dialect more congenial, and this facilitated his acquisition of the language. In any case, eventually, as Encyclopædia Britannica (11th edition) notes, “his command of the English language, written and spoken, was remarkable.”]

6bj [DE starts this sentence with “Since in London Kinkel received a letter from Frau Johanna giving the day of her arrival in the French capital, ...”]

6bk [DE inserts here “... young ...” and says “leading” rather than “somewhat important” — the former is an AT deletion.]

6bka [Richard I (1157-1199), king of England. In 1191, having raised the necessary funds by the most reckless methods, he set out on a crusade to the Middle East. After the fall of Acre in the same year, he inflicted a gross insult upon Leopold of Austria. On his way home in 1192, he traveled through Austria, and was captured at Vienna in a mean disguise and strictly confined in the duke's castle of Dürenstein on the Danube. His mishap was soon known to England, but the regents were for some weeks uncertain of his whereabouts. This is the foundation for the tale of his discovery by the faithful minstrel Blondel, which first occurs in a French romantic chronicle of the next century. He did not reach England until 1194. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

6bn [DE says “settings” rather than “sentimental exaggerations.”]

6bna [DE omits “without the help of a group of faithful friends, and especially” — added in AT.]

6bo [DE expresses this sentence as: “Thus I felt in submitting to my ‘heroic fame’ as if I was pleased at being celebrated by unfamiliar pens; and this feeling was in a high degree painful to me.”]

6bp [DE adds: “And so my first experience in the roll of an interesting and popular person was by no means very enticing. I was in serious doubt whether the burden did not outweigh the enjoyment. This experience has repeated itself more than once in my life.” — deleted in AT.]

6bq [DE inserts here: “... and my stay in Berlin attracted some attention ...” The next phrase is worded: “I received a letter that a friend of Brune's wrote to me at Brune's request. Inside it said that Brune was ...”]

6br [DE omits “and mourned.”]

6bs [DE says “for a long time” rather than “for several years.” After this paragraph, DE adds the following one (translation taken from AT): “I have written down this story, the subject of which was very much talked about in those days, in the manner in which it appears in my memory, and as this principal event of my youth of course impressed itself very sharply on my mind, I believe that the narrative, both in general and in detail, is entirely truthful.”]

6bt [DE expresses the first two sentences of this paragraph as: “I have already mentioned Moritz Wiggers' detailed account of Kinkel's liberation and flight which was published in the Leipzig Gartenlaube. But that made no end of the more or less fantastic legends which were told. To the contrary, since that time hardly a year has gone by in which I have not received from some part of Germany newspaper clippings and letters which contained amazingly elaborated stories. And still from time to time letters arrive from strangers which report their fathers told them that they had seen me somewhere in those times or even assisted in the liberation adventure.”]

6bu [DE says “delighted me by sending” rather than “sent me.”]

6bv [DE inserts here “... the adjacent street, ...” and omits the Paris double portrait from the list. The description of the gift from the Spandau citizens sounds like the photo collage in Rüdiger Wersich's book on p. 63.]

6bw [DE says “and” rather than “in January, 1903,” “more than fifty years after the incident” rather than “nearly fifty-three years after our drive from Spandau to Rostock,” omits “where we had stopped in our flight, and where the room in which we took an early breakfast still seems to be pointed out to guests” and ends the paragraph with “So the legend lives on.”]

Notes to Chapter XII

0a [DE adds the sentence: “After a few days of the greatest happiness being together with her husband, Frau Johanna returned from Paris to Bonn to prepare for the family's move.” — deleted in AT.]

0aa [DE inserts here: “... historical ...”]

0b [DE inserts here: “... where the fate of the world was being forged ...” — deleted in AT.]

0c [DE appends here: “... and thus that time of exciting adventure and the following days of celebration came to an end” — deleted in AT.]

0ca [DE gives this sentence as “Now it was time for me to institute an orderly mode of living and work in order to honorably support myself.”]

0cb [DE inserts here “... relatively ...”]

0d [DE adds the sentence: “While the Kinkels were still in Paris, I had left the hotel where we initially lodged in order not to disturb the intimacy of the long-separated couple.” and starts the next sentence with “I now.” — an AT change.]

0da [DE says “cook for himself” rather than “prepare fine dishes.”]

0e [DE says “which I had had made in Switzerland out of my Baden officer's coat” rather than “belonging to my Baden officer's period.”]

0f [On this issue, DE notes more specifically: “Tenants were not permitted to bring dogs or human beings of the female sex over the threshold.”]

0g [DE omits “so that my room looked not like a bedchamber, but like a little salon, which I was quite proud of.”]

0ga [DE inserts here “... with water ...”]

0gb [DE omits “at my writing-table.”]

0h [DE omits “or lunch.”]

0i [DE says “suburban” rather than “Faubourg.”]

0j [DE appends here “... all this without going over 120 francs per month, and still a small reserve remained from my income to cover the unforeseen needs which easily arise in the life of a refugee” — an AT deletion.]

0k [DE inserts “to house myself” at the beginning of this list and omits “to save a small reserve” — AT changes.]

0ka [DE says “think of taking on a lot of social engagements” rather than “indulge in expensive social enjoyments.”]

0kb [Marie Catherine Sophie de Flavigny, Comtesse d'Agoult (1805-1876), French author, whose nom de plume was “Daniel Stern.” She was married in 1827 to the comte Charles d'Agoult. In Paris she gathered round her a brilliant society which included Alfred de Vigny, Sainte-Beuve, Ingres, Chopin, Meyerbeer, Heine and others. She was separated from her husband, and became the mistress of Franz Liszt with whom she with whom she lived with in Italy and Switzerland from 1835 to 1840 and had three children, one of whom, Cosima, later became the wife of Richard Wagner. She returned to Paris in 1841. An ardent apostle of the ideas of '48, from this date her salon, which had been literary and artistic, took on a more political tone; revolutionists of various nationalities were welcomed by her, and she had an especial friendship and sympathy for Daniele Manin. The most important section of Daniel Stern's work are her political and historical essays. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

0kc [Franz Liszt (1811-1886), Hungarian pianist and composer. His musical appeal took three aspects: the unrivalled pianoforte virtuoso (1830-1848); the conductor of the “music of the future” at Weimar, the teacher of Tausig, Bülow and a host of lesser pianists, the eloquent writer on music and musicians, the champion of Berlioz and Wagner (1848-1861); and the prolific composer, who for some five-and-thirty years continued to put forth pianoforte pieces, songs, symphonic orchestral pieces, cantatas, masses, psalms and oratorios (1847-1882). From 1833 to 1848, he gave up playing the piano in public. Five years (1835-1840) were spent in Switzerland and Italy, in semi-retirement in the company of Madame la comtesse d'Agoult. In 1837, a famous contest with Thalberg took place. In 1848 he settled at Weimar with Princess Sayn-Wittgenstein, and remained there till 1861. He joined the Franciscan order in 1865. Some say this was a strategy to avoid marriage with the Princess Wittgenstein. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

0kd [DE inserts here “... German ...”]

0m [DE notes that Schurz met the French students through his German friends and as fellow lodgers in the salon of Mme. Petit.]

0ma [Carl Heinrich Carsten Reinecke (1824-1910), German composer, pianist, teacher and conductor, grew up in relatively impoverished circumstances. Due to his ill health, he did not visit public schools, but instead his father, a music theorist, taught him. His first piano works appeared in 1838. For the 1847-1848 season, he was the court pianist in Denmark. Starting 1851, he taught in the Cologne conservatory for three years. After some preliminary appointments as music director in other places, he became the director for the Gewandhaus in 1860, where he stayed until his retirement in 1895, in addition teaching composition at the Leipzig conservatory. Among his students was Edvard Grieg. During the Leipzig years, he was one of the most important influences of German musical life. — Neue Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 21, p. 347.]

