When was Jesus Born?
September 29, 5 B.C.
Want the details? Read more below.
Biblical scholars readily tell us that it was most likely NOT on December 25th, A.D. 0. Why?
When were shepherds in the fields?
Israeli meteorologists track
edDecember weather patterns for many years and conclud edthat the climate in has been essentially constant for at least the last 2,000 years. The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible states that, "broadly speaking, weather phenomena and climatic conditions as pictur Israel edin the Bible correspond with conditions as observ edtoday" (R.B.Y. Scott, Vol. 3, Abingdon Press, Nashville, 1962, p. 625).
The temperature in the area of
in December averages around 44 degrees Fahrenheit (7 degrees Celsius) but can drop to well below freezing, especially at night. Describing the weather there, Sara Ruhin, chief of the Israeli weather service, not Bethlehem edin a 1990 press release that the area has three months of frost: December with 29 F. [minus 1.6 C.]; January with 30 F. [minus 1.1 C.] and February with 32 F. [0 C.].
Snow is common for two or three days in
and nearby Jerusalem in December and January. These were the winter months of increas Bethlehem edprecipitation in Christ's time, when the roads became practically unusable and people stay edmostly indoors.
This is important evidence to disprove a December date for Christ's birth. Note that, at the time of Christ's birth, the shepherds tend
edtheir flocks in the fields at night. "Now there were in the same country shepherds living out in the fields," wrote one Gospel writer, "keeping watch over their flock by night" (Luke 2:8). A common practice of shepherds was keeping their flocks in the field from April to October, but in the cold and rainy winter months they took their flocks back home and shelter edthem.
One commentary admits that, "as these shepherds had not yet brought home their flocks, it is a presumptive argument that October had not yet commenc
ed, and that, consequently, our Lord was not born on the 25th of December, when no flocks were out in the fields; nor could He have been born later than September, as the flocks were still in the fields by night. On this very ground the nativity in December should be given up. The fe eding of the flocks by night in the fields is a chronological fact, which casts considerable light upon this disput edpoint" (Adam Clarke's Commentary, Abingdon Press, , note on Luke 2:8). Nashville
Another study source agrees: "These humble pastoral folk are out in the field at night with their flock—a feature of the story which would argue against the birth [of Christ] occurring on Dec. 25 since the weather would not have permitt
edit" (The Interpreter's One-Volume Commentary, Abingdon Press, Nashville, 1971, note on Luke 2:4-7).
The Companion Bible, Appendix 179 says:
Shepherds and their flocks would not be found "abiding" (Gr. agrauleo) in the open fields at night in December (Tebeth), for the paramount reason that there would be no pasturage at that time. It was the custom then (as now) to withdraw the flocks during the month Marchesven (Oct.-Nov.) from the open districts and house them for the winter.
The census describ
Other evidence arguing against a December birth of Jesus is the Roman census record
edby Luke. "And it came to pass in those days that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be register ed... So all went to be register ed, everyone to his own city. Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to the city of David, which is call ed ..., to be register Bethlehem edwith Mary, his betroth edwife, who was with child. So it was, that while they were there, the days were complet edfor her to be deliver ed. And she brought forth her firstborn Son..." (Luke 2:1-7).
The Roman and Judean rulers knew that taking a census in winter would have been impractical and unpopular. Generally a census would take place after the harvest season, around September or October, when it would not seriously affect the economy, the weather was good and the roads were still dry enough to allow easy travel. According to the normal dates for the census, this would probably be the season of Christ's birth.
One author states that this census "could hardly have been at that season [December 25], however, for such a time would surely not have been chosen by the authorities for a public enrollment, which necessitat
edthe population's traveling from all parts to their natal districts, storms and rain making journeys both unsafe and unpleasant in winter, except in specially favorable years" ("Christmas at Bethlehem," Holy-Days and Holidays, Cunningham Geikie).
Luke's account of the census argues strongly against a December date for Christ's birth. For such an agrarian society, an autumn post-harvest census was much more likely.
The year of Christ's birth
Jesus wasn't born in A.D. 0 either. In 525 Pope
JohnI commission edthe scholar Dionysius Exiguus to establish a feast calendar for the Church.. Dionysius also estimat edthe year of Christ's birth bas edupon the founding of the city of . Unfortunately because of insufficient historical data he arriv Rome edat a date at least a few years later than the actual event.
