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Choctaw, Natchez,Pascagoula ,Creek, Chickasaw, Tensa, Caddo ,Seminole ,Cherokee ,Comanche and other Native Americans

Site presented & maintained by
Humma Neshoba

The links below are each part of your journey

Proud to have been on line since 1994
Welcome take my paw in hand I will be your guide and walk with you on a journey into the lives Customs, culture, heritage, spirituality, housing, healing,Myths , Legends, stories of the of Native American Indians. Of sacred animals Wolf ,Wolves, Buffalo , Hawk ,Eagle , Owl & Bear

To be a warrior is not a simple matter of wishing to be one.

It is rather an endless struggle that will go on to the very last moment of our lives.

No one is born a warrior, in this same way no one is born an average man. We make ourselves into one or the other.

Every society , culture & people is judged by how it treats it's least fortunate amongst them.

Education,status & Money does not make a person human. It's the ethical & moral consciousness and over all a Heart that makes a person a real human.

Everyday in America animals suffer cruelty and neglect ,do your part to prevent this please even in a small way.

Genealogical Research on the Internet.
Trace your ancestors, census , school records , land records and more

Click here for Indian E Books,fun ,enjoyable and historical reading.

Click for Indian census-rolls-economical research material A great site.

Just added - In Search of Native American Indian Ancestors CENSUS CD

Click Branch Genealogy A great free site.

More Branch information just added information-

American Indian Bloodlines :a site of honor.
Click for Marilee's Native Americans Resource A great site.

Take nothing but pictures. Leave nothing but footprints. Kill nothing but time.


Of the 12 races listed on the latest census form, only one has an official membership card. That document, known as "the white card," is what makes an Indian an Indian at least in the eyes of many U.S. government and tribal programs.
Not surprisingly, the use of the white card to record a human pedigree raises civil rights concerns. The use of "blood quantum" to define a genetic cut-off point for Indian people is viewed by many as an instrument of assimilation or extermination.
Yet over a century, blood quantum has become a deeply ingrained and even valued tool in the relations between sovereign tribes and the rest of world.As a new generation of Indians comes of age, for survival from extinction blood quantum reform may be closely tied to the future of Indian nations and cultures.

Many will judge your Indianess by the color tone of your skin or hair, light- medium or dark. I say to determine your degree of Indianess first judge the color of the heart.

The first Indians encountered in Florida by the early Spanish explorers had the appearance of the Aztec of Yucatan. The DNA of living native Americans tested against extracted DNA from ancient burials resulted in the finding they are more closely related to South American Indians. Discounting the Asian crossing land bridge theory in relation to the ancestry of the southern United States Indian tribes.
The History of the Seminole Indians. Veronica Davidson

To love a person is to learn the song that is in their heart, and sing it to them when they have forgotten.

If the concept of Christianity in combination with American Indian spirituality makes you uncomfortable or offends there are many other sites on the Internet promoting an opposite view of Native Indian religion which you may visit, we thank you for your visit and I pray your path is peaceful.
Our foundation belief is that the Southeast American Indian religion & spirituality was & is compatible if not one in the same with Christianity
Welcome to Red Wolf Country -- This is your Native American Indian genealogical and history page
A collection of American Native Indian literary and historical excerpts os the Cherokee, Choctaw and other tribes

A Kid friendly site. Return often -- make us your home page -- Native American Indian Info. added daily. May God bless and keep you.

Red Wolf - Nashoba Humma (Neshoba is the word for Wolf of the Choctaw , Pascagoula , Appalaches


The native people of the Americans South � the Southeastern Indians developed and inherently maintained the richest culture of any native people north of Mexico; it was the richest by any standard.
When the Europeans arrived the southern Indians lived in an economy which combined farming with hunter / gathering. they organized themselves into complex political systems, they built large towns, with grand ceremonial centers. They had centuries old, rich impressive symbolism and art style preserved
Hardly any of this has left and impression on our historical memory. The modern American has limited knowledge of Powhattan Indians of Virginia and the role they played in early American history. The average modern American has a clear but stereotyped Internet concept of the Indians who lived on the Great Plains, they may know some of the Navajo or Pueblo of the southwest, but knows little or nothing in truth of the Southern Indians.
This page is dedicated to removing the virtual historic amnesia of the Southern Native Indian culture & Sacred Rites .

INDIAN REMOVAL:1830, w/ Choctaws; made the journey the winter of 1831 & 1832 Alexis De Tocqueville was visiting Memphis when the Choctaw arrived on their way west. He wrote: " The wounded, the sick, newborn babies, and the old men on the point of death...I saw them embark to cross the great river and the sight will never fade from my memory. Neither sob nor complaint rose from that silent assembly. Their afflictions were of long standing, and they felt them to be irremediable."

If you love something, set it free. If it returns, it's yours forever. If it doesn't, it wasn't yours to begin with.

People may scoff or ridicule, you those who see your Native Indian ancestor search as a futile path, people who never really have felt the love that�s in your heart. You will smile at them, for you shall know something that is hidden from them, and which is well worth the knowing.

We're conditioned to think that our lives revolve around great moments. But great moments often catch us unaware-beautifully wrapped in what others may consider a small one. PEOPLE MAY NOT REMEMBER EXACTLY WHAT 'YOU DID, OR WHAT YOU SAID, ~BUT~THEY WILL ALWAYS REMEMBER HOW YOU MADE THEM FEEL.