0mb [DE omits “famous” and “well-known.”]

0n [DE omits “and others” and notes that Schurz also served as a “benevolent critic.”]

0na [DE says “great” rather than “general.”]

0o [DE says “giving now and then a surprisingly naïve judgment” rather than “giving his sometimes startling judgment.”]

0oa [DE says “people” rather than “men.”]

0ob [DE gives this sentence as “Not seldom he was seen on the streets of the Quartier Latin smoking a long German pipe as he had done as a student in Bonn.”]

0p [DE inserts here “... a poem ...”]

0q [DE inserts here “... for several days ...” Also, “discomfort” would seem the appropriate translation here rather than “inconvenience.”]

0r [DE appends here “... or that she wanted to give me” — deleted in AT.]

0s [DE appends here “... when my way of expressing something was not in the French manner.”]

0t [DE omits “political” and appends “... or even political affairs which interested me.”]

0u [DE says “improve” rather than “correct.”]

0v [DE inserts here “..., in written work, ...” From AT it appears that this sentence and the previous one are Schurz's own translation to restore an omission by his translator.]

0w [DE adds at the end of this paragraph: “When, ten years later on my way to Spain as United States envoy, I stopped off in Paris for a few days, I visited the hôtel garni where she had lived in order to express my thanks. But there I heard that she had left her room years ago, and no one could tell me anything about her.”]

0x [DE gives this sentence as: “Here I will only add that I became very fluent in my written French.”]

0xa [DE inserts here “... of Europe ...”]

0y [DE omits “civilized.”]

0z [DE inserts here “... almost ...”]

0aaa [Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau (1749-1791), French statesman. When but three years old he had a virulent attack of small-pox which left his face disfigured. On leaving school in 1767, he received a commission in a cavalry regiment. He at once began love-making. These love episodes were the most disgraceful blemishes in a life otherwise of a far higher moral character than has been commonly supposed. Mirabeau did not develop his great qualities of mind and character until his youthful excesses were over, and it was not till 1781 that these began to appear. He spent time in prison, and on his release, got involved in legal entanglements in which he attacked the ruling authorities violently enough that he was obligated to leave for Holland and later England. In Holland, he found a marital partner suited to him. In England, he was admitted into the best Whig literary and political society of London.

On returning to Paris (he sent his wife in advance to smooth the way with the authorities), he was despatched in 1786 on a secret mission to the court of Prussia. While he was there Frederick the Great died. His later account of the mission shows clearly how unfit Mirabeau was to be a diplomatist. He was present at the opening of the states-general in 1789. During the first two years of its proceedings, his voice was to be heard at every important crisis, though his advice was not always followed. From the beginning he recognized that government exists in order that the bulk of the population may pursue their daily work in peace and quiet, and that for a government to be successful it must be strong. At the same time he thoroughly comprehended that for a government to be strong it must be in harmony with the wishes of the majority of the people. He had carefully studied the English constitution in England, and he hoped to establish in France a system similar in principle. He held it to be just that the French people should conduct their Revolution as they would, and that no foreign nation had any right to interfere with them while they kept themselves strictly to their own affairs.

The wild excesses of his youth and their terrible punishment had weakened his strong constitution, and his parliamentary labours completed the work. He felt his end's approach some time in advance — to his great grief, because he knew that he alone could yet save France from the distrust of her monarch and the present reforms, and from the foreign interference, which would assuredly bring about catastrophes unparalleled in the history of the world.

It was parliamentary oratory in which he excelled. He had that which is the truest mark of nobility of mind: a power of attracting love and winning faithful friends.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

0aab [DE inserts here “... vain ...” and adds after this sentence: “This was indeed too hard a judgment.”]

0aac [DE omits “all.”]

0aad [The domino (originally apparently an ecclesiastical garment) was a loose cloak with a small half-mask worn at masquerades and costume-balls by persons not otherwise dressed in character; and the word is applied also to the person wearing it. The masquerade came from Italy, where the domino was introduced from Venice. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition (“mask”).]

0ab [DE omits “‘petit souper,’ as it was called.”]

0aba [AT has a deleted sentence here, “The rooms were filled with men and women of all ages who had come from the hall and who now sat or lay about in indescribable groups.” At the end of this paragraph, AT has two more deleted sentences, “There was no longer anything of that robust passion such as may be aroused by the recklessness of rude power and which may still be capable of moral chastening. From these faces stared at us the oversated vice, which even in its hideous exhaustion still craved further excess.”]

0abb [Thomas Couture (1815-1879), French painter, was born at Senlis (Oise), and studied under Baron A. J. Gros and Paul Delaroche, winning a Prix de Rome in 1837. He began exhibiting historical and genre pictures at the Salon in 1840, and obtained several medals. His masterpiece was his “Romans in the Decadence of the Empire” (1847), now in the Luxembourg; and his “Love of Money” (1844; at Toulouse), “Falconer” (1855), and “Damocles” (1872), are also good examples. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

0ac [DE appends here “... in the near future.”]

0aca [Daniel Herman Anton Melbye (1818-1875), Danish painter, began as a shipbuilder's apprentice. He then tried to subsist as a troubadour. Then he turned to painting sea-pieces. In 1840 he exhibited his first three pictures of Charlottenberg. These attracted Baron Rumohr's attention, who introduced the young painter to Frederick VI. Melbye's fortune was made; he was sent in a royal corvette to paint in the Baltic, and next to Morocco, where he took part in the bombardment of Tangier, and was nearly killed. In 1847, he settled in Paris. He was introduced to Louis Philippe, who took him under his patronage. In 1853 he travelled with the French embassy to Constantinople, and painted sea-pieces for the Sultan. On his return to Paris, he was patronized by Napoleon and his empress. In 1858 he went once more to Denmark, and then returned to Paris to settle till his death. — obituary from The Manhattan and de la Salle Monthly, New Series, Vol. One (January - June, 1875), pp. 166-167.]

0acb [Clairvoyance (French for “clear-seeing”) is a technical term in psychical research, properly equivalent to lucidity, a supernormal power of obtaining knowledge in which no part is played by (a) the ordinary processes of sense-perception or (b) supernormal communication with other intelligences, incarnate, or discarnate. The word is also used, sometimes qualified by the word telepathic, to mean the power of gaining supernormal knowledge from the mind of another. It is further commonly used by spiritualists to mean the power of seeing spirit forms, or, more vaguely, of discovering facts by some supernormal means. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

0acc [Georg Klapka (1820-1892) After the war of 1866 between Austria and Prussia, in which he fought with Prussia and led a Hungarian corps, he was permitted by Austria to return to Hungary where he was elected to the legislature. In 1877 he attempted to organize the Turkish army for war against Russia. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

0ad [DE appends here “... by the reunited couple and their four children.”]

0ae [DE expresses this sentence in more detail: “He permitted me to walk back to Frau Solger to whom I excused myself with the least concerned air I could manage in order not to upset her. I said this man had summoned me to some very urgent business.”]

0aea [DE says “made a mysterious face” rather than “lifted his eyebrows mysteriously” — an AT change.]

0af [DE appends here: “... and directed by the turnkey to the other bed” — deleted in AT.]

0afa [DE says “three-voiced chorus” rather than “shrill trio” and “oldish” rather than “faded.”]

0afb [Pierre Jean de Béranger (1780-1857), popular French song-writer and poet. His revolutionary spirit landed him in prison several times, and got him elected to the constituent assembly in 1848.]