The Gospels record Jesus' birth as occurring during the reign of Herod the Great. Herod's death is record
edby Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews, Josephus, Book 17, Chpt. 8) and occurr edin the spring of 4 B.C. (New Testament History, F.F. Bruce, Anchor Books, p.23). Therefore, Christ's birth had to take place at least four years before the traditional date!
Jesus was not born on December 25, A.D. 0. [Actually there is no such year as A.D. 0. Our calendar jumps from 1 B.C. to A.D. 1 with no intervening year of zero.]
The celebration of Christ's birth in the the early church
In the first 200 years of Christian history, no mention is made of the calendar date of Jesus' birth. Not until the year 336 do we find the first mention of a celebration of His birth.
Why this omission? In the case of the Church fathers, the reason is that, during the three centuries after Christ's life on earth, the event consider
edmost worthy of commemoration was the date of His death. In comparison, the date of His birth was consider edinsignificant. As the Encyclop edia Americana explains, "Christmas... was, according to many authorities, not celebrat edin the first centuries of the Christian church, as the Christian usage in general was to celebrate the death of remarkable persons rather than their birth..." (1944 edition, "Christmas").
Speculation on the proper date began in the 3rd and 4th centuries, when the idea of fixing Christ's birthday start
ed. Quite a controversy arose among Church leaders. Some were oppos edto such a celebration. Origen (185-254) strongly recommend edagainst such an innovation. "In the Scriptures, no one is record edto have kept a feast or held a great banquet on his birthday. It is only sinners who make great rejoicings over the day in which they were born into this world" (Catholic Encyclop edia, 1908 edition, Vol. 3, p. 724, "Natal Day").
During this time eight specific dates during six different months were propos
edby various groups. December 25, although one of the last dates to be propos ed, was the one finally accept edby the leadership of the Western church.
A summary of the debate on the dates of Christ's birth appears in The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church: "Though speculation as to the time of year of Christ's birth dates from the early 3rd century, Clement of Alexandria suggesting the 20th of May, the celebration of the anniversary does not appear to have been general till the later 4th century. The earliest mention of the observance on Dec. 25th is in the Philocalian Calendar, representing Roman practice of the year 336. This date was probably chosen to oppose the feast of the Natalis Solis Invicti [nativity of the unconquerable sun] by the celebration of the birth of the 'Sun of Righteousness' and its observance in the
West, seems to have spread from Rome" (1983 edition, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983, p. 280, "Christmas").
Around 200, when Clement of Alexandria mention
edthe speculations about Christ's birthday, he said nothing about a celebration on that day. He casually report edthe various ideas extant at that time: "And there are those who have determin ednot only the year of our Lord's birth, but also the day..., the 25th day of Pachon... Furthermore, others say that He was born on the 24th or 25th of Pharmuthi" ("The Stromata, or Miscellanies," The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 2, Eerdmans, , 1986, p. 333). Grand Rapids
Later, in 243, the official feast calendar of the time, De Pascha Computus, places the date of Christ's birth as March 28. Other dates suggest
edwere April 2 and November 18. Meanwhile, in the East, January 6 was chosen, a date the Greeks had celebrat edas the birth of the god Dionysus and the Egyptians as the birth of the god Osiris. Although pagans commonly celebrat edthe birthdays of their gods, in the Bible a birthday is never celebrat edto the true God (who, of course, had no birth or day of origin).
December 25 populariz
December 25 was made popular by Pope Liberius in 354 and became the rule in the Rome West in 435 when the first "Christ mass" was officiat edby Pope Sixtus III. This coincid edwith the date of a celebration by the Romans to their primary god, the Sun, and to Mithras, a popular Persian sun god suppos edly born on the same day. The Roman Catholic writer Mario Righetti candidly admits that, "to facilitate the acceptance of the faith by the pagan masses, the Church of Rome found it convenient to institute the 25th of December as the feast of the birth of Christ to divert them from the pagan feast, celebrat edon the same day in honor of the 'Invincible Sun' Mithras, the conqueror of darkness" (Manual of Liturgical History, 1955, Vol. 2, p. 67).
