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Ad hominem - attacking your opponent personally rather than her/his argument. Ad hominem is fallacious argumentation.

Add ons, Added advantages - extra advantages claimed by the Aff after the 1st Affirmative constructive. These may be entirely new advantages claimed from the Affirmative plan, significant extensions or expansions of smaller points barely mentioned in the first Aff. constructive (maybe only in a shell), or turnarounds of Negative arguments.

Advantage - a benefit accrued by the Aff. plan. The advantage may be qualitative or quantitative or both.

Affirmative - the side that advocates change through the adoption of the resolution. The Affirmative must present a reasonable interpretation of the resolution through an adequate definition of terms and/or operationally define the resolution in the Aff. plan. The affirmative must overcome the presumption for the status quo with a prima facie case.

Alternative causality - others causes than those first presented for some consequent. This type of argumentation usually appears when someone wishes to claim that something has multiple causes and that the first causes mentioned are not primary causes or the main causes for some problem or consequent.

Alternative justification - a type of affirmative case that offers two or more parallel and independent Aff plans each with its own set of advantages within one overall Aff case supporting the debate resolution.

Analogy - method of reasoning based on comparisons. There are literal and figurative analogies.

Analysis - discovery and selection of key ideas; systematic inquiry into a proposition to locate the main issues.

Argument - a conclusion supported by proof. Proof consists of analysis and/or reasoning and/or evidence that supports the conclusion.

Assertion - an unsupported statement or claim

Attitudinal inherency - a type of inherency wherein the advocate claims that those in a position of power are so biased or prejudiced in a certain direction that action is impossible or extremely unlikely.

Ballot - the decision in a debate round. A judge casts a ballot for either the Aff or the Neg and gives her/his reasons for this decision. Often speaker ranks and points are also given on the ballot.

Block/brief - a set of prepared arguments to include analysis/reasoning and evidence on a specific point. Blocking is the process of preparing such arguments in advance of a debate or during a debate. A brief contains the blocked arguments (analysis + evidence specific to the issue issues involved)

Break - win enough rounds and pick up enough speaker points to make it to the next level at a tournament.

Brink/threshold - point at which an occurrence is very likely to take place.

Burden of proof - the obligation of he or she who asserts to prove their points. The burden of the Aff. team to overcome the presumption for the status quo and so establish a prima facie case. Both sides have the burden of rejoinder meaning they must answer the relevant arguments of their opponents to keep the debate progressing.

Bury it - to cover an argument with so many responses, it's effectively dead.

Canned arguments/blocks/briefs - prepared arguments applied to a specific contention or argument or case. Excellent when the analysis and evidence really are applicable and relevant to the debate but has a negative connotation because so frequently the analysis and/or evidence doesn't really apply or isn't relevant and the debater is using the "canned argument" instead of thinking and really clashing.

Causal link - analysis that relates a cause to an effect. Debate is dependent on a great deal of causal analysis. The affirmative must identify and remove the causes of a problem without creating significant new problems. Somewhere in the debate the Aff must link their problems to causes which they eliminate or mask and the Neg. must link its disadvantages to the Aff. plan by showing how the plan causes those disadvantages.

Circumvention - to get around or avoid; usually some loophole in the Aff plan or some problem in the Aff plan which will prevent its workability, practicality, or solvency.

Clash - consists of fundamental opposing arguments on the key issues. One of the most fundamental goals of the debate process is to promote good clash, the Aff and Neg taking opposite stances on key issues.

Comparative advantage case - criteria or goals case; a case admitting limited success for the status quo programs but calling for improvements in efficiency, coordination, speed, guarantees, enforcement, etc. The comparative advantage case compares the Aff solution to the status quo programs and claims "comparative advantage/s" over the status quo mechanisms.

Condusionary evidence - opinions given without reasons for the opinions. Usually a weak kind of evidence.

Conditional argument - an argument made only on the basis of some given assumption. If the assumption is not given or does not sustain attack, the argument based on the assumption falls also. Applies to conditional counterplans et al.