Chaos & Disease

When Hernando de Soto�s expedition passed through what would later be known as Mississippi, he reported no Choctaws.
The Spanish expedition met a few decentralized native groups, as well as a more populous network of villages�organized, multilevel hierarchies which appeared quite powerful to the Europeans.
When more explorers entered the area one hundred twenty years later, they found chaos; disease had followed in de Soto�s wake, causing an enormous death toll. Whole cultures collapsed, with sometimes only a fraction of their members surviving. The leadership elite was gone; much of the peoples� previous cultural framework was abandoned or forgotten.
Throughout southeastern North America, survivors coalesced and formed new amalgamated social groups, negotiating new ways of carrying out the rituals of life �sometimes one constituent subgroup�s rituals would be adopted by the other subgroups, and sometimes whole new ways of doing things were found. This was the genesis of, not only the Choctaws, but the Chickasaws, Cherokees, Creeks, and others (the Seminoles, who would eventually be the fifth of the �Civilized Tribes�, would break away from the Creeks in the late eighteenth century.)

excerpt:Troy D. Smith Ref: Swanton John R, Mooney , Hudson & others.

Often neglected in pursuit of wealth, power and pleasures of the world. However, our Soul is the only thing that will follow us wherever we go. Cultivate, strengthen and cherish it now, for it is the only part of us that will follow us to the throne of God and continue with us throughout Eternity.
Remember, when the world pushes you to your knees, you're in the perfect position to pray.

Another reason your ancestor wished not to be listed on census as Indian
SPECIAL INQUIRIES RELATING TO INDIANS on the 1910 U.S census. (Native American Schedules Only)
Tribe of this Person.---- Tribe of Father of this Person.---- Tribe of Mother of this Person.---- Nationality of Indian and White Blood if "Indian".---- Nationality of Indian and White Blood if "White".---- Nationality of Indian and White Blood if "Black".---- Number of times married?---- If married is this Indian living in Polygamy?---- If living in polygamy, Number of wifes and sisters.---- Educated from what educational institution.---- Is this Indian Taxable?---- If taxable, year allotted land?---- Does Indian Own this land?---- Indian is citizen or Abor?----
I'm sure before answering these very personal Questions , most would have just said they were black or white.

In Indian culture there was no priesthood or organized system of temples or churches

some excerpt from

No one distinct Language
If one only casually surfs the Internet, we might assume that each Native American tribe spoke one language: example the Cherokee were organized into four basic chiefdoms speaking the Elati , Kituhwa and Atali dialects. These dialectical differences were great enough that it was difficult for the speaker of one to understand the speaker of another. The chiefdoms of these regions remained independently of each other. When Cherokee chiefdoms did cooperate with each other it was it was because a crisis forced them to cooperate.
This same chiefdom and language principle applied to all Southern tribes. Therefore 30 different tribes could have had as many as 90 different language dialects.
As we know, most all languages have regional dialects, such as various regional Chinese divisions. North America is no exception, English language regional dialects are extensive, northeast, southeast, deep south, central, northwest, southwest, west, even differences in individual states, such as Louisiana with south Louisiana having a French mix dialect. People in, Massachusetts speak a different dialect than those raised in, Missouri and both different dialects than spoken by those raised in, California. This criteria applies then as now to the Southern Indian language.
Ref: Mooney , Hudson & others.

In Southern Native American Indian spirituality above all and with nothing of more importance was the sacred fire.

Southern Indians in 1776
They are ingenious, witty, cunning, and deceitful; very faithful indeed to their on tribe, but privately dishonest to the Europeans.
Their being honest and harmless to each other may be through fear of resentment and reprisal,.. which is unavoidable in case of injury. They are very close and retentive of the secrets never forget injuries, revengeful of blood to a degree of distraction. They are timorous and consequently cautious very jealous of encroachment of their Christian neighbors and likewise content with freedom, in every turn of fortune.
They are possessed of a strong comprehensive judgment, can form surprisingly crafty schemes and conduct them with equal caution, silence and address. They admit none but distinguished warriors and beloved men into their council. They are slow but very preserving in their undertaking, commonly temperate in eating but excessively immoderate in drinking.
They often transform themselves by liquor into the likeness of mad foaming bears.
The women in general are of a mild amiable, soft disposition; exceedingly modest in their behavior, and very seldom noisy, either in the single or married state.
James Adair � history of the American Indians � 1776 page 5

American Indians were confederations, tribes, subtribes, clans, and bands.

The Caddoan-speaking tribes did not have clans but maintained bands as did much of the Choctaw. The Creek Confederacy consisted of many tribes . The Cherokee was a tribe of clans.

The Illinois Confederacy tribes, the Santees (Mdewakantons and Wahpekutes), Arikaras, Mandans, Hidatsas, Pawnees, Iowas, Omahas, Poncas, Otos, Missouris, Kansas, Osages, Wichitas, Foxes (Mesquakis), Sauks, and Prairie Potawatomis appear to be the earliest identified prairie tribes

The cross in circle on staff was one of the most sacred symbols of our ancient Grandparents

Prayer Feather - carrier of individual spiritual messages

If we are caretakers of earth�s creatures, then we are caretakers of the earth.

Sin-e-cha�s Song
Sin-e-cha was aboard the Monmouth, which sank in the Mississippi River. In 1937, Elsie Edwards related the following story of Sin-e-cha: �Somewhere upon the banks of the Grand River near Ft. Gibson lies an old grave of an old lady whose name was Sin-e-cha. I could lead you to that grave today. Sin-e-cha had come with her tribal town of Ke-cho-ba-da-gee during the removal to the new country. When the events, with never no more to live in the east, had taken place, she, too, remembered that she had left her home and with shattered happiness she carried a small bundle of her few belongings and reopening and retying her pitiful bundle she began a sad song which was later taken up by the others on board the ship at the time of the wreck and the words of her song was: "I have no more land. I am driven away from home, driven up the red waters, let us all go, let us all die together and somewhere upon the banks we will be there.�� Source: Interview with Elsie Edwards, September 17, 1937, Indian-Pioneer History (OHS), 23: 255.