Protestant historian Henry Chadwick sums up the controversy: "Moreover, early in the fourth century there begins in the
West (where first and by whom is not known) the celebration of December 25th, the birthday of the Sun-god at the winter solstice, as the date for the nativity of Christ. How easy it was for Christianity and solar religion to become entangl edat the popular level is strikingly illustrat edby a mid-fifth century sermon of Pope Leo the Great, rebuking his over-cautious flock for paying reverence to the Sun on the steps of St. Peter's before turning their back on it to worship inside the westward-facing basilica" (The Early Church, Penguin Books, London, 1967, p. 126).
edia Americana makes this clear: "In the fifth century, the Western Church order edit [Christ's birth] to be observ edforever on the day of the old Roman feast of the birth of Sol [the sun god], as no certain knowl edge of the day of Christ's birth exist ed" (1944 edition, "Christmas").
Is there any evidence from the Bible that will help us fix the date and year of Christ's birth?
Actually from the Bible, we can at least determine the probable season and year of His birth. The most convincing proof of when Jesus was born comes in understanding the evidence that is present
edin the book of Luke concerning the birth of Johnthe Baptist.
Luke 1:5-17 says:
In the days of King Herod of
Judea, there was a priest nam edZechariah, who belong edto the priestly order of Abijah. His wife was a descendant of Aaron, and her name was . Both of them were righteous before God, living blamelessly according to all the commandments and regulations of the Lord. But they had no children, because Elizabeth was barren, and both were getting on in years. Once when he was serving as priest before God and his section was on duty, he was chosen by lot, according to the custom of the priesthood, to enter the sanctuary of the Lord and offer incense. Now at the time of the incense offering, the whole assembly of the people was praying outside. Then there appear Elizabeth edto him an angel of the Lord, standing at the right side of the altar of incense. When Zechariah saw him, he was terrifi ed; and fear overwhelm edhim. But the angel said to him: "Do not be afraid, Zechariah, for your prayer has been heard. Your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you will name him John. You will have joy and gladness, and many will rejoice at his birth, for he will be great in the sight of the Lord. He must never drink wine or strong drink; even before his birth he will be fill edwith the Holy Spirit. He will turn many of the people of to the Lord their God. With the spirit and power of Elijah he will go before him, to turn the hearts of parents to their children, and the disob Israel edient to the wisdom of the righteous, to make ready a people prepar edfor the Lord."
Zechariah was of the division of Abijah (Luke 1:5,8). Back in King David's day, the priests had been separat
edinto 24 turns or divisions. These turns began in the first month of the Jewish calendar (1 Chronicles 27:2), March or April of our modern calendar. According to Talmudic and Qumransources, the turns rotat edevery week until they reach edthe end of the sixth month, when the cycle was repeat edagain until the end of the year. This would mean that Zechariah's division serv edat the temple twice a year.
We find in 1 Chronicles 24:10 that Abijah was the eighth division of the priesthood. Thus, Zechariah’s service would be in the tenth week of the Jewish year. Why the tenth week? Because all divisions serv
edduring primary feast weeks of the Jewish year. So all of the divisions of the priesthood would serve during Passover and the Days of Unleaven edBread (the third week of the year). Likewise, all of the divisions of the priesthood would serve during the Feast of Weeks or Pentecost (the ninth week). Thus, the eighth course of the priesthood would end up serving on the tenth week of the year.
Now we must make an assumption here. Remember we said that Zechariah's division serv
edat the temple twice a year. The Bible does not specify which of the two shifts of service it was. Regardless, nine months after one of the two dates Johnthe Baptist was born. This would place his birth in March or September.
We will assume that Luke is recording Zechariah's first shift of service for the year. We will find that assumption tends to prove true as we discover the dates of
Johnthe Baptist's and Jesus' birth. Therefore, the date of Zechariah's service would be the Jewish date of Sivan 12-18 (See the Companion Bible, Appendix 179, Section III).
Picking up the story in Luke 1:23-25:
When his time of service was end
ed, he went to his home. After those days his wife Elizabeth conceiv ed, and for five months she remain edin seclusion. She said, "This is what the Lord has done for me when he look edfavorably on me and took away the disgrace I have endur edamong my people."