0afc [Histoire du Consulat et de l'Empire, the first volume of which appeared in 1845. Thiers was at work on the rest during Schurz's visit to Paris and after. As a writer, Thiers had not only the fault of diffuseness, which is common to so many of the best-known historians of his century, but others as serious or more so. The charge of dishonesty is one never to be lightly made against men of such distinction as his; but it is certain that from Thiers's dealings with the men of the first revolution to his dealings with the battle of Waterloo, constant, angry and well-supported protests against his unfairness were not lacking. Although his search among documents was undoubtedly wide, its results are by no means always accurate, and his admirers themselves admit great inequalities of style in him. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

0ag [The more literal translation, “kept alive,” seems to work better here than “stimulated.”]

0aga [Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher (1742-1819) Prussian general field marshal during the Napoleonic Wars. Although he suffered several defeats at the hands of Napoleon, in the end he led the Prussians to success. He was somewhat infamous for his punitive plan, which was thwarted, to blow up the Pont de Jéna of Paris.]

0agb [DE inserts here “... political ...”]

0ah [DE inserts here “... after my release from custody ...”]

0ai [Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), having spent most of his time reading the classics, received his theological certificate at Tübingen in 1793, stating him to be of good abilities, but of middling industry and knowledge, and especially deficient in philosophy. The political and ecclesiastical inertia of his native state displeased him, and he adopted the doctrines of freedom and reason. After leaving school, his mental growth came from his study of Christianity. Jesus appeared as revealing the unity with God in which the Greeks in their best days unwittingly rejoiced, and as lifting the eyes of the Jews from a lawgiver who metes out punishment on the transgressor, to the destiny which in the Greek conception falls on the just no less than on the unjust. The revolution of 1830 was a great blow to him, and the prospect of democratic advances almost made him ill. Hegelianism is confessedly one of the most difficult of all philosophies. One legend makes Hegel say, “One man has understood me, and even he has not.” — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

Notes to Chapter XIII

0a [DE says “room in a house” rather than “rooms” and inserts here “... which I could rent cheaply ...”]

0aa [AT has a deleted sentence after this one: “I earned about three pounds a week, and as I needed only about half of that sum for my current expense, I felt as if I lived in rather affluent conditions.”]

0ab [AT has a deleted sentence after this one: “At the time of which I speak I could only work myself laboriously through the news columns of a journal, or make myself understood when I had to inquire whether the person I wished to visit was at home, or when I had to tell an omnibus guard where I wished to get off.”]

0b [DE says “in which I moved” rather than “to which I was admitted.”]

0ba [AT has a deleted sentence after this one: “As to my pupils, I could take only such as already knew a little German or French, or as had the courage to venture upon a course of instruction under the most difficult circumstances.”]

0c [DE says “the method I learned with Princess De Beaufort” rather than “Princess De Beaufort's method” — an AT change.]

1 [In the original German, Schurz refers to his “pupils” with a feminine inflexion, so apparently they were all women. DE inserts here “... who ...” and omits “and.” AT deletes a passage “Among my pupils there were some of uncommon culture and earnest endeavor. For instance, two young English ladies of extraordinary intelligence and a desire of knowledge ...” in favor of “Some of my pupils ...”]

1a [DE omits “medieval or modern.”]

1b [DE inserts here “... very ...”]

1c [DE says “a” rather than “the old.”]

1ca [DE says “carefree” rather than “comfortable.”]

1cb [Sébastien Érard (1752-1831), French manufacturer of musical instruments, distinguished especially for the improvements he made upon the harp and the pianoforte. In 1780, he constructed his first pianoforte, which was also one of the first manufactured in France. It quickly secured for its maker such a reputation that he was soon overwhelmed with commissions. In conjunction with his brother Jean Baptiste, he established in the rue de Bourbon, in the Faubourg St Germain, a piano manufactory, which in a few years became one of the most celebrated in Europe. On the outbreak of the Revolution, he went to London where he established a factory. Returning to Paris in 1796, he soon afterwards introduced grand pianofortes, made in the English fashion, with improvements of his own. In 1808, he again visited London, where, two years later, he produced his first double-movement harp. The new instrument was an immense advance upon anything he had before produced, and obtained such a reputation that for some time he devoted himself exclusively to its manufacture. In 1823, he crowned his work by producing his model grand pianoforte with the double escapement. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

1d [DE inserts here “... of excellent quality ...”]

1e [DE inserts here “... and fruitful ...”]

1f [An alternative translation for this sentence: “The four children seemed to thrive.”]

1fa [AT has a deleted sentence here “Her own musical talents, of course, made her desire to awaken also in their children a musical sense.”]

1g [DE inserts here “... charming ...”]

1h [DE inserts here “... blossoming ...” and omits “well.”]

1i [DE appends here “... and treat it as my own.”]

1j [DE inserts here “..., Antonie, ...”]

1k [DE inserts here “... not only of good character and lively intelligence, but ...”]

1m [DE says “to savor” rather than “fully to appreciate.”]

1ma [Franz Peter Schubert (1797-1828), German composer, is best summed up in the well-known phrase of Liszt, that he was “le musicien le plus poète qui fut jamais.” The greater part of his work bears the essential mark of improvisation: it is fresh, vivid, spontaneous, impatient of restraint, full of rich color and of warm imaginative feeling. He was the greatest songwriter who ever lived, and almost everything in his hand turned to song. The standpoint from which to judge him is that of a singer who ranged over the whole field of musical composition and everywhere carried with him the artistic form which he loved best. A special word should be added on his fondness for piano duets, a form which before his time had been rarely attempted. Of these he wrote a great many fantasias, marches, polonaises, variations all bright and melodious with sound texture and a remarkable command of rhythm. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

1mb [Robert Alexander Schumann (1810-1856), German composer. His interest in music had been stimulated when he was a child by hearing Moscheles play at Carlsbad, and in 1827 his enthusiasm had been further excited by the works of Schubert and Mendelssohn. But his father, who had encouraged the boy's musical aspirations, had died in 1826, and neither his mother nor his guardian approved of a musical career for him. The question seemed to be set at rest by Schumann's expressed intention to study law. He neglected the law for the philosophers, and though “but Nature's pupil pure and simple” began composing songs. In 1834, he started Die neue Zeitschrift für Musik, the paper in which appeared the greater part of his critical writings on music. At first all his creative impulses were translated into pianoforte music, of which Carnaval is one of his most genial and most characteristic pieces. Then followed the miraculous year of the 150 songs in 1840. In 1841 he wrote two of his four symphonies. The year 1842 was devoted to the composition of chamber music, including the famous “Trout” quintet. He also attempted an opera. The last two years of his life were spent in an asylum for the insane. In 1839, he married Clara Wieck, a concert pianist, who promoted his work after his death. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

1mc [Thorough bass (also termed general bass, basso continuo, basso cifrato, or figured bass) is the term applied to a bass part of a composition, with figures, and some other signs, placed over or under it, indicating what chords should accompany it.

The practice of thus figuring a bass was very general, formerly, for the organ part of church and oratorio music; the accompaniment for keyed instruments, of vocal music, and instrumental solos; for the cello part in recitatives, etc. The modern practice, however, is to write the organ or piano part in full, and to write the accompaniment to recitatives for more instruments than the cello. So the figured bass has fallen into disuse, except as a useful adjunct to the study of harmony, and a convenient system of musical shorthand. The use of figured bass in connection with the study of harmony has been so general, that the terms have almost been regarded as synonymous: whereas harmony has to do with the musical combinations, figured bass is simply the system of signs, as explained above.

— Henry Charles Banister, Music, New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1887, pp. 40-41.]

1n [DE inserts here “... unsociably reserved or ...”]

1na [AT has a deleted passage after this paragraph: “Much less was I edified by the evening parties which I visited with the Kinkels. A heavy atmosphere of dullness seemed to brood over most of them, such as I had hardly known before. The conversations seemed to be confined to a narrow range of common-places which our English friends brought out with a sort of solemn seriousness. I believed at first that I must be mistaken in this and that my impression was caused by my ignorance of the English language, but the Kinkels, who in the meantime had learned to converse in English with considerable ease, assured me that it was really so, and it was a peculiar pleasure to us, after such an evening party, to have Mrs. Kinkel repeat to us the conversations she had carried on during the evening, which she knew how to do with the most piquant humor.” AT starts the next paragraph out with a deleted sentence: “I was sometimes astonished as well as amused at the remarkably undeveloped artistic sense of Englishmen.”]