I remarked to Mrs. Jones one day that some of the girls who sat at a table with a missionary who is a brunette, were quite as fair as the teacher, although they were full Choctaws. She tells me that change of food and habits and absence of exposure does make a change in the color of the Indians sometimes. She has noticed the difference which even a few years will make.
I call 'my Indian princess' as I watched her at recess moving around through the yard, in a plain calico dress, and yet with the movements and air and regal grace of a queen.
Chronicles of Oklahoma Volume 17, No. 4 December, 1939

Of the cherokees discription [485] Of men I have seen their complexion brighter & somewhat of and olive cast especilly the adults and many of their young women are as fair skin and blooming as European women.

[Bartram 1774]


This language was in use by the Indians of the Mississippi valley long before the discovery of America.

This includes the present states of E. Kansas , E.Oklahoma , E.Texas , S.Missouri , S. Illinois , S. Indiana , S. Ohio , The Virginias , The Carolinas , Tennessee , Arkansas , Mississippi , Alabama , Georgia , Florida , Louisiana and S. Maryland.
Most "tribes" had its on language , but the Mobilian language was universally spoken and understood by the majority of all.

ref.from our library collection:Bonnefoy - Byington - Gatschet - Margry - Mooney -Du Pratz and others

Choctaws and other tribes , Choctaw in point had always traveled periodically throughout the lower Mississippi River Valley, but by the 1770s they were forced to travel farther and father for annual deer hunts. Britain had become the major European power in the Gulf Coast region after the Seven Years War ended in 1763, hundreds of unscrupulous unlicensed fur traders poured into the south seeking to exchange rum and other European goods with the Southern Indians for deerskins. Choctaws and others killed more deer than ever before and quickly depleted the deer herds in their hunting territory east of the Mississippi. As a result, it became necessary for Choctaws to travel to new hunting lands west of the river. Other Indian groups, such as the Osages and Caddos, already lived in those western lands and they resented the Choctaws intruding into their hunting territories. Because Choctaws, and other young men, wanted access to the deer in the west and needed to participate in war in order to become men, sporadic warfare between Southern tribes like the Choctaws and groups like the Osages and Caddos continued throughout the late 1700s and early 1800s

Lewis & Clark � Zebulon pike � Freeman & Custis expeditions 1805-06

Most all school children are familiar with the over land explorations of Lewis & Clark. There have been many books written on this expedition.
What is little known history is two other expeditions sent out by president Thomas Jefferson after the newly acquired lands of Louisiana. Those two others were those of Zebulon pike to explore to the headwaters of the Mississippi and the Freeman � Custis expedition to explore the Red River of what is now Louisiana & Texas. The latter is a very rare book, which I am fortunate to have acquired a copy from which I will shortly post excerpts on this web site. This expedition details my peoples villages of the lower Red River in 1805.


About the only thing all American Indians seem to agree on is that owls are spiritually powerful creatures associated with the night or darkness. Few animals excite such contradictory feelings from American Indians, as do owls.

The ancient Mississippian culture from which all central and lower tribes descend had respect for Owls, as represented by the number of owls on a great number of objects, including pipes, bowls, beads ,and figurines excavated.. Negative aspects caused by fear of the unknown probably lead to superstitions of the owl.

Owls are active mainly at night, finding their prey in the darkness, flying noiselessly through the air, and communicating with other owls through their haunting hoots, unlike most other birds, which are active in the day. Many American Indians associated night with death and the underworld, therefore to them surly the owl was a part of this . Others seemed to have a special respect and admiration for the Owl. Creek warriors carried owl feathers so that they would have extraordinary night vision in battle (Swanton).
Of the Cherokee, scouts on a war expedition, who were assigned to locate the enemy, wore an owl skin and imitated the owl's cry. The Cherokee also closely watched owls while they were at war , because these owls were said to be able to predict victory or defeat in battle.
So we see that the Owl is one of the most controversial creatures, revered by some feared by others.

Did Indian warriors cry?
In December 1721 he found the Quapaw village (mouth of Arkansas river with Mississippi)of Ouyapes in great desolation from a passing Frenchman infected with smallpox, the entire town immobilized by the disease. All night in his tent, the priest heard nothing but weeping, in which the men joined in as well as the women. The village was reduced by death to about twelve hundred souls.. Voix 1721.

The Mississippian culture

Our ancient caring American Indian ancestors 7000 years ago
Some excavation findings give revised ideas on the type of life Southern American Indian people lived seven to eight thousand years ago.They were more caring and less nomadic than is now generally taught. In one case, the skeleton of a woman who was more than 50 years old when she died, showed that she had suffered multiple bone fractures several years before her death. Her injuries would have kept her from functioning in a normal way for an extended period. During that time others would have had to care for her and assume the work she would normally have done.
In another case, a boy, 13 to 15 years old, was the victim of spina bifida, a crippling condition caused by the failure of the vertebrae to grow together around the spinal cord. One foot was severely deformed, and bones of the other leg indicated that a terrible--and probably fatal--infection had caused the loss of the foot and part of the leg.
Those two required a great deal of attention and loving care, the woman through a lengthy period of convalescence and the boy for all or most of his life. In a more savage, less developed society, those members of the clan and others such as the elderly, the very ill, or deformed children might have been deserted or even killed.

Buried as if they were human
Excavated sites have found the remains of domesticated dogs , these often appear at ancient Indian burial sites, they were buried as if they were human

Ancient American Indian ancestor Love
At this excavated site, some 7000 years ago when this 3-year-old died, her parents placed her favorite toys in her arms, wrapped her in fabric woven from fibers of native plants, and buried her body in the soft ground.Some 7,000 years later, when her tiny remains were uncovered, the toys--a wooden pestle-shaped object and the shell of a small turtle--were still cradled in her arms.