Constructive speech - one of the first four speeches in an academic debate during which the Aff and Neg establish their fundamental positions and arguments. New arguments or constructive arguments are allowed in constructive speeches. New arguments are not allowed in rebuttals where the purpose is to clarify and/or extend previously made arguments not to construct new argumentation.

Contention - a statement of significance taking a definite stand on an issue. A contention is an argumentative statement or position supported by proof. Quite often this refers to Aff need contentions or advantages.

Contradiction - statements or arguments related to a given point which are in direct opposition to one another.

Cost -benefit analysis - analysis weighing the positive gains of an action versus the negative detriments of that action. The process of on balance analysis.

Competition - assumes that the counter plan by itself is somehow better than the affirmative by itself or the permutation.

Counterplan - meeting an Aff case by agreeing with the need for change or advantages but proposing a counterplan which it will be claimed will better meet the Aff need or better gain the Aff advantages without having to adopt the resolution. Some say the counterplan must be nontopical, competitive, exclusive, etc. Some say the counterplan must gain additional advantages. There are many types of counterplan (agent of change counterplan, studies counterplan, state vs. federal action counterplans, conditional counter plans etc).

Cross Examination - a form of debate in which debaters are permitted to ask direct questions of their opponents during specified question periods, usually immediately following the opponent's constructive speeches. A title for the question periods.

Debate - a process of inquiry and advocacy seeking reasoned judgment on a proposition. Debate allows for two or more sides advocating their positions on a given issues under some set of rules with some kind of judgment to follow from a judge or audience.

Deduction - arguing from a general principle-to a specific case. Opposite of induction which argues from specific cases or data to a general conclusion.

Definition of terms - explaining the meaning of the key terms or phrases in a resolution. Can be accomplished utilizing dictionary definitions, expert definitions, derivation, operational definitions, terms in context, etc.

Dilemma - an argument that presents an opponent with a two option forced choice, neither of which offers desirable outcomes for the opponent.

Direct refutation - type of Neg attack in which the Neg denies the claims of the Aff pt by pt. The Aff can also directly pt by pt deny Neg argumentation.

Disadvantages (DA) - a series of attacks which link together to explain why the affirmative plan CAUSES problems as well as solves them

Division of labor - division of responsibilities between the debate speakers esp. as applied to the Neg. Generally, the first Neg argues topicality, terms, inherency, significance, and methodological challenges while the second Neg. argues solvency and disadvantages.

Double coverage - a mistake made by less experienced teams when the 1NR covers a position that the 2NC has already covered.

Dropped argument - an argument which is never responded to by an opponent or which is not brought up again after an opponent's response to it.

Effects topicality - trying to be topical indirectly through the effects of a plan or proposition analysis which itself is not directly topical.

Ellipses - dots . . . used to indicate that material has been deleted from a quotation. Ellipses should be avoided or used extremely carefully by debaters lest there be suspicion that crucial material has been left out.

Emory switch - A Negative strategy where the 1st Negative attacks the plan and the 2nd Negative attacks the case instead of the more traditional method where the 1st Negative attacks the case side and 2nd Negative attacks plan side.

Enforcement - a plank or planks in the Aff plan seeking to ensure that the Aff mandates will be carried out. Enforcement can consist of carrots (rewards) for action or sticks (punishments) for inaction or malfeasance.

Evidence - anything used to generate proof or support for an assertion; facts, opinions, illustrations, examples, analogies, and statistics.

Extension - furthering an argument through additional analysis or evidence especially as related to such arguments given in the rebuttal periods of a debate.

Extratopicality - actions above and beyond those called for in the resolution taken by the Aff. The Aff cannot or should not be allowed to take credit for advantages gained by extratopical means.

Fallacy - a mistaken inference; faulty reasoning; a seemingly reasonable argument which is actually unsound or flawed.