1o [DE inserts here “... not only to speak German, but also there was an obligation ...”]

1p [DE says “There could be no more mournful spectacle as” rather than “I could not but be amused” and omits “the merry German tune” — an AT change.]

1pa [AT has a deleted passage after this paragraph: “The most naive performance I have ever witnessed in a drawing room was the following: at an evening party a gentleman who, according to his looks might have been a wealthy banker, was requested to give the company a ‘song’. He yielded readily and with evident pleasure sat down on a chair put for him in the middle of the room, and announced ‘an old ballad’. He sang without any accompaniment, very much out of tune, but evidently with grim resolution to carry the thing to an end. The ballad had an immense number of verses. The song must have lasted three quarters of an hour and the audience not only endured it with perfect steadfastness, but rewarded the singer with continued and apparently quite sincere applause.”]

1pb [Lothar Bucher (1817-1892) German publicist. He was a leader of the extreme democratic party in the National Assembly of 1848. Threatened with fortress imprisonment for taking part in a movement for refusal to pay taxes, he left Germany in 1850. After ten years in exile, mostly in London, he returned to Germany in 1860. In 1864, in a complete break with his earlier friends and associations, he accepted office under Bismarck. He closely identified himself with the latter's later commercial and colonial policy, and did much to encourage anti-British feeling in Germany. — Encyclopædia Britannica (11th edition)]

1q [DE says “in very changed circumstances” rather than “as Bismarck's most confidential privy-councilor.”]

1qa [Arnold Ruge (1802-1880), leader in German religious and political liberalism, was imprisoned in a fortress for five years for political activity on behalf of a free and united Germany. Released in 1830 he continued his writing. He was on the extreme left in the Frankfort parliament of 1848. Pressed by the Prussian government he went into exile in Paris and later London. He supported Prussia against Austria in 1866 and Prussia against France in 1870 and in his last years received a pension from the German government. — Encyclopædia Britannica (11th edition)]

1qb [DE omits “... and most natural ...” and inserts here “proper.”]

1qc [DE inserts here “... inexhaustible ...”]

1r [DE says “whose successful realization could only be supposed by” rather than “characteristic of.”]

1s [DE and AT insert the following paragraph here: “The result which the carrying out of this plan promised, if successful, was the following: The availability of substantial financial resources would make the refugees a power to be reckoned with. The existence of such a power would lend fresh encouragement to the revolutionary element in Germany, strengthen it through the attraction of new recruits, and spur its boldness and enterprise. A natural consequence would be that the committee that administered this great treasury for revolution would lead the entire revolutionary party and have in its hands the initial organization of the future German republic.”]

1t [DE inserts here “..., with calm reflection, ...” and omits “strange, if not.”]

1u [DE omits “one of.”]

1ua [DE omits “and skill.”]

1ub [DE says “Löwe von Calbe” rather than “Loewe von Calbe.”

Wilhelm Loewe (1814-1886) (also called Loewe-Kalbe), German physician and politician, was educated at Halle, and adopted the medical profession. Elected in 1848 to the Frankfort Parliament, he acted with the extreme party of democracy and became the Parliament's first vice-president. Later, at Stuttgart, he was its president. Charged with sedition in this, which was considered a revolutionary procedure, and once acquitted, he was nevertheless sentenced to life imprisonment for willful disobedience. After some years in Switzerland, France, and England, he came to America, and for eight years practiced medicine in New York. Availing himself of the amnesty in 1861, he returned to Germany, and in 1863 was elected to the Prussian House of Deputies. Four years later he was a Progressist member of the North German Reichstag. Disagreeing with his party in 1874, on the military law, he attempted to form a new Liberal party. In the elections of 1881, he lost his seat. — Frederick Converse Beach and George Edwin Rines, The Americana: A Universal Reference Library, Scientific American Compiling Department, 1912.

This is a different person from Wilhelm Löwe, the Bonn theater director, who has already been encountered in Schurz's Reminiscences, and probably why Schurz (and others as noted in the biographical sketch above) qualifies his name with the name of the town he comes from (“von,” a popular element in names of German nobility, literally means “from”).]

1v [DE omits “to a new meeting place.”]

1w [DE inserts here the sentence: “At that point Löwe fled to Switzerland.”]

1wa [DE says “changing and dissolving” rather than “untrustworthy.”]

1wb [DE inserts here “... that I saw around me ...”]

1wc [DE gives this sentence as “But in this connection, I had an interesting experience.”]

1x [DE gives the area as “hardly more than a German square mile” which would amount to something over twenty square statute miles rather than just “four or five.”]

1y [DE omits “Jungfrau.”]

1ya [DE inserts here “... exactly ...”]

1yb [DE says “fairly” rather than “very highly.”]

1z [DE omits “not primitive, but.”]

1aa [DE inserts here “... rain, calm, ...” and omits one “etc.”]

1ab [DE omits this sentence and inserts the sentence: “This observation continues in validity to the present.”]

1ac [DE says rather “How beautiful this land is!” (an AT change) and says “hilly” rather than “broken.”]

1ad [DE inserts here “... since otherwise she would have no male protector there ...”]

1ae [DE says “her husband” rather than “him” and introduces the next sentence with “Their reunion was still not a year old, and since now suddenly their joyful family life was to be torn apart anew for many months, and that too at a time when the founding of a domestic existence in a foreign country required all their efforts ...” — deleted in AT.]

1af [DE omits “heroically” and “impulses and.”]

1afa [DE inserts here “..., as not seldom happened, ...”]

1afb [Millard Fillmore (1800-1874), thirteenth president of the United States of America, took office in 1850 on the death of Zachary Taylor. A New York resident and anti-slavery man, he was an advocate of the Compromise Measures of 1850. He signed the Fugitive Slave Law. He failed to gain the Whig nomination in 1852. He was nominated by the Whigs and Know Nothings in 1856, but lost the election. By a request in his son's will, most of his correspondence was destroyed. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

1ag [DE says “nothing” rather than “no great enterprise.”]

1ah [DE inserts here “... refugees ...”]

1ai [DE inserts here “..., who were under indictment in Germany, ...”]

1aia [DE omits “what I considered”]

1aib [Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872), Italian patriot. The natural bent of his genius was towards literature. He was an ardent supporter of romanticism as against what he called “literary servitude under the name of classicism.” He put aside his dearest ambition, that of producing a complete history of religion which would develop his scheme of a new theology uniting the spiritual with the practical life, and devoted himself to political thought. He joined the Carbonari. Shortly after the French revolution of 1830 he was betrayed, captured and imprisoned. After his release, he went to Marseilles, France. His prison meditations took shape in the programme of the organization which was destined soon to become so famous throughout Europe, that of La Giovine Italia, or Young Italy. Its publicly avowed aims were to be the liberation of Italy both from foreign and domestic tyranny, and its unification under a republican form of government; the means to be used were education, and, where advisable, insurrection by guerrilla bands. In 1834, the Young Europe association was founded by men believing in a future of liberty, equality and fraternity for all mankind, and also Young Switzerland having for its leading idea the formation of an Alpine confederation. In 1837 he arrived in London, where for many months he had to carry on a hard fight with poverty and the sense of spiritual loneliness. Ultimately, he began to earn a livelihood by writing review articles of a high order of literary merit. He had a hand in the abortive rising at Mantua in 1852, and again, in 1853, a considerable share in the ill-planned insurrection at Milan, the failure of which greatly weakened his influence. It may be questioned whether, through his characteristic inability to distinguish between the ideally perfect and the practically possible, he did not actually hinder more than he helped the course of events by which the realization of so much of the great dream of his life was at last brought about. If Mazzini was the prophet of Italian unity, and Garibaldi its knight errant, to Cavour alone belongs the honour of having been the statesman by whom it was finally accomplished. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

1aj [DE says “it was said” rather than “as was generally believed.”]