Burials were so well preserved that it was possible to extract some DNA from them and compare it with that of living native Americans, with surprising results: the DNA of the people is more like that of some South American Indian populations. This reflects doubt in the manner of current DNA comparison and Asian ice bridge theory.

The conclusion is that more people lived in the Americas in 1491 than in Europe. Mann

Mother Tribe

Of the Creek , Natchez , cherokee and other southern & gulf tribes . Many historians believe the Natchez as the mother tribe with others extending their settlements north & east until the dissolution of the natchez empire , then began to form a new confederacy under the name of muscogules. many bands to this day{1775] still speak the stincard language.

From our library archival holdings

In the year 1736 the Chickasaw had many Cherokee, Natchez & Shawnee living with them.
By the year 1754 great numbers of Cherokee, Natchez and Shawnee had married into the Chickasaw nation .

(Wells �p-156)

Tattooed serpent

Great Natchez war Chief 1729
Are those befriended visitors among us of two hearts, a good one today and tomorrow a bad one? We should have but one heart and one word.

From the beginning when asked for land, we generously told you to use any land they might need, there was enough for both people; it was good the same sun would shine on them together and they would walk the same path. Did not we give the French of all we had? Did we not assist them in building their houses and working in their fields?

No matter the type war being waged, a man of two hearts and conflicting loyalties can never be at peace with himself. The French do not understand my people; our culture and their ignorance and mistreatment lead to disaster.

You and the black robes with crosses teach from one heart of said good, then of another heart and to us another people, they allow our women to be in sexual servitude, our young men beaten and sometimes old killed , our hospitality, generosity and culture abused, this by you the French.
Our backs are as of to an earthen wall with no escape or pititude; if our destruction is your only satisfaction then may our demise be with honor.

Man's mind has risen so little above human desires and indulgences or degraded that it takes little opposition or interference to drive him down to the barbaric state of mind where he desires to senselessly kill and where he entertains other destructive degrading thoughts.

Written communication between Southern Indians continued well into the 1700s by means of pictographs.
Example :Of the NATCHEZ "The French do not abide by rules, as you attacked the apple village, True our major tactic of battle is surprise, but not when another nation did not know they were at war. We give our opponents a pictograph declaration of war in advance left at the enemy village. Our battles are nothing like the Europeans pitched battles or sieges, as with us counting coup or retreating is no dis-honor. Our desire when in battle is to seek revenge for a wrong done to a family or village member and to restore honor is our objective. After these requirements are fulfilled there is no need for war. You see our wars among Indians as no more than squabbles ,since our desire is not to conquer and subdue a people or to hold their land forever.

Cherokee Indians would not kill a wolf. They believed that the brothers of the slain wolf would avenge its death. They sang a song and walked in imitation of the wolf to protect their feet from frostbite


American Indian spiritually as with culture is not one universal way across America.
Many promoters of Indian spirituality prey on the minds of people who've already been screwed over in life and are looking for help.

Choctaw elder

Give us hearts that we hear about in this book (bible) help some of us do good to those we meet. Perhaps we will not bring shame upon the land. Kanchi , a Choctaw elder speaking to his people in 1834

"The Chiefs are the worst dressed of the tribe, having given away everything to the needy of his tribe" so said the early French.

This nation among whom I have lived for the space of eight years, and whose sovereign, war chief, and chief temple guardian were among my most intimate friends. Their manners were more civilized, their manner of thinking more just and full of sentiment, their customs more reasonable, and their ceremonies more natural and serious--distinguishing this nation from all others. It was easy to recognize them as more refined and polite. (Du Pratz 1758)

My Indian spiritual belief -- Would you like to travel back in spirit time to the early 1700s & know true culture
He was told of the "Ancient Word," which had been passed from generation to generation by way of a select group of young men who had sworn not to change the story in any way.
The story related how the Infinite Spirit fashioned the first man from clay, breathed life into him, and likewise created small spirits with limited power, to serve as the Infinite Spirit's helpers. There was also an evil spirit in the world, but the Infinite Spirit had bound it to prevent it from doing harm. However, the evil spirit also had his little army of small spirit-helpers, and these managed to cause trouble from time to time. People eventually went astray, so the Infinite Spirit sent a man and woman from the sun to set people back on the right path.

Pushmataha (1820) After Andrew Jackson asked the Choctaw to cede a �small slip of your land here� (nearly half, over five million fertile acres, of their remaining land in the Southeast) in exchange for thirteen million acres west of the Mississippi, Choctaw speaker Pushmataha replied that the �little slip of land� �is a very considerable tract of country� whereas the land in the west, which Jackson had described as full of �many water courses, rich lands and high grass abounding in game of all kinds � honey and fruits of many kinds� is actually �poor and sterile, tractless, sandy deserts, nude of vegetation of any kind. � the grass is very short � and for the game it is not plenty, except buffalo and deer. � There are but few beavers, and the honey and fruit are rare things. � The rivers are � liable to inundation during the spring season, and in summers the rivers and creeks dry up or become so salty that the water is awful for use� (Robert Remini, Indian Wars, 201-202).


A respected animal of the Louisiana American Indians.
Characteristics: Love & devotion to mate, cinnamon red to black, smaller than other wolves, Red Wolf pack consists of an adult pair and their young offspring. Early in the 20th century the red wolf lived as far north as Pennsylvania and as west as central Texas, The last remaining red wolves live in coastal prairie and marsh areas , Three problems threaten the future of red wolves - the loss of habitat, the hunting of wolves, and red wolves mating with coyotes. The expansion of agriculture, logging and human settlement cleared the forest home of red wolves. Between 1900 - 1920 red wolves were hunted to near extinction. As the population of red wolves declined, coyotes expanded into its territory. Today the red wolf population is at an estimated number 300.