Falsification - making up evidence or changing the author's intent

Fiat power - the right of the Aff to demonstrate only that its plan should be implemented rather than that it will be. The Aff has the right to decree reasonable plan planks into existence but cannot exceed this reasonability.

Flip/turnaround - a claim that an opponents argument actually supports one's own position. A turned disadvantage would actually be an advantage for the Aff.

Flow - the gestalt of the debate or state of the issues in the debate.

Flowsheet - a systematic note taking device for organizing (charting) following the arguments (issues) in a debate.

Generic argument - a common argument which can be applied to several cases or positions on a resolution.

Generic disadvantage - a disadvantage that applies to the resolution itself or to many Aff case analyses of the resolution.

Goals criteria Aff - a type of Aff comparative advantage case explicitly stating the goals, criteria, rubrics, or evaluative standards to be used for comparative purposes.

Grouping arguments (lumping and dumping) - handling several interrelated arguments simultaneously.

Harm - a problem in the status quo constituting a need for a change.

Hasty generalization - a conclusion based on too few examples or examples, which aren't typical or representative of a class. A type of fallacious argument.

Hypothesis testing judge - a judge who accepts the scientific analogy for debate judges associated with Zarefsky and who will accept any Negative attack hypothetically or conditionally whether contradictory or not.

Implementation - the method for putting a plan or program into effect.

Independent advantage - an Aff comparative advantage that is supposedly simultaneously topical, unique, and significant enough unto itself to warrant adoption of the resolution or at least serve as a partial independent warrant for the adoption of the resolution.

Induction - the use of specific instances or examples to formulate more general conclusions.

Inherency - conditions inseparable from the status quo; problems calling for fundamental structural change. Problems calling for changes in the law or fundamental reorganization of the current system or policy.

Structural inherency - change of law, organization or structure of the status quo is necessary for proposition to be adopted and effective.

Attitudinal inherency - calls for change in attitudes, ways of thinking, ways of enforcing the law, etc.

Issue - a fundamental question involved in the proposition; an issue is an inherent and vital question within the proposition; each important contention of the Aff can become an issue when it is really of vital importance to the proposition and when it is clashed with by the Neg. A.Pulling an issue - synthesizing, clarifying, and summarizing key points in the debate. B.Voting issues - the most important issues in the debate. C. Debated issues- those important questions in the debate upon which there was significant clash.

Judge - the all powerful and sometimes clueless person who decides your fate in a round.

Jurisdictional - a reason to vote for topicality (voter); it assumes a court room analogy: if the judge does not have the jurisdiction to vote for the affirmative, then it must be voted against.

Lincoln-Douglas Debate - a debate format involving only one speaker on each side as opposed to team debate.

Meatball - a common generic disadvantage.

Methodological indictment - an attack demanding justification for a study's conclusion in terms of the reliability or validity of the study methods or procedures.

Minor repair - a negative position that a small non-structural change or modification in the status quo is all that is necessary versus adoption of the Aff.

Mutual exclusivity - the affirmative and the counter plan cannot be done simultaneously.

Need or harm - an inherent problem or evil in the status quo, which calls for or demands change.

Need Plan or Traditional Case - an organizational scheme and analytical framework for the Aff in which the Aff claims that certain significant inherent evils (harms) in the status quo can be overcome by adopting the Aff plan that meets the debate resolution.

Negative - the side that opposes the adoption of the resolution. The Negative must defend the status quo or the status quo with modifications (repairs) or counterplan in opposition to the Aff.

Negative block - the second negative constructive speech followed by the first negative rebuttal. With proper division of labor the Negative team should be "stacking up" Neg positions and arguments during this period of time making it difficult for the 1st Aff rebuttalist to respond.

Net beneficial - the counter plan has more benefits than doing the affirmative and the combination of the affirmative and the counter plan at the same time.