After his service in the temple, Zechariah went home to his wife. Due to the laws of separation (Leviticus 12:5; ,25), two additional weeks have to be count
ed. Now I don't know about you, but if an angel had told me that I was going to have a special child, I would get to it just as soon as the law allow ed. So we will make a second assumption, that conceiv Elizabeth eda child two weeks after Zechariah's return.
Allowing for this and going forward a normal pregnancy places the birth of
Johnthe Baptist at the time of the Passover (Nisan 15)! The Jews always look edfor Elijah to return on the day of Passover. To this very day there is an empty chair and a table setting for Elijah whenever Passover is celebrat ed. Little children also go to the door of the home and open it in anticipation of Elijah's coming. The Old Testament prophets had said that God would send Elijah before the coming of the Messiah (Malachi 3:1; 4:5-6). According to these calculations Johnthe Baptist was born at Passover. Remember the angel's words to Zechariah? The angel said that Johnthe Baptist was to come "in the spirit and power of Elijah" (Luke ). Elijah came at Passover!
Continuing in Luke 1:26-36:
In the sixth month, the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a town in Galilee call
edNazareth, to a virgin engag edto a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin's name was Mary. And he came to her and said, "Greetings, favor edone! The Lord is with you." But she was much perplex edby his words and ponder edwhat sort of greeting this might be. The angel said to her, "Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. And now, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you will name him Jesus. He will be great, and will be call edthe Son of the Most High, and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his ancestor David. He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end." Mary said to the angel, "How can this be, since I am a virgin?"
The angel said to her, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be holy; he will be call
edSon of God. And now, your relative in her old age has also conceiv Elizabeth eda son; and this is the sixth month for her who was said to be barren.
Luke tells us that
was six months pregnant when the angel Gabriel visit Elizabeth edMary. The beginning of 's sixth month would have been the celebration of the Jewish feast of Hanukkah, which occurs in December of our modern calendar. Hanukkah (Chanukkah) is known as the "Feast of the D Elizabeth edication" ( John) because it is connect edwith the d edication of the second Jewish temple and the r ed edication of the temple after the Maccabean revolt. Mary was being d edicat edfor a purpose of enormous magnitude: God's presence in an earthly temple, i.e. a human body ( John-21).
If Mary did conceive on Hanukkah,
Johnthe Baptist would have been born three months later at Passover. And assuming a normal pregnancy of 285 days, Jesus would have been born on the 15th day of Jewish month of Tishri (September 29 by modern reckoning). This is significant because it is the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot). It is a high day, a special Sabbath, a time of great rejoicing.
The Feast of Tabernacles and Jesus
As you have seen, the birth of our Lord can be reasonably shown to have occurr
edin the autumn of the year on the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles. The Feast of Tabernacles is a joyful feast. Jewish believers would build a tabernacle or booth known as a "sukkah" out of green tree branches. They would eat their meals and sleep in this sukkah for eight days.
There are some very interesting connections in Scripture with Jesus and aspects of the Feast of Tabernacles.
And the Word became flesh and tabernacl
edamong us. [literal translation of the Greek]
Look at what Dr. Samuele Bacchiocchi has to say concerning this verse:
To introduce the nature and mission of Christ,
Johnin his Gospel employs the metaphor of the "booth" of the Feast of Tabernacles. He explains that Christ, the Word who was with God in the beginning ( John1:1), manifest edHimself in this world in a most tangible way, by pitching His tent in our midst: "And the Word became flesh and tabernacl edamong us, full of grace and truth; we have beheld his glory, as of the only Son from the Father" ( John1:14).