Wolf Spirit

The spirit of the wolf, speaks To my soul, in dreams and Meditations, he tells me of the Beauty of nature, the trees, rivers, and mountains, and how to listen to them, and their wisdom. My beautiful wolf, with glowing eyes , Looks into my, heart and soul, with a wisdom known only to God, and he sees that in spirit he and I are one.

JadeWolf MariVan-Katwyk

Nancy Reece (1828) Jacksons Indian removal �� I do not think that all the people are friends to the Cherokees. Miss. Ames has been reading a part of the Presid. Message. Perhaps he does not like the laws of the Indian tribes for he says �This state of things requires that a remedy should be provided.� Miss. Ames has been talking to the scholars and she felt bad and told them that they must get a good education soon as the can, so they can teach if they should be removed where they could not attend school. � I have been talking to the children about it and one says �if the white people want more land let them go back to the country they came from� another says �they have got more land than they use, what do they want to get ours for� (John Howard Payne/Daniel Butrick Papers)

As late as 1999 the state of Montana still had a law on its books that stated � a gathering of three Indians constitutes a raiding party , you may shoot them on site.�

Rev. John Page, a Choctaw Preacher
God's word had shined upon them as "a light in a dark place;" the rites and superstitions of their heathen ancestors had been abandoned; and the ordinances of the Christian Church had been introduced successfully in his nation. The sermon was plain, simple, and practical, and listened to with interest by an intelligent congregation, some of whom were officers of the United States army.
Source archived book: Life Among the Choctaw Indians -( full text is on page two.)

"He Labored with The Cherokees and Walked with God"

Born Oct. 22, 1807, in the Cherokee Nation near the present site of Rome, Georgia, of Scotch-Cherokee parentage. Died De- cember 8th, 1881, at Park Hill, Indian Territory, and is buried in the Stephen Foreman Cemetery there. A gentleman of the old Southern type, a scholar of much culture and learning, a writer of prominence.
Louisiana Indians

Louisiana has the third largest Native American population in the eastern United States.
Only North Carolina and Florida have more than the 16,040 Louisiana Indians counted in the census of 1980, this will most probably increase as future census totals are released , due to people declaring their Indian heartige. The Louisiana Indian in the real world today can be found running heavy equipment, working in a oil-field crew, or teaching school or cutting timber. Today many Indian groups are culturally and mixed blood.

Louisiana Indians where?

Many people are surprised to discover that Louisiana has a significant American Indian population--the largest within the eastern United States. Although they do not fit the stereotyped image of what most people think of as Indians, the Louisiana tribes , bands and individuals have played a significant role in shaping the distinctive culture of the state, both north and south. Many of the original inhabitants of Louisiana shared their culture with the newly arrived Europeans and early settlers teaching them how to take advantage of the natural bounty of the land.

The Attakapas, Chitimacha, Houma, Tunica-Biloxi, Caddo , Choctaw and Koasati, Jena Band of Choctaw , Houma,Clifton-Choctaw, Choctaw-Apache of Ebarb, Caddo-Adais, East Baton Rouge Choctaw , Four-Winds Tribe Louisiana Cherokee and decendents of many tribes such as Cherokee, Creek , Chickasaw , Natchez , Taensa , Ischenoca "Bayougoula", Appalache and Pascagoula live here.

The Chitimacha one of the smaller tribes with a recorded history back to the 1500s ,the the largest tribe is the Houmas numbering about ten thousand.There are thousands of mixed blood non-affiliated Indians residing in Louisiana.

If you are of Southeastern American Indian heritage then you probably have cousins here.You are always welcome in Louisiana , but here in Louisiana never ask the question how much or what percent,quantam Indian blood are you! Here if you say you are Indian we respect and except that.

Partial excerpt from Louisiana Division of the Arts. The book was edited by Carl Lindahl, Maida Owens, and C. Ren�Harvison.

The Choctaw of Bayou Lacomb, St. Tammay Parish, Louisiana.David I. Bushnell, Jr. 1909

Their dance ground was in the pine woods a short distance from were they lived. There they would gather and with many fires blazing would dance throughout the night. No one outside the group was ever were permitted to witness the dance, singing or ceremonies. It is said that if the Indians suspected anyone was watching them they would extinguish the fires at once and remain in darkness."As with all Southern Indians spirituality ,dance , ceremony was personal and not open to public spectacle"

Denial of one's own Heritage.

A prelude to the honorable Jack Amos

Choctaw unit in the Confederacy Louisiana / Mississippi

Some of the Choctaws and White officers escaped and returned to Newton County and were transferred to Spann�s Battalion of Independent Scouts. Those Indians captured were placed in the Jackson Barracks and later made public spectacle and paraded like zoo animals in New York City as prisoners-of-war.

In 1906 A law was passed by congress which granted the President the right to pick the CHEROKEE Chief

Apr. 29, 1700: Lemoyne d'Iberville today visits a PASCAGOULA Indian village, one day's walk from the French post at Biloxi. The PASCAGOULAs have been hit hard by disease brought by the Europeans.

Choctaw ,Chickasaw, Creek, Seminole, and Natchez are of the Muskogean language group.

The election of a mingo or principal chief was by the men of the district. Administrative ability, proven military status, and illustrious ancestors, were the three most prized qualities of a chief. The mingo was assisted by elected captains and subcaptains and was superior to the war chiefs.The government was futher divided into six to eight clans. Each clan was further divided into local groups that might consist of a group of towns or a single village, or a part of a village. The mingos would often convene at a national council meeting where issues of concern could be debated and discussed. Through this system, the Choctaws achieved an efficient and democratic political system.
Ref: Angie Debo, The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic 1934 - Catlin

A true story by B.P. Snowder
Excerpts: from a beautiful story.