1ak [DE omits “dictatorial” and “and feared.”]

1am [DE says “bold” rather than “secret.”]

1ama [DE says “with which” rather than “while” — an AT change.]

1an [DE says “small” rather than “hair-cloth.”]

1ao [DE says “poverty” rather than “extreme economy.”]

1ap [An alternative translation of the last phrase: “which allowed no glimpse of a shirt collar.”]

1aq [DE omits “regular, if not.”]

1ar [DE inserts here “..., strikingly high and wide, ...”]

1as [DE inserts here “... hefty cigars ...”]

1asa [American writer and physician, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1809. After graduation from Harvard, he studied law perfunctorily for a year and dabbled in literature, winning the public ear by a spirited lyric called forth by the order to destroy the old frigate Constitution. These verses were sung all over the land, and induced the Navy Department to revoke its order and save the old ship. Turning next to medicine, and convinced by a brief experience in Boston that he liked it, he went to Paris in 1833. Returning to Boston in 1835, he sought practice, but achieved only moderate success. His medical essays hold some of his most sparkling wit. Social, brilliant in conversation, and a writer of gay little poems, he seemed to the grave Bostonians not sufficiently serious. In 1836, he published his first volume of Poems. In 1856-1857 a Boston publishing house invited James Russell Lowell to edit a new magazine, which he agreed to do on condition that he could secure the assistance of Dr Holmes. Holmes accepted with pleasure and christened the magazine The Atlantic Monthly; he ceased to be a physician and became an author. He set himself to the destruction of the stern and merciless dogmas of his Calvinist forefathers as his task in literature, and wrote three novels. Holmes generally held himself aloof from politics, and from those "causes" of temperance, abolition and woman's rights which enthralled most of his contemporaries in New England. The Civil War, however, aroused him for the time; finding him first a strenuous Unionist, it quickly converted him into an ardent advocate of emancipation. In 1884 he contributed the life of Emerson to the American “Men of Letters” series. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition. Schurz's initial 1859 meeting with Oliver Wendell Holmes is mentioned in Volume Two, Chapter III, of these Reminiscences.]

1asb [Prince Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck (1815-1898), German (Prussian) statesman. In 1847, he was chosen as substitute for the representative of the lower nobility of his district in the estates-general, which were in that year summoned to Berlin. He took his seat with the extreme right. The king, Friedrich Wilhelm IV., appointed him Prussian representative at the restored diet of Frankfort in 1851. When he went to Frankfort he was still under the influence of the extreme Prussian Conservatives, who regarded the maintenance of the principle of the Christian monarchy against the revolution as the chief duty of the Prussian government. He was prepared on this ground for a close alliance with Austria. He found, however, a deliberate intention on the part of Austria to degrade Prussia from the position of an equal power. He concluded that if Prussia was to regain the position she had lost she must be prepared for the opposition of Austria. In 1862, the king, now Wilhelm I, appointed Bismarck minister-president and foreign minister. Austria continued to act with Prussia in the conflict with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein, and after the defeat of the Danes, the sovereignty of the duchies was surrendered to the two allies. In 1866, having gained the nod of France and Italy, Bismarck persuaded the king, reluctant to embark in a war on an old ally, to move against Austria. Prussia, though opposed by all the German states except a few principalities in the north, completely defeated all her enemies, and at the end of a few weeks the whole of Germany lay at her feet. The prospect of internal difficulties and French opposition prevented complete unification, which came later after the defeat of France in the war of 1870. Bismarck incurred much criticism during the struggle with the Roman Catholic Church (1873-1876). In 1890, after the death of Wilhelm I in 1889, he was dismissed from office by Wilhelm II and retired. — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.

Schurz discusses his 1867 meeting with Bismarck in Volume Three, Chapter VIII, of these Reminiscences where he also notes they met a second time twenty years later.]

1at [DE begins this sentence with “Even in earlier youth, ...” and says “the Catholic” rather than “his” (the latter an AT change).]

1au [DE says “people” rather than “men” and “prominent revolutionaries” rather than “revolutionary characters.”]

2 [Lajos Kossuth (1802-1894), Hungarian patriot, was appointed by Count Hunyady to be his deputy at the National Diet in Pressburg (1825-1827, and again in 1832). It was a time when a great national party was beginning the struggle for reform against the stagnant Austrian government. As deputy he had no vote, and he naturally took little share in the debates, but it was part of his duty to send written reports of the proceedings to his patron, since the government, with a well-grounded fear of all that might stir popular feeling, refused to allow any published reports. Kossuth's letters were so excellent that they were circulated in MS. among the Liberal magnates. In 1836 the Diet was dissolved. Kossuth continued the agitation by reporting in letter form the debates of the county assemblies. Beginning in 1837, he was imprisoned for several years. His confinement was strict and injured his health, but he was allowed the use of books. He greatly increased his political information, and also acquired, from the study of the Bible and Shakespeare, a wonderful knowledge of English. His arrest caused great indignation. In 1841, he was appointed editor of the Pesti Hirlap. The success of the paper was unprecedented. By insisting on the superiority of the Magyars to the Slavonic inhabitants of Hungary, by his violent attacks on Austria, he raised the national pride to a dangerous pitch. He was dismissed from the paper at the instigation of the government and started his own paper.

In 1847, he was elected member for Budapest in the new Diet. Upon the 1848 revolution in Paris, he demanded parliamentary government for Hungary and constitutional government for the rest of Austria. When Jellachich was marching on Pesth Kossuth went from town to town rousing the people to the defense of the country. Not a soldier himself, he had to control and direct the movements of armies; can we be surprised if he failed? In April 1849, when the Hungarians had won many successes, he issued the celebrated declaration of Hungarian independence. Kossuth was appointed responsible governor. The hopes of ultimate success were frustrated by the intervention of Russia, and Kossuth abdicated in favor of General Görgei, on the ground that in the last extremity the general alone could save the nation. How Görgei used his authority to surrender is well known. A solitary fugitive, Kossuth crossed the Turkish frontier.

In September 1851 he embarked on an American man-of-war. Speaking in English in England, he displayed an eloquence and command of the language scarcely excelled by the greatest orators in their own tongue. From England he went to the United States of America: there his reception was equally enthusiastic, if less dignified; an element of charlatanism appeared in his words and acts which soon destroyed his real influence. He soon returned to England, where he lived for eight years in close connection with Mazzini, by whom, with some misgiving, he was persuaded to join the Revolutionary Committee. Quarrels of a kind only too common among exiles followed; the Hungarians were especially offended by his claim still to be called governor.

Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

2a [DE says “beautiful” rather than “strong.”]

2aa [DE appends here “... but decidedly without justification.”]

2b [DE inserts here “... boots and spurs and ...”]

2c [DE adds here “I felt the blood rush to my cheeks.”]

2d [DE omits “distinctly.”]

2e [DE and AT add here “In this respect, he had the same point of view as Mazzini, who also brushed off active participation by himself in socialistic strivings.”]

2ea [DE says “especially” rather than “all.”]

2f [DE appends here “... and thus a thrust into the wheels of fate.”]

2g [DE says “very” rather than “discouragingly.”.]

Notes to Chapter XIV

0 [Trefousse (p. 32) gives her full name as Baroness Marie von Bruiningk and as a reference on the Bruiningks lists Hermann Baron Bruiningk, Das Geschlecht von Bruiningk in Livland, Riga: N. Kymmels, 1913. The latter reference gives her name as Méry and her husband's name as Ludolf August.]

