F  G¹  1-16-. From Paul himself.
   G²  -16-24. From others than Paul.

Romans 16)

1 I commend to you Phebe (== bright, or pure. Her name indicates a convert from paganism [i.e. the fem. of Phœbus, otherwise Apollo. She was probably the bearer of the epistle to Rome) our sister, who is a servant of the church which is at Cenchrea: (See Acts 18:18)
2 In order that you receive her in the Lord, as become saints, and that you stand by her in whatsoever business she has need of you: for she has been a patroness of many, and of myself also.
3 Salute Priscilla and Aquila my fellow-laborers in Christ Jesus: (She is listed before a man because of her rank)
4 Who have for my life risked their own lives (like the jugular, out in the open, unprotected): to whom not only I give thanks (see Acts 27:35), but also all the churches of the Gentiles.
5 Likewise greet the church that is in their house (see 1 Cor. 16:19). Salute my well-beloved Epaenetus, who is the first-fruits of Asia to Christ.
6 Greet Mary, who labored for us. (There were many women that did the church work. On an inscription from a Roman cemetery, about the second century A.D., a wife records of her husband, "who labored much for me".)
7 Salute Andronicus and Junia (a female), my kinsmen (Benjamites and probably near relatives), and my fellow-prisoners (lit. a war-captive), who are eminent among the apostles, who before me also were in Christ.
8 Greet Amplias my beloved in the Lord.
9 Salute Urban (a Latin name), our helper in Christ, and Stachys my beloved. (Paul was pretty well acquainted in Rome!)
10 Salute Apelles the approved (a term pointing to one of tried excellence) in Christ. Salute them which are of Aristobulus' (a Greek name) household. (He himself may not have been a Christian, and those referred to may have been of his family, or slaves)
11 Salute Herodion my kinsman. Greet them that be of the household of Narcissus, who are in the Lord.
12 Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, who labor in the Lord. Salute the beloved Persis (a female name), which labored much in the Lord.
13 Salute Rufus the elect [brother] in the Lord, and his mother and mine. (Implying tender relationship.)
14 Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and the brethren which are with them.
15 Salute Philologus, and Julia, Nereus (Nereus was a sea-god of the Ægean, and this convert may have retained his original pagan name), and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints which are with them. (Like the "brethren" of v.14, known to God, but not to Paul by name)
16 Salute one another with a holy kiss (this kiss was, and is, in the East a sign of respect and affection). All the churches of Christ salute you.
17 Now I beseech you (I want to talk seriously to you), brethren, to mark them (investigate thoroughly) which cause factions and stumbling-blocks (Gr. skandalon, see Mark 8:6,7) contrary to the doctrine which you learned; and turn from them.
18 For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly (ego trip. See John 7:38); and by their fine words and flatteries deceive thoroughly (to lead astray) the hearts of the guileless. (Or, innocent.)
19 For your obedience is come abroad to all men. I rejoice therefore on your behalf: but I wish you indeed to that which is good, and harmless concerning the evil.
20 And the God of peace shall crush in pieces Satan under your feet shortly (see Gen. 3:15). The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen. (Each one of Paul's Epistles ends with a benedictory prayer that "grace" may be with the churches and individuals alike)
21 Timothy my fellow-laborer, and Lucius (see Acts 13:1), and Jason (or, see Acts 17:5,7), and Sosipater (see Acts 20:4), my kinsmen (i.e. of amanuensis, see v.7), salute you.


22 I Tertius (prob. a Roman, writing to Romans), who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord.
23 Gaius my host (a common Roman name. May be the same as in Acts 19:29, or of Derbe, Acts 20:4, but almost certainly Gaius of 1 Cor. 1:14), and of the whole church, salutes you. Erastus (perhaps the same as in 2 Tim. 4:20. The name, a Greek one, occ. Acts 19:22) the treasurer of the city saluteth you, and Quartus the brother [in Christ].

2ND POSTSCRIPT (PAUL [sent by Phoebe])

24 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.
25 Now to him that is able to establish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to a revelation of the mystery (the bad seed, Matt. 13:35-39. Rev. 2:9; 3:9), which secret was kept in silence since the world began,
26 But now is manifested, and by the scriptures of prophetic writings, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, made known to all Gentiles for the obedience of faith:
27 To God only wise, be the glory through Jesus Christ for ever. Amen.

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