Neakita It is the Choctaw Indian word for a type of wild rose. The flower the Choctaw word refers to has a simple blossom with five white petals and a gold center. The Neakita flower has a great and sad significance for the Choctaw.The blossoms are plentiful in the deep south.

Then the government conducted their census of the Indians in 1895 "Dawes final roll" some wrote on the form that they was white, even though they was full blood Choctaw , Many did this. Some of the tribe wrote that they were black. Some wrote that they were 1/64th Choctaw, just enough to claim heritage but be considered as mostly white. The reasoning behind this "little white lie" is clear. The last time the United States had taken a census of the tribe was just before the Trail of Tears.


Use of the Blood Quantum At first glance, the blood quantum appears to be relatively unimportant in the complex web of eligibility criteria. The question of Native American identity is so complex on the federal level alone that Indianness is defined thirty-three different ways in assorted pieces of legislation.

1 Nonetheless, the blood quantum is a common thread throughout these varying definitions. The blood quantum first appeared with the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887, the landmark legislation that divided tribal reservation lands into individual allotments. The Dawes Act was a benevolent but misguided attempt at reform; its objective was to facilitate assimilation of Native Americans by ending what the early reformers saw as the isolated and nomadic nature of tribal life. In order to break the tribal structure, the federal government ended legal recognition of tribes and divided tribal lands among individual members. Legislators adopted blood quantum standards to prevent white and black Americans from claiming shares of the land.

2 However, after allotments were given to all individuals with enough ��Indian blood,�� a significant amount of tribal land remained. The land was declared surplus and sold to non- Indians, reducing Native American lands by almost one half. This policy was not reversed until 1934, and the blood quantum standards were never reversed. Since the Dawes Act, many Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) regulations have provided services to those with one-half or one-fourth Indian blood.

3 The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 (IRA) has been the most influential piece of legislation on the question of Indian identity. The IRA defines Indian as a persons of Indian descent who are members of any recognized Indian tribe now under Federal jurisdiction, and all persons who are descendants of such members who were, on June 1, 1934, residing within the present boundaries of any Indian reservation, and shall further include all other persons of one-half or more Indian blood.

4 Despite this generally inclusive definition, the IRA still excludes those who are not members or descendents of tribes under federal jurisdiction and who do not have more than one- half Indian blood. Due to the government complicated procedure for federal recognition and its historical policy of termination, only about 562 tribes are officially acknowledged.

5 Because many Indians do not meet the federal recognition standard, the IRA definition heavily relies on blood quanta. Since 1970 the federal government has shifted away from the explicit use of blood quanta. Still, the blood quantum as recognized in the IRA remains an important concept; BIA regulations frequently refer to it when defining an Indian.

6 Aside from explicit federal use, blood quanta have crept into eligibility criteria through many other channels. Even in instances where the courts have struck down use of blood quanta, the BIA often uses them informally and secretly. According to Margo Brownell, an attorney for Maslon Edelman Borman & Brand, LLP who regularly represents tribes seeking federal recognition, [i]n its eagerness to apply the blood quantum, the BIA has time and again proceeded without formally publishing its certification has repeatedly exceeded its administrative authority by imposing a blood quantum where the authorizing statute provided for a different, and often more generous, definition of Indian.

7 The federal governments attempts to move toward tribal membership as an eligibility criterion have been largely meaningless due to covert and restrictive BIA practices. For the BIA, the blood quantum defines Indian identity, even when federal law says otherwise. Ms. Clark is a freshman at Dartmouth College. She participates in both policy debate and Mock Trial. Her major is undecided as of yet, but her interests lie in government, economics, and environmental policy. The article published here was written for her freshman seminar in Native American studies.

Christianity and Southern American Indian religion are compatiable if not one in the same.

Southern Native Indians were settled farmers , living in permanent homes.

Understanding why it is difficult to research Native names. This is an excerpt from the book Life Among the Choctaws by Rev. Benson, Registering for Christian School in Indian Territory. "When we came to register the names of the lads we found a number who had none but Indian names, many of which were lengthy and difficult to remember. To such English names were given, but, whenever it could be done, the Indian name was retained and used as a surname. In one instance a lad came with a short Indian name --"Belah" which we thought would do, and, hence, did not give him any other; but he was not satisfied, and in a few days came and requested us to give him an English name, which was accordingly done." No effort was ever made to record original names.


Many who read these words will not understand, but those who have spent many frustrating hours seeking American Indian family connection most certainly will.

Often time those in search of their Indian heritage become disillusioned and feel disappointed or sad because a relative's name cannot be found on any of the government rolls of Indian names.

If you are one of those in this search, think of this: what if suddenly that lost name were found on a roll? Would it make you any more Indian than you are now? I say no. Not paper, but blood makes you Indian.

Most Indians did not put their name on rolls by choice. The government did this either in the lure of land allotment or the temptation of monetary supplement to ward off starvation.

The Native Indian passed their culture and tradition down from generation to generation from memory, not from a notepad or book. Therefore, if your Mother, Grandmother, Father or Grandfather told you or your family that you are of Indian blood, it is most probably true.

When we accept this, there will be no sadness and the memory chain will never be broken as we follow tradition and pass this knowledge down to our children. Being American Indian comes from the heart. The same heart beating in you is the genetic heart that beat in your ancestors--a free heart long before reservations and government rolls. Therefore, let no one sway, shame or change the way you feel, be happy as what you are NATIVE INDIAN, your ancestors will smile. - Red Wolf

Choctaw Removal

Consternation reigned among the Choctaws when word spread throughout their country that the treaty had been signed at Dancing Rabbit Creek, for the great majority were bitterly opposed to the sale of the tribal lands and the removal to the West.