0a [DE says “obligated to leave” rather than “in danger of arrest had she not left.”]

0aaa [DE appends here: “..., and there was a slight cooling of the friendly relations between the two families.” — deleted in AT. DE starts the next sentence off with “Now ...”]

0aab [AT has a deleted sentence at the beginning of this paragraph: “Everything was arranged on a footing of perfect propriety.”]

0b [The last phrase could also be translated “only gave his guests a hint of that dissent.”]

0c [DE says “calm” rather than “somewhat.”]

0d [DE says “it will happen thus” rather than “this will soon happen.”]

0e [DE says “a sufficient” rather than “the.”]

0f [DE says “frequently” rather than “usually” and omits “and sober” and “from” seems more idiomatic than “by the.”]

0g [DE says “intelligent men” rather than “men and women of superior mind and character.”]

0h [DE inserts here “... and every case of want ...” — deleted in AT.]

0i [DE appends here “... where possible.”]

0j [DE says “which only in the most modest conception could be looked upon as suitable for the salon” rather than “in which to appear in the salon.”]

0k [DE says “by and by” rather than “not only threadbare spots, but.”]

0m [DE inserts here “... really ...”]

0n [DE says “home” rather than “into the fatherland.”]

0o [DE says “the good woman” rather than “she.”]

0oa [Das Geschlecht von Bruiningk in Livland reports she died in 1853.]

0p [DE says “people” rather than “men.”

In the table of contents for Das Geschlecht von Bruiningk in Livland (p. iii which refers the reader to pp. 262-264), the following visitors of the household during their stay in London are listed: Gottfried Kinkel, Carl Schurz, Adolph Strodtmann, Wilhelm Loewe-Kalbe, Friedrich Schütz, Johann and Bertha Ronge, Ferdinand Freiligrath, Count Reichenbach, Lothar Bucher, Julius Reuter, Schwabe, C. H. Schmolze, Gustav Techow, Alexander Herzen, Louis Blanc, Malwida von Meysenbug and Alexander Schimmelpfennig.]

0q [DE spells his name “Löwe” rather than “Loewe.”]

0qa [DE inserts here “There was Malwida von Meysenbug.”

Malwida Freiin (Rivalier) von Meysenbug (1816-1903) was instructed in music, painting and literature by her mother. A well-grounded higher education was not an option for women, and the lack became painfully obvious to her later when she tried to make an independent living. In 1844, she became a democrat under her younger brother's influence, but having previously founded a charity for poor workers. In 1850, to improve her education so she could distance herself from her family, she joined the University for Women in Hamburg which had been founded that year. In 1851, she entered a "religion free" school which was suppressed in 1852. She found herself obligated to flee Germany for London when the authorities siezed politically incriminating letters she had written and resolved to arrest her. In London, she was taken in by the Kinkels' circle. Supporting herself by teaching German, journalism and translation allowed her to avoid the dependent life of a nanny. In 1853, she began caring for Alexander Herzen's children. She had gotten to know Herzen in the Kinkels' circle. She adopted their youngest daughter, Olga, and together they went to Paris in 1860. They lived in various places: Rome, Capri, Bern, Florence, Venice, Munich. After Olga's marriage in 1873, she went to Bayreuth and from there to Italy where she settled in Rome in 1877. She enthusiastically observed the unification of Germany under Bismarck's guidance, 1866-1870. Her memoirs (up to 1861) were published in 1869 with an additional volume appearing later which covered up to 1898. — Neue Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 17, pp. 407-409.]

0qb [Count Eduard Heinrich Theodor von Reichenbach (1812-1869) attended the gymnasium in Breslau, and studied botany there and in 1831 when he went to Jena. Back in Breslau in 1832, he joined the Burschenschaft, and was expelled for that reason in 1833, and in 1835 sentenced to a year's imprisonment in a fortress. After his release, he bought and worked on a series of estates or farms. His Burschenschaft experience had made him a convinced republican, and in the days leading up to March 1848, he opened his home to the political opposition. He joined the Hallgarten circle, corresponded for Robert Blum's paper and sheltered Polish refugees and emissaries from the 1846 Krakau uprising. He was a member of the Frankfurt parliament and the Prussian constituent assembly where he took his seats on the extreme left. In 1848, he tried to convert resistance to the reactionary Brandenburg administration into an uprising. Accused of high treason in 1851, he emigrated to London, continuing on to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1853, where he lived on a farm, returning to London in 1863, in which year he was also elected to a seat in the lower Prussian house, which he could not take because the legislature was dissolved. — Neue Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 17, pp. 407-409.]

0r [DE adds here “Unfortunately we didn't see him often.”]

0ra [Heinrich Bernhard Oppenheim (1819-1880), German journalist and politician, came from a Jewish family long prominent in banking. After his law studies, he became a Privatdozent in Heidelberg in political science and international law. But his inclinations to journalism soon won the upper hand, and, his living assured by his family, he gave up teaching. He was very much taken by the questions surrounding the movements of 1848. His feeble attempts at practical politics nevertheless foundered and left him more and more to make himself known through his pen and his theories. He spoke at the agitated mass meeting at Unter den Zelten where the legislature's petition to the king regarding the wishes of the people was discussed. He became one of the chief editors, with A. Ruge and Meyen, of Die Reform which soon came under the oversight of several democratic groups. Among his other co-workers on this paper were Bakunin, Heinzen and Herwegh. Oppenheim sought a seat in the National Assembly. He thought it sufficient to refer to his writings in Reform where he developed his premise “that only with freedom did the people become mature enough for freedom,” but the people of Berlin had no patience with a candidate who campaigned only with his pen. This experience convinced him even more he that he was suited to a writing career, as he did not seem suited to speaking.

He went to Baden and, looking for secrets, broke into the private files of the departed archduke. Brentano, the leader of the provisional government, put him in charge of the government newspaper, the Karlsruher Zeitung. When a schism broke out between Brentano's moderates and G. Struve's terrorists, Oppenheim worked for the latter, and was dismissed from the newspaper when they failed. He then traveled to Switzerland, France, Holland and England. He returned in 1850 and continued to publish works on democratic ideas. He denounced the democrats for the victories of the Reaction, but thought the latter were ultimately to blame because they turned to raw despotic power rather than continuing with their phony constitutionalism.

The occurrences of 1866 worked a great transformation in Oppenheim. He greeted the new order with joy while other liberals were more skeptical. He joined the Prussian Progressive Party and wrote two flyers for the elections, one of which only saw limited distribution since the leaders saw it as too radical. After 1870, for the first time he directly discussed practical questions, writing on poor laws and economics. He was also critical of “fanciful thinkers about the future among the teachers in the universities.” In 1874, he was elected to the Reichstag from Reuß ä. L. and took his seat as an expert on the 1869 changes to commercial regulations. In 1877 he lost his seat to a social democrat.

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 24, pp. 396-399.]

0s [DE says “labor” rather than “socialist.”]

0t [DE omits “was frequently seen there.”]

0ta [Emmanuel Barthélemy was originally a mechanic from Séaux, France. Christine Lattek reports he served a term in jail for attempting to murder a police agent (rather than killing a police officer as Schurz reports). Lattek confirms much of the rest of Schurz's story. — Christine Lattek, Revolutionary refugees: German socialism in Britain, 1840-1860, Routledge, 2006, pp. 131-2.]

0u [DE omits “I do not remember by whom” — added in AT.]

0v [DE says “unusual” rather than “remarkable.”]

0w [DE omits “the severest.”]

0x [DE says “a man of not insignificant intelligence” rather than “men perhaps of considerable ability.”]

0y [DE inserts here “... usual ...” and omits “abstract.”]