The Greek verb skenoo us
edby Johnmeans "to pitch tent, encamp, tabernacle, dwell in a tent." The allusion is clearly to the Feast of Tabernacles when the people dwelt in temporary booths. In his article "The Feast of Tents: Jesus’ Self-Revelation," publish edin Worship (1960), David Stanley notes that this passage sets the stage for the later self-revelation of Jesus at the Feast of Tabernacles in John7 and 8. Stanley writes: "The most basic clue to the mystery pervading this entire narrative [ John7 and 8] is provid edby the symbolic action that gives this feast its name: the ceremonial erection of little bowers, made with branches of trees, in which every Jew was expect edto live during the festival. These shelters were commemorative of the forty years’ wandering in the desert when had liv Israel edas a nomad in such intimate union with her God. For Johnthis dwelling in tents is a primordial symbol of the Incarnation: ‘Thus the Word became a mortal man: he pitch edhis tent in the midst of us’ ( John). It is this insight which presides over the composition of John’s narrative which we are considering [ John7-8]. All that happen ed, all that Jesus said on this occasion has some reference to the Incarnation."
In seeking to describe the Messiah’s first coming to His people,
Johnchose the imagery of the Feast of Booths since the feast celebrates the dwelling of God among His people. This raises an interesting question on whether or not Johnintend edto link the birth of Jesus with the Feast of Tabernacles.
[from: God’s Festivals in Scripture and History Part II: The Fall Festivals, page 241.]
According to the Companion Bible, Appendix 179:
The word tabernacl
edhere receives beautiful significance from the knowl edge that "the Lord of Glory" was "found in fashion as a man", and thus tabernacling in human flesh. And in turn it shows in equally beautiful significance that our Lord was born on the first day of the great Jewish Feast of Tabernacles, viz. the 15th of Tisri, corresponding to September 29 (modern reckoning).
The Circumcision of our Lord took place therefore on the eighth day, the last day of the Feast, the "Great Day of the Feast" of
John7.37 ("Tabernacles" had eight days. The Feast of Unleaven edBread had seven days, and Pentecost one. See Lev. 23).
From The Seven Festivals of the Messiah by Eddie Chumney we read this:
As we have stat
edearlier in this chapter, the Feast of Sukkot (Tabernacles) is call ed"the season of our joy" and "the feast of the nations." With this in mind, in Luke it is written, "And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings [basar in Hebrew; otherwise known as the gospel] of great joy [Sukkot is call edthe 'season of our joy'], which shall be to all people [Sukkot is call ed'the feast of the nations']." So, we can see from this that the terminology the angel us edto announce the birth of Yeshua (Jesus) were themes and messages associat edwith the Feast of Sukkot (Tabernacles).
As we have seen, the Feast of Tabernacles is call
edvariously "Season of Our Joy" and "Feast of the Nations." It is also call ed"Feast of Lights".
There was a man sent from God, whose name was
John. He came as a witness to testify to the light, so that all might believe through him. He himself was not the light, but he came to testify to the light. The true light, which enlightens everyone, was coming into the world.
In these verses
Johnrefers to Jesus as "the light"; and as we have also seen, verse 14 says that he "became flesh and tabernacl ed[literal meaning of the Greek] among us". These are two apparent references to the Feast of Tabernacles that are associat edwith the coming of the Messiah.
Magi from the east
The Scriptures tell us that there were wise men (scholars) who came from the east looking for the birth of the Messiah, saying "we have seen his star in the east". Who were these scholars from the east? Why were they looking for a Jewish Messiah?
Matthew 2:1-6 says:
In the time of King Herod, after Jesus was born in
of Bethlehem Judea, wise men from the East came to , asking, "Where is the child who has been born king of the Jews? For we observ Jerusalem edhis star at its rising, and have come to pay him homage. When King Herod heard this, he was frighten ed, and all with him; and calling together all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he inquir Jerusalem edof them where the Messiah was to be born. They told him, "In Bethlehem of Judea; for so it has been written by the prophet: 'And you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are by no means least among the rulers of Judah; for from you shall come a ruler who is to shepherd my people Israel.'" [cit edfrom Micah 5:2]
was known as "the land to the east." At the time of the birth of Jesus, the largest Jewish population was actually in Babylon , not in Babylon . Nearly five hundr Palestine edyears earlier, the entire nation of had been carri Judah edaway captive into by Nebuchadnezzar. Only a small colony of Jews return Babylon edto after sixty-three years of captivity. The greater number of them remain Palestine edwhere they had establish edhomes in the . landof Babylon
The Greek for "wise men" is magoi. Daniel was referr
edto by this same title (Daniel 4:9). The word is equivalent to the Jewish term rabbi. It is very likely that the wise men from the east were Jewish rabbis who had been anticipating the coming of the Messiah because of Daniel’s seventy weeks prophecy [Daniel ]. They had spott eda new star in the sky and took it to be a sign of the coming of the Messiah.