It was truthfully said that the nation was literally in mourning. All efforts toward self-improvement ceased. The thought of some of the Choctaws was expressed by one who said, I will not go to the West; I might as well die here as there.Yet another who had been under the influence of the Christian missionaries made the statement, I can neither sing nor pray, and why should I pretend to do so when my heart is not in it? A third said that he did not wish to leave the country where his ancestors lay buried; that many relatives were dependent upon him, some of whom were old people, and since he had no means to move them to a new country, they might die from exposure to cold and hunger on the way. He added that, The Secretary of War came and took my country. I am in distress. * * * When I see the women and children weeping in sorrow, I am distressed. This I tell you.

Cunni-at-a-hah!��They are going away!With a visible reluctance which nothing has overcome but the stern necessity they feel impelling them, they have looked their last on the graves of their sires-the scenes of their youth��and have taken up their slow toilsome march with their household goods among them to their new home in a strange land. They leave names to many of our rivers, towns and counties; and so long as our State remains the Choctaws who once owned most of her soil will be remembered.Franklin L. Riley in Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society, Vol. VIII, page 392

A note on American Indian-DNA Test.I would suggest that if you are considering this test (which is expensive, with no guarantee) to first check with someone who has had the test performed. Several people who have been disappointed have contacted me. I believe the test was initially based on Asian migration and or the theory of old-world tribes of or related descent. Overall it seems at the very least inconclusive .DNA tests based on your Indian/Old World heritage, if the migration theory is false then the test cannot be true.There must be an unbroken (Maternal Line) or (Paternal Line)it cannot change or revert from Maternal to Paternal at any time.
Please email us with comments or experiences you may have had in reference to this test. Red Wolf

Indians Made Citizens
The national Indian Citizenship Act is passed in 1924. Until now, Indians were not considered citizens which meant that they could not vote or hold office, though they were allowed to fight as U.S. troops in America's wars.


The Bureau of Indian Affairs issues Certificates of Degree of Indian Blood (CDIB), which is a Department of the U.S. Federal Government.

Certificates of Degree of Indian Blood (CDIB) are traced only through the natural (biological) parents. In cases of adoption, Indian ancestry must be proven through biological parents to an enrolled ancestor.

The CDIB (or "white card", as it is often called) lists a person's "Indian blood quantum." Quantum of Indian Blood is "computed" from the nearest paternal and/or maternal ancestor(s) of Indian blood listed on the Dawes Rolls.

In other words; if you had one parent on the Dawes Rolls whose "blood quantum" was listed as 4/4ths (100%), you would be deemed to have 1/2 of your Indian parent's blood quantum - 50%.

To obtain a CDIB, you must formally apply for one and provide acceptable legal documents that connect you to an ancestor who is listed with a roll number and a blood degree from the Final Rolls of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes.

Obtaining a (CDIB) card within itself does not mean you will be accepted for Tribal Membership with any Indian Nation.

How Indian Are You?
By Jeff Horwich
Of the 12 races listed on the latest census form, only one has an official membership card. That document, known as "the white card," is what makes an Indian an Indian��at least in the eyes of many U.S. government and tribal programs. Not surprisingly, the use of the white card to record a human pedigree raises civil rights concerns. The use of "blood quantum" to define a genetic cut-off point for Indian people is viewed by many as an instrument of assimilation or extermination. Yet over a century, blood quantum has become a deeply ingrained��and even valued��tool in the relations between sovereign tribes and the rest of world.As a new generation of Indians comes of age, blood quantum reform may be closely tied to the future of Indian nations and cultures.
As a new generation of Indians comes of age, blood quantum reform may be closely tied to the future of Indian nations and cultures.
COREY LAWRENCE IS A HALF-BLOOD SPEAR LAKE SIOUX. Lawrence, a junior at St. Cloud State University, is an enrolled member of the North Dakota tribe along with his father. But his mother is Ojibwe, and right now that means Corey Lawrence's grandchildren will probably no longer make the cut at Spear Lake. "It's an iffy thing. I'm enrolled, but after my kids have kids that's it. They can't be enrolled any more and the funding stops. And that's what I think blood quantum was set up to do. In a way, it could be seen as genocide," says Lawrence. The vast majority of Indian tribes require one-quarter blood, specifically from their reservation, for enrollment. One full-blooded grandparent, for example, would give someone a blood-quantum of one-quarter. Today, blood quantum data is dispersed among the records of 558 federally-recognized tribes. But conventional wisdom holds that most enrolled Indians, especially in the younger generation, have a blood quantum of less than one-half. This is of some concern to groups like the Minnesota Chippewa. "It's against our spiritual beliefs to marry someone within your clan," says Tom Andrus, who teaches Ojibwe history at St. Cloud State University. He notes the irony that Minnesota's Ojibwe clans can maintain their bloodline only by betraying their culture.
THE PEACE PIPE / CALUMET a sacred symbol
"The calumet," says Father MARQUETTE, "than which there is nothing among the Indians more mysterious or more esteemed. Men do not pay to the crowns and scepters of kings the honor they pay to it; it seems to be the god of peace and war, the arbiter of life and death. "The calumet of peace is adorned with white feathers and the bearer may go everywhere without fear. The one for war is adorned with red feathers. They use them also in settling disputes, strengthening alliances, and speaking to strangers. When Indian nations entered into a treaty of alliance, a pipe of peace was exchanged between them, which was then called the pipe of covenant. It was carefully preserved, and generally lighted in council whenever anything occurred to disturb the alliance; then each smoked a little out of it. "When IBERVILLE," says PENICANT (Historical Collections of Louisiana and Florida," printed 1869), "arrived in Louisiana, the chiefs came to him smoking the calumet and singing the song of peace. The tube of the calumet for ceremony is long, and the bowl of the pipe is usually made of red baked clay or marble." For a further description of calumets used for other purposes, consult Jones's "Antiquities of Southern Indians," pp. 387-393.