0z [DE says “an outlaw” rather than “outside of the protection of the law.”]

0aa [DE appends here “... after that first visit.”]

0ab [DE says “The servant had found the Englishman dead” rather than “The Englishman was found dead” and inserts here “... his own ...”]

0ac [DE inserts here “... to the ground ...”]

0ad [DE omits “curious.”]

0ae [DE inserts here “... Emperor ...”]

0af [DE says “his ‘lover’” rather than “the woman.”]

0ag [DE omits “old.”]

0ah [DE says “absorbing” rather than “remarkable.” The full citation for Malvida von Meysenbug's book is Memoiren einer Idealistin, Berlin: Schuster & Loeffler, 1905.]

0ai [DE omits “and of a susceptible imagination.”]

0aj [DE gives this sentence as: “In a pleasant manner, I became better acquainted with Malvida von Meysenbug in the Brüning household.”]

0ak [DE says “romantic” rather than profound, and inserts here “... intelligent ...”]

0am [DE inserts here “... university ...,” and says “no small” rather than “an important.”]

0an [DE says “other women” rather than “some kindred spirits” and says “college” rather than “high school.”]

0ana [DE inserts here “... finally ...”]

0ao [DE omits “the book already mentioned —.”]

0ap [DE says “must have been something over thirty years old” rather than “she may have been about thirty-five.”]

0aq [DE says “overlook her appearance in her presence” rather than “overlook that disadvantage in the appreciation of her higher qualities.”]

0ar [DE gives this sentence as “She had read much and assimilated much of that reading.” — an AT change.]

0as [DE says “warm” rather than “real,” “friendship” rather than “principles,” “visionary excess” rather than “imaginative eccentricity” and omits “and nobility.” After this sentence, DE adds “Everyone around her had the highest respect for her, and not a few of them became her warm friends.“ — deleted in AT.]

0asa [DE inserts here “... which prevailed ...”]

0at [DE omits “of consequence” and appends here “... and she was often and gladly seen at the evening gatherings” — the latter deleted in AT.]

0au [DE gives this paragraph as “The books which Malvida von Meysenbug wrote after the time of which I speak are all inspired by her view of the world and life. One of them, ‘Memoirs of an Idealist,’ had the rare distinction of experiencing a rebirth after disappearing from the literary market for no good reason. Malvida reached a ripe age and spent her last decades in Rome in constant personal and written contact with a numerous circle of friends, among whom were men and women of great distinction who had for her eminent and sympathetic personality the greatest respect and affectionate attachment. The friendship we forged in London remained warm until her death.”]

0av [DE gives this sentence as “Now an event occurred which fearfully darkened the mood of refugeedom and correspondingly altered my destiny.”]

0aw [DE omits “and truly.”]

0ax [DE says “made it appear as if this view of the situation was not unfounded” rather than “gave much color to this view.”]

0ay [DE omits “in London” — deleted in AT.]

0az [DE omits “suspected of republican sentiments.”]

0ba [DE omits “criminal” (added in AT) and says “re-establishment” rather than “establishment.”]

0bb [DE omits “soon.”]

0bc [DE says “earliest” rather than “clearest.”]

0bd [DE says “they” rather than “our French friends” and “they cried; they embraced” rather than “and danced the Carmagnole and sang ‘Ça Ira.’”]

0be [DE omits “2d and.”]

0bf [DE omits “of the Faubourgs.”]

0bg [DE omits “comparatively.”]

0bh [DE says “a laughable ape” rather than “the mere ‘nephew of his uncle.’”]

0bh [DE says “terrible” rather than “consuming”]

0bi [DE says “unpleasant” rather than “impossible.”]

0bia [DE says “recent events and their natural consequences” rather than “downfall ... France” — an AT change.]

0bib [DE omits “with this conviction” — added in AT.]

0bj [DE omits “reckless and.”]

0bk [DE omits “long.”]

0bka [DE appends here “... of humanity” — deleted in AT.]

0bm [DE omits “and how?”]

0bn [Neither DE nor AE get the quotation marks right here. In DE an open double quote before “Ubi” needs to be removed. In AE, there was a dash after “patria” which here has been replace by a period and a close double quote.]

0bna [DE and AT say “increase my pecuniary resources somewhat by continuing to give lessons” rather than “make some necessary preparations.”]

0bo [DE says “been sitting for a good while already” rather than “sat perhaps half an hour” and “person” rather than “man.”]

0bp [DE omits this sentence.]

0bpa [Louis Blanc (1811-1882) French socialist politician and historian, was a member of the provisional French government following the revolution of 1848. Controversy over his socialist view obliged him to flee in May of that year to London where he did historical writing and research. He returned to France in September 1870 as a private in the national guard and was elected to the National Assembly in 1871. His last important act was to obtain amnesty for the communists.]

0bpb [DE says “thoughtful” rather than “animated.”]

0bq [DE and AT omit this sentence, but perhaps it was added in AT since there is an insertion mark with a line leading off the paper.]

0br [DE appends here “... and a troubled face.”]

0bra [DE omits “upon his breast.”]

0bs [DE inserts here “... at twilight ...” and says “the fellow democrat” rather than “him.”]

0bt [DE omits this sentence.]

0bu [DE begins this sentence with “We indeed became very well acquainted — admittedly not on that day, but soon thereafter — and ...”]

0bv [DE appends here “... of friends.”]

0bw [DE begins this sentence with “Shortly ...” and adds another sentence “As I sat with him in his room for the last time, he made yet another attempt to keep me in Europe.”]

0bx [DE omits this sentence.]

0bxa [DE inserts here “... considerable ...”]

0by [“pressed” is a literal translation of the German, and perhaps was idiomatic English in the early 1900's, but now perhaps “clasped” or even “held,” “taken” or “shook” would sound better and be appropriate. The word appears again with respect to Kossuth, and this change could be made with benefit there too.]

0bz [DE says “as one listens to a great speaker no matter what he speaks about” rather than “as a very distinguished lecturer.”]

0ca [DE appends here “... which since then has erected monuments to the dead man.”]

0cb [DE says rather “Then, unexpectedly a new era:”]

0cc [DE appends here “... which from the beginning was carried out with a blazing nationalism and carried through to victory. It has since then been justifiably asked whether this upwelling of national feeling would have been possible without the preceding year of awakening, 1848. ‘The great year of awakening’ — this is the name that it should have in the history of the German people.” A sentence similar to this appears at the end of the next paragraph in AE.]

0cd [DE omits “in 1851.”]

0ce [DE omits “1852.”]

Notes to Margarethe Meyer Schurz

1 [Johannes Ronge (1813-1887), founder of the German Catholic or Christian Catholic movement in Germany, was in 1840 appointed chaplain for Grottkau. His liberal tendencies brought him into frequent conflict with the Roman Catholic authorities. In 1843, he had to give up his chaplaincy because of an article he wrote for the Sächsischen Vaterlandsblättern, and he became an instructor in Laurahütte. In 1844, Ronge wrote his public letter to Bishop Arnoldi expressing the widespread discontent over the exhibition of the Trier coat, and he was defrocked and excommunicated. Ronge's touring ministry brought about 100 new congregations to his movement. He decried declining spirituality and called for a separation from Rome, the formation of a German national church and an end to oral confession, priestly celibacy, Latin masses etc. During this time Johannes Czerski joined the movement. (In 1844, Czerski had resigned from his office in order to remove his congregation from the Roman Catholic Church.) A Leipzig council in 1845 brought the various congregations to a common agreement, and the number of congregations increased further to about 300. While free-thinking protestants were sympathetic with the movement, the conservative protestants did what they could to discourage it. Soon a split began within the movement between the more conservative Czerski and the more liberal Ronge, and an 1847 council in Berlin failed to mend it. The 1848 upheavals encouraged the movement, but it was sharply curtailed during the following reaction, and Ronge was obligated to leave for London, returning only in 1861. From here on out, his tale was one of increasing superficiality. Ronge's success was more due to discontent with the increasing assertion of Roman authority within the Roman Catholic Church rather than Ronge personally. He was skilled as an agitator, but did not have the depth of sprituality needed for reformation. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 29 (Leipzig, 1889), S. 129-130. Neue Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 22, p. 28, reports that, after his return to Germany, Ronge sought to interest liberal Jewish congregations in a common free religion, and that in the 1870's and 1880's he agitated energetically against spreading antisemitism.]