At the very least, even if the wise men were not Jewish, they would have been influenc
edby Daniel's writings. At an earlier time, Daniel had been in charge of all of the wise men in (Daniel ; 4:9; ). Babylon
The Star and the Feast of Tabernacles
There is one time of the year when Jews would typically look at the stars. That time was during the Festival of Tabernacles. As we already said, Jewish believers would build a tabernacle or booth known as a "sukkah" out of green tree branches. They would eat their meals and sleep in this sukkah for eight days. It was customary to leave a hole in the roof of the sukkah so that one could look at the stars. Jewish "wise men" celebrating the Feast of Tabernacles would have notic
edthe appearance of a new star.
The year of Jesus' birth
Jesus was born while Herod the Great was still living (Matthew 2:1). Wise men appear
edin asking about "one who has been born king of the Jews?" Of course, this upset Herod, who had been given that title by the Roman Senate. Herod talk Jerusalem edto the wise men secretly and found out from them the exact time the star had appear ed(Matthew 2:7). The wise men then journey edto and found Jesus, Mary, and Joseph in a house (Matthew ) and they bow Bethlehem eddown and worship edJesus.
When the wise men did not return to give Herod a report, "Herod realiz
edthat he had been outwitt edby the wise men. He was furious, and he gave orders to kill all the boys in Bethlehem and its vicinity who were two years old and under, in accordance with the time he had learn edfrom the wise men" (Matthew 2:16).
This tells us that Jesus may have been born two years before the appearance of the wise men and the death of Herod. Herod di
edthe spring of 4 B.C. Let's assume that the star appear edat Jesus' birth. Let's also assume that Herod was already close to death when the wise men appear ed. It was the custom in ancient to count the years of one's age from the date of conception. Therefore, Herod actually kill Israel edthe children one year old and under according to the way that age is calculat edtoday. This would mean that Jesus had to have been born in 6 B.C. (if Jesus was one year old) or 5 B.C. (if Jesus was under one year and Herod was just being extra careful).
This date for Jesus' birth fits with other Biblical data such as Jesus being "about thirty years old" when He began his ministry (Luke 3:23). From evidence given to us in
Johnabout the construction of the temple, we know Jesus' ministry began in A.D. 26. Counting forward from 6 B.C. to A.D. 26 (one year has to be subtract edbecause there is no year zero) would make Jesus 31 years old when he began his ministry -- that is, about thirty years old. Counting forward from 5 B.C. to A.D. 26 would make Jesus 30 years old when he began his ministry. The birth years of 5 or 6 B.C. also fit with the best date for the crucifixion, that is A.D. 30. Personally I opt for the 5 B.C. date, because I assume the wise men would want to come at once and the time for a journey from to Babylon takes only four months. Jerusalem
When was Jesus born? Nothing is absolutely certain, because we are dealing with implications and assumptions, but a best guess from the Scriptures and history is
September 29, 5 B.C.
Sources of Information for this Article:
- The Gospel of Luke by William Hendriksen, Baker Book House.
- When was Jesus born? by Christian Renewal Ministries International.
- New Testament History by F.F. Bruce, Anchor Books.
- When Was Jesus Christ Born? by Mario Seiglie, The Good News, Unit
ed , 1997. Churchof God
- The Companion Bible, Publish
edby Kregel Publications.
- God’s Festivals in Scripture and History, Part 2 by Samuele Bacchiocchi, PhD.
Available from: Biblical Perspectives
4990 Appian Way
Berrien Springs, MI 49103
The purpose of this article is NOT to suggest that we change the day of Christmas or the year of our calendars! It is to give add
edmeaning and insight to our Lord's birth, particularly from a Jewish perspective. If it really matter edto Jesus when we celebrate His birth, then He would have made the exact day crystal clear with absolute certainty.
The essential fact is that God did enflesh Himself in time and space (1
John4:2). He was born from a woman on a specific day in a specific year, walk edamong us, di edfor our sins, was rais edfrom the dead, and ascend edinto heaven.