THE INFORMATION BELOW MAY GIVE YOU A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF ROLLS AND CENSUSES,AND WHY YOUR NATIVE ANCESTOR WAS NOT LISTED. The early Indian rolls and Native American censuses, applications and enrollment cards, annuity and allotment records, etc., resulted from Indian claims against the United States. In order to obtain benefits awarded by the U.S. Court of Claims, Native Indians were required to prove their Native American ancestry and quantum blood requirements percentage or degree of Indian and Native American blood required) pertaining to a particular tribe such as Cherokee, Crow, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, etc. Once their Native American ancestry was proved, these Native American Indians were entitled to land allotments or annuities awarded by the U.S. Court of Claims. The enrollment records were much later published. Two of the major publications for Native American ancestry and Indian genealogy are the final Dawes Commision roll of the Five Civilized Tribes consisting of the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole Tribes also the Guion Miller Commission rolls. The Guion Miller commission is primarily for the Cherokee Tribe residing east of the Mississippi River who escaped Indian removal to the Indian Territory in Oklahoma. The early Indian rolls and Native American Indian censuses, applications and enrollment cards, annuity and allotment records, etc., resulted from Indian claims against the United States. In order to obtain benefits awarded by the U.S. Court of Claims, Indians and Native Americans were required to prove their Native American ancestry and quantum blood requirements (i.e. percentage or degree of Indian and Native American blood required) pertaining to a particular tribe such as Cherokee, Crow, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, etc. Once their Native American ancestry was proved, these Native American Indians were entitled to land allotments or annuities awarded by the U.S. Court of Claims. The enrollment records were eventually published. Two of the major publications for Native American ancestry and Indian genealogy are the Dawes Commision, i.e. the Five Civilized Tribes consisting of the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole Tribes, and the Guion Miller Commission. The Guion Miller commission is primarily for the Cherokee Tribe residing east of the Mississippi River who escaped Indian removal to the Indian Territory in Oklahoma. Unlike the Dawes Commission which awarded land allotments, the Guion Miller Commission awarded annuities in monetary form (sums of money).

A Place Called Natchitoches
The below excerpts show that some voluntary migration from southeastern tribes began long before forced removal in the 1830s. From Indian notes and Monographs a report from Natchitoches, Louisiana in 1807 by Dr. John Sibley. The Natchitoches post or U.S. factory (a factory was a place set up to trade with the Indians) was very important to the U.S. at this time, as it was the border separating the U.S. territory from Spanish owned Texas. The Indians were needed as allies in case of Spanish attack. Excerpts from his notes below ,published by the Heye foundation in 1922. Book available now from the Dogwood press, Woodville Texas.

CHEROKEE - A small party of Cherokees arriv'd in two perogues from up red river with deer skins to trade in the factory, & being the first Cherokees ever to be here and well behaved Indians, I treated them well with provisions. There had been a mis-understanding between them and the Caddos for some years, they had been to see the Caddos and made friends with them & some Caddos accompanied them here as pilots by order of their chief. There was seven or eight years ago a Cherokee killed in Caddo country, the brother of the man killed was one of the party that was here, he told me they had talked it over with the Caddo Chief, who entirely satisfied him.

The Hietans these are (Comanche)
Dr.Sibley writes from Natchitoches.The complexion of this nation is fairer than that of any other of the many tribes I have ever seen. Many of the women have light brown or auburn hair & blue or light Grey eyes. I saw some that were so white I suspected they were not pure Hietan blood, and mentioned my suspicion to a chief, he said he belive'd they possessed no mixture of blood, one of them a young woman with long light hair overheard our conversation; she blushed and hid her face. A product & leader of this Commanche Tribe would be born in about 1850 his name was Quanah Parker from the union of Chief Peta Nocona and Cynthia Ann Parker(white). His exploits in resisting change in the Indians way of life is well known, as was his ability to later adjust to the white mans way of life. A true Native Indian hero.

CHICKASAW - John Homo a Chickasaw Chief arrived with about thirty warriors, and complained that the Conchettas of the upper village on Red River had stolen from him in February last, on Red River in the country of the Caddos, sixty shav'd deer skins, and one hundred unshav'd ones.

- No history, however brief, of any part of the New World is complete without the mention of Indians, for at the time that America was discovered, numerous tribes (cultures) inhabited it, tribes which like the nations of the old world spoke different languages and had different customs, and like them to made war on each other and formed alliances with friendly tribes in order to overcome the enemy on the battlefield. The one and great difference between the Europeans and Indians was the Indians never warred for the soul reason of possessing the land. The names are strongly flavored with the spelling and pronunciation of the language spoken by the first white settlers of the different regions. One finds the Indian names spelled as they sounded to the French, Spanish and English ear. "He is ignoble--base and treacherous, and hateful in every way. Not even imminent death can startle him into a spasm of virtue. The ruling trait of all savages is a greedy and consuming selfishness, and in our Noble Red Man it is found in its amplest development." ~ Mark Twain, "The Noble Red Man" (1870),
Prejudice and racial hatred canvassed most of the U.S. soil. Newspaper editorials called for the extermination of all Native people, including a March 1863 piece from the Rocky Mountain News which stated, "They are a dissolute, vagabondish, brutal, and ungrateful race and ought to be wiped from the face of the earth."
Quotes of famous Americans
Indians were seen as unclean, savage pagans and most Anglo-Americans refused to accept them in their schools, churches, schools, towns or even in their states. Racial groups targeted Native people and even President Theodore Roosevelt remarked "I don't go so far as to think that the only good Indians are dead Indians, but I believe nine out of ten are, and I shouldn't inquire too closely into the case of the tenth. The most vicious cowboy has more moral principle than the average Indian."
The above taken from THE NATIVE TRUTH

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