Chapter 4 - Animal Consciousness and Higher Mental States

Back to Main Page Chapter three Chapter five SUMMARY of conclusions reached Bibliography

The dolphin Akeakamai (now deceased) displayed an ability to understand symbolic references to absent objects.
Photo courtesy of the Belgian website Dauphins Libres et Dauphins Captifs.

NOTE: For a more up-to-date and more sophisticated treatment of the different varieties of consciousness, the reader is welcome to read my online thesis.

Part A: Phenomenal Consciousness in Animals
Phenomenal Consciousness in Animals: Summary of the Evidence and Ethical Implications
Appendix A: findings relating to phenomenal consciousness

Part B: Rational Agency in Animals
Are non-human animals capable of rational agency? Appendix B: Higher-order consciousness and language in non-human animals?

Part C: Moral Agency in Animals
Are non-human animals capable of moral agency?