Nontopical - An Aff case that fails to meet the resolution by failing to justify all terms included in the resolution. Letter of the resolution - failing to meet the terms of the resolution. Spirit of the resolution- failing to fall within the realm of reasonably acceptable interpretations of the debate resolution. Falling outside the parameters of the topic area.

Observation - a general preliminary remark usually concerning assumptions underlying various arguments.

On balance - net benefits versus disadvantages usual judging paradigm of policy maker judges and some others.

Operational definition - a definition through description of actions. In debate a definition through the provisions of the Aff. plan.

Overviews - preliminary observation concerning a number of arguments to follow. As opposed to underview, a concluding observation tying a number of previous arguments together.

Paraphrase - to restate something in your own words.

Permutation - a combination of the affirmative and the counter plan simultaneously. If the permutation is successful then the counter plan is not competitive.

Picket Fence - to earn first places from all your judges in all of your rounds at a tournament; on a tabulation sheet, the one's resemble a picket fence (11111).

Plan - a specific program of action proposed by the Aff team to implement the debate resolution.

Plan plank - a step in the Aff plan. An action that will be taken by the Aff to meet their need or gain their advantage. Aff plan planks concern authority or agent of their advantage. Aff plan planks concern authority or agent of action, mandates, or fiat.

Plan spike - a plan plank meant to prevent or diminish the effectiveness of a Neg plan attack.

Postings - pieces of paper that are posted on the walls before each round; they tell competitors where their next round will be and against whom; postings have the amazing power for speech and debaters and are known for creating stampede-like phenomena in high school tournaments.

Power matching - a tournament technique matching teams of similar records. After 4 rounds for example 4-0 teams should meet one another, 3-l's, 2-2's, 1-3's, and 0-4's. This technique is often used to narrow the number of teams in competition. High high competition means #1 meets #2 etc. High low within brackets competition means top 4-0 meets bottom 4-0.

Press - When you don't have evidence, you pick apart the opponents' evidence. This is called pressing. It's usually done on case-side arguments, so it's called a case press.

Prima facea - a Latin term meaning first glance. This term is usually a reason to vote for topicality.

Resolution - a directive which explcitily supports a given position.

Roadmap - telling the judge the order in which you will be going. For example, the 1NC would say, "first I'll do topicality, then problems, harms, inherency, then advantages."

Sandbagging - holding off on presenting the bulk of an argument till later presenting the argument initially in cursory form or in a shell or in weakened form expecting later to very much expand the argument. Negative teams love to do this during the negative block.

Shift - to abandon an original argument and take an altered position.

Should/Would Argument - the Aff only must show that their plan is desirable and should be adopted not that it will be adopted. If the Negative argues it won't be, that is the fallacy of should/would argumentation and the Aff need only answer it should be.

Significance - is the problem big.

Signposting - numbering/lettering your arguments during your speech.

Skirt hater - little old lady judges who deduct points off girls because of how they dress and act.

Solvency - evidence that shows that the plan will work and solve the harms.

Speaker points - points a judge awards for individual speaking ability. Is usually correlated with whether a team wins or loses.

Spin the novice - novice debaters will look at opponents during cross-ex rather than at the judge. Malicious debaters sometimes take advantage of this by inching sideways until the novice's back is to the judge.

Spread - make multiple responses to each point. Usually involves talking fast.

Squirrel Case - a nontopical case or merely a very unusual interpretation of the resolution. Perjoratively used to describe a poor case.

Status Quo - the current system, also referred to as the SQ.

Study - a systematic investigation of a problem; an analysis utilizing prescribed methodology.

Topicality - does the plan try to solve for the resolution

Turnaround argument - reversing an argument by an opponent to show that the argument actually favors your side.

Uniqueness - the status quo is not going to cause the action to occur. A position is said to be unique when only the affirmative causes the link, nothing in the status quo will cause it.

Voting Issues - the key issues in the debate upon which the judge decision should turn. The most important issues in the debate. Also called stock issues.

Workability - whether the plan of the affirmative is practical. Will the plan gain the advantages or meet the needs in the real world?