11) Mike Sanders' Revised Chronology -1826 to 1397- and
The date of the Exodus
In the previous pages, I have discussed a new chronology for Egyptian ancient history covering dynasties 6 to 13, here given as spanning the period from 1907 ± (17+X) to 1394 ± (39+X). These absolute dates were compiled from 2 different basis:
**1773 ± (11+X)**
For this date, in the midst of a huge number of destructions, Mr. Sanders notes: "(4) End of Old Kingdom and Dynasty II contemporaneous with it" I have relocated earlier the second dynasty, but the Old kingdom did indeed finish at that time, as I had written last summer: "Year 63, or around, of 'Neferkare-Pepy II', the last year of his long reign for which we have documents... In that year, the Old Kingdom came to an end. Following Turin and Manetho, that king still had 30 years to go, but I'll include those in my First Intermediate Period analysis.) Now, if we believe Michael, that year saw many, many, destruction world wide... And is indeed a very likely candidate for the end of Egypt's first period of glory... And we reached it using different methods than Michael, yet using the same starting point... So his 2258 BC date for the beginning of this same period seems secure... the biggest problem, now, will be to squeeze the FIP and early Middle kingdom in a very short span of time." In "squeezing" all the FIP dynasties into a short period, I think I have succeeded (see all the previous pages of this essay for datails). This date is also, in my opinion, the ideal place to mention the huge famine of the First intermediate period.
1741 ± (20+X): Dynasty 7A for 70 days, then dynasty 7E begins (Rulers of Lower Egypt; overlords)
1732 ± (22+X): Dynasty 8 begins. (Rulers of Lower Egypt; overlords, then dyn. 11/12 vassals c1728)
*1720 ± (10+X)*
Michael writes: "(2) Famines of First Intermediate period of Egypt." These famines, I have just relocated above. In my new chronology this date now falls as (forgetting the error margins) the 47th of Mentouhotep II. The forthcomming of the event might therefore be what encouraged the old king to name his son co-regent (in the previous year).
1715/02 ± (14+X): Dynasty 12 begins. (Rulers of Upper Egypt(?), then Lower Egypt, c. 1642; overlords)
**1665 ± (10+X)**
Michael writes: "(1) Famine of Joseph at the time of Sesostris I. Yufni of Dynasty XIII?" The famine obviously falls on the very same date as it was our main basis for the new dates of Senousert I [Sesostris] and the whole 12th dynasty. The second proposition is interesting, in that it suggests a link between the jewish name "Joseph" and the Egyptian name "Ioufny" bore by a king of the 13th dynasty (#4). Now, the 13th dynasty, in our new chronology, began later in Senousert I's reign. This doesn't undermine the suggestion: the king might indeed have received this name because of the vizier in control at the time of his birth.
1642 ± (33+X): Dynasty 13 begins. (Rulers of Upper Egypt; dyn.12 vassals, then overlords c. 1537)
*1612 ± (9+X)*
Micheal writes nothing relating to Egypt here. In our chronology, this coincides with the establishment of Senousert II as co-regent. Later documents from the reign of Senousert III mentionning a famine may indeed point back to this time. It is almost certain though, that, even with Joseph dead, he wasn't immediately forgotten. It is at about this time that the firsts, isolated, recordings of Nile levels was taken at Semna [by an official of Amenemhat V in years 3 and 4], a site that would be extensively re-used during the next event.
**1558 ± (9+X)**
Mr. Sanders here mentions: "(1) Famine during Sesostris Ill.", but see above. Actually, the nile levels taken throughout Amenemhat III (including those of Amenemhat IV & VII and Sobekhotep II) give us clear indications that the level was too high, a situation very suggestive of a major famine at this time. The fact that levels were taken probably allowed the Egyptians to control the famine... Joseph's lesson certainly wasn't forgotten yet.
1537 ± (19+X): Dynasty 14 begins. (Rulers of Lower Egypt; dyn. 13/15 vassals)
*1504 ± (8+X)*
Mr Sanders simply doesn't mention anything for this date... In our new chronoloy, though, it arrives at the time the 13th dynasty, after it's grandeur, becomes once again little more than a list of names (After Sobekhotep IV). Her, for sure, Joseph had been forgotton... The exile of Moses most probably began shortly before this date, assumming he was about 20-30 years of age when he was working for the above pharaoh (see below).
**1450 ± (8+X)**
Here, Mr. Sanders gives plenty of relevant notes: "(1) The Exodus catastrophes at the time of Kha-Ankh-Ra of the Thirteenth Dynasty., (5) Widespread destruction layers found extensively, including Alaca Huyuk, Tarsos, Ugarit, Byblos, Megiddo, Tel Hesi, Mirsin, Chagar Bazar, Tepe Hissar, etc. -Period of the Mari letters, describing marauding Benjaminites and Rabbites (from the tribe of Reubin) during the period of "wandering."" The traditionnal date of the exodus (see page 7) is 1447 BC. So it is indeed to be dated to this event. [At that time, Moses was 80 years old, hence the notes given above.] That the Mari letters are indeed from this time, I'll have to leave to expert of Mari to decide. But, as far as Egyptology is concerned, we know that a king Neferhotep was contempory with the destruction of that Near East city. The said letters thus have to be, at the very lattest, contemporary with one of the 3 Neferhoteps... He is usually identified as the first one since he his the best known of them, but, if they really mention 2 Israelite tribes, we must select the third Neferhotep, a king of the Theban 17th dynasty we haven't discussed yet, as both 13th dynasties Neferhoteps ruled before the Exodus (see my side page on the 13th and 14th dynasties). If you are interested in a fully scientific discussion on the nature of the 10 plagues that befell on Egypt at that time, see http://www.plaguescape.com/.
*1397 ± (7+X)*
Here again, Mike doesn't mention anything relating to Egypt (as for Biblical chronology, there are the events mentioned in the book of Joshua). Yet, the last absolute date we had given in our pages was that of the end of the 13th dynasty: 1394 ± (39+X), which falls only 3 years after event, the same date concidering the huge error margin this date has. As argued in the previous page, the last 13th dynasty kings actually were the successors of Hur, Moses "bras droit" who had lead the Amalecites and many others into Egypt. Now, as this "first Hyksos dynasty" ends, the invaders chose for themselves a High King to rule over all of their chieftains as well as over the Egyptian dynasties (14th in the Delta, 17th in Thebes). This dynasty lasted 108 years according to the Turin Papyrus, which is the lenght of 2 cycles! Next page will discuss these high kings and their vassals in more details next page.
1394 ± (39+X): Dynasty 13 ends. (Rise of the High King)
1353 ± (20+X): Dynasty 14 ends: End of dual Lower/Upper Egyptian monarchies (temporary)
**1343 ± (7+X)**
From Mike Sanders: "(2) Hyksos in Egypt"... Well, they certainly were! A major famine / catastrophy is far from impossible at this time...
*1290 ± (6+X)*
Michael writes: "(4) Expulsion of the Hyksos." 108 years after a High King was chosen, most probably in Amosis' 18th year, the Hyksos were indeed thrown out of Egypt... Here begins the New Kingdom, whose chronology will be discussed after that of the High King.
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