2 [Heinrich Christian Meyer (1797-1848), Hamburg merchant and manufacturer. At eight years of age, he sold walking sticks on the streets that his father had made, and earned his nickname “Stockmeyer” (Stick-Meyer). At 18 he left his father's workshop and went to work in Bremen for a manufacturer of whalebone products; a year later he founded his own workshop for making walking sticks. Through diligence, industry and organizational talent, he developed his workshop into the largest and most modern factory in Hamburg, and by 1840 the business was known on both sides of the Atlantic. In 1837, it was the first concern in Hamburg to use steam in industrial processes. The factory made walking sticks, whalebone products and rubber goods. In 1842, Meyer was a leader in the effort to rebuild Hamburg after a great fire. In his public work, he also devoted himself to overcoming the many hindrances to connecting Hamburg and Berlin via rail. As he had purchased land in this connection which appreciated greatly in value, there was a suspicion that he and an English engineer and others had used their public positions to enrich themselves. A statue was erected to his memory in 1854 by his fellow citizens. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 21 (Leipzig, 1885), S. 578-579; Neue Deutsche Biographie, Vol. 17 (Berlin, 1994), S. 293-294.]

3 [Christian Justus Friedrich Traun (1804-1881), German industrialist, went to school in Hamburg. He married Bertha Meyer (1818-1863) when she was 16 years old. They had had six children by the time they divorced in 1851 and Bertha left for London with the three youngest. In 1856, he was one of the founders, along with Heinrich Adolph Meyer, of the Harburger Gummi-Kamm-Compagnie, an offshoot of his father-in-law's business. Harburg is a suburb of Hamburg. — and, visited 22 September 2008.]

4 [Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel (1782-1852), German philosopher, philanthropist and educational reformer. He invented the name “kindergarten,” German for “garden of children,” and called the superintendents “children's gardeners.” He laid great stress on every child cultivating its own plot of ground, but this was not his reason for the choice of the name. It was rather that he thought of these institutions as enclosures in which young human plants are nurtured. In the Kindergarten, the children's employment should be play. But any occupation in which children delight is play to them; and Fröbel invented a series of employments, which, while they are in this sense play to the children, have nevertheless, as seen from the adult point of view, a distinct educational object. This object, as Fröbel himself describes it, is “to give the children employment in agreement with their whole nature, to strengthen their bodies, to exercise their senses, to engage their awakening mind, and through their senses to bring them acquainted with nature and their fellow creatures.” — Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.]

5 [In 1855, Margarethe Schurz introduced the Fröbel kindergarten to America in Watertown, Wisconsin. — Albert Bernhardt Faust, The German Element in the United States, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1909, Vol. II, p. 237.

In 1860, Elizabeth Palmer Peabody opened the first English-speaking kindergarten in Boston after she was visited by the Schurz family and was “impressed by the poise and development of their six-year-old daughter. . . . Miss Peabody devoted the next thirty years of her life to conducting kindergartens, training kindergartners, and traveling to preach the need of the new education. The kindergarten movement spread rapidly, for the teachings of Froebel flowered in America as they have nowhere else in the world.” — Mabel Flick Altstetter, “Some Prophets of the American Kindergarten,” Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 13, No. 5 (March 1936), pp. 224-225.]

6 [Margarethe Schurz died after giving birth in 1876. — Trefousse.]


* Edward Manley's annotations are taken from Lebenserinnerungen Bis zum Jahre 1850: Selections by Carl Schurz, edited with notes and vocabulary by Edward Manley (Allyn and Bacon: Norwood, Massachusetts, 1913, printed by the Norwood Press, J.S. Cushing Co. — Berwick & Smith Co.), which is a condensed and truncated version of the German edition of Volume One. (The full German edition is referred to here as DE). The annotations strictly pertaining to the German language were omitted. Annotations which included information already in the American edition (referred to here as AE), but not in the Manley's condensed version of DE, were also omitted. In addition to Manley's annotations, the opportunity has been taken to note significant (and perhaps not so significant) differences between DE and AE. Many times restoring information omitted in AE was necessary to make sense of Manley's annotations in the context of AE. Also, annotations have been added to items which Manley neglected, perhaps due to lack of information or space.

The annotations as to differences between DE and AE could be of interest to readers of either edition. AE seems to be in some senses a second draft of the material in DE, and probably some of the differences in AE would have been applied back to DE if Schurz had had time for such an activity, which from all appearances he did not. Carl Schurz's papers in the Library of Congress contain a typescript draft of the American edition (referred to here as AT), perhaps the raw result of Eleonora Kinnicutt's translation process, with written insertions in Schurz's hand which apparently represent new material for the most part, but are sometimes re-inclusion of material from DE or re-translations. Many of the new items probably appear in the notes above as information DE omitted, and could be of interest to its readers, and AE contained amplifications with regard to the material in DE some of which could also be of interest to readers of DE. AT is very close to the final draft represented by AE, certainly much closer than an exactly faithful translation of DE would be, but there are occasionally significant differences.

On the other hand, some omissions in AE represent material which was judged, either by Schurz or Kinnicutt, as unsuitable or irrelevant at that time for the American audience — a more extended draft preface excerpt on Kinnicutt's contribution, from Carl Schurz's papers in the Library of Congress, emphasizes this aspect — or perhaps words that were just dropped in the haste of translation. But, with the passage of time, perhaps this material is now suitable and relevant, and the missing adjectives and adverbs, alternative translations, etc. may provide useful information and nuance for readers of AE.

In short, these notes are interim notes for a refurbishing of DE and its American English translation, as well as supplementary information for understanding the context of the first volume of Carl Schurz's Reminiscences. The reader may despair of following up all of the notes, in which case some relief may be obtained by only following up the numbered notes (those without a letter suffix) with perhaps the rest to be left to a perusal after completely reading the chapter.

Both editions would have benefited from further editing had there been time and resources. The serialization of AE in McClure's Magazine is the most readable with its section headers and more profuse illustration. (Except for a frontispiece with the portrait of Kinkel and Schurz, DE, at least that published in 1906 by Georg Reimer, has no illustrations at all, and the “Volksausgabe” of 1911 omits even the frontispiece, though thankfully it does contain chapter and section labels which are missing in the 1906 edition.) Except to a very limited extent, I haven't compared the serialization with the book to see if the differences go beyond the section headers and more numerous and more copiously annotated illustrations. My limited explorations didn't turn up any differences in text and paragraphing.

DE and AE could certainly learn from each other as far as paragraphing is concerned, and, as I think my titles for the chapters indicate, there are three chapters in AE which could be split into two with good effect. The chapters of DE are in even more need of splitting since it consolidates Chapter V and VI of the American edition into its fifth chapter.

DE was put out by at least two Berlin publishers: G. Reimer, 1906-1912, and Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1923-1930. The title of the first volume in all these editions, the one of primary interest here, differs subtly from that of Manley's book, being Lebenserinnerungen Bis zum Jahre 1852, that is up to 1852 (when Schurz first departed from England for America) rather than 1850 (when Schurz first sailed away from Germany to England).

At least one interesting aspect of DE cannot really be translated at all. When Schurz quotes anyone who speaks non-standard German, he does so in their own dialect and then translates into standard German.