R  A  D  1. Yahaveh spoken to. Love.
       E  2. Yahaveh spoken of. Deliverer.
        B  3-19. Enemies. Deliverance from.
         C  20-24. Equity of Yahaveh's dealings. Me.
         C  25-27. Equity of Yahaveh's dealings. Others.
        B  28-48. Enemies. Victory over.
   A  D  49. Yahaveh spoken to. Praise.
       E  50. Yahaveh spoken of. Deliverer.

(Like all Psalms of David, it finds it fulfillment in the true David. Cp. 18:4,5 with 17:9. It is placed, as first written, in 2 Sam. 22; but it is edited and placed here to find its true relation to other Psalms. Why should not David have the right claimed by all other writers? to say nothing of the Holy Spirit's right to do as He pleases and wills. It was edited for its place here, when it was handed over "to the chief Musician".)

(A Psalm of David the servant [cp. Isa. 42:1; 49:6; 52:13] of the Lord, who spoke to the Lord the words of this song in the day [cp. 2 Sam. 22 and Gen. 2:17] that the Lord delivered him from the paw of all his enemies [cp. Luke 1:74], and from the hand of Saul: and he said,)

930-923 B.C.

Psalm 18)

1 Fervently do I love You (this verse was added by David when the Psalm was handed over to the chief Musician for use in public worship), O LORD (Yahaveh), my strength (put for the source of all strength).

2 The LORD is my fortress, and my mountain stronghold, and my deliverer;
My GOD (El), my rock (in original situation: hence, refuge), in whom I will flee for refuge;
My shield (Heb. mgn, as in v.30, and Ps. 5:12), and the horn of my salvation (quoted in Luke 1:69), and my high tower.

3 I will call upon the LORD, Who is worthy to be praised:
So shall I be delivered from my enemies. (Quoted in Luke 1:71)

B  F1  3-6. David's call for deliverance.
   F2  7-15. Deliverance effected.
   F2  16-19. Yahaveh the Deliverer.

F1  m  3. David's call and confidence.
     n  4. Compassed by enemies.
     n  5. Compassed by danger.
    m  6.  David's call and answer.

4 The (snares. Not bodily pain) of death compassed me,
And the floods of Beliel made me afraid.

5 The sorrows of (the grave. Heb Shel) compassed me about:
The noose (or snare) of death were beforehand confronted me.

6 In my distress I called upon the LORD,
And cried to my God (Elohim):
He heard my voice out of His palace (put for heaven itself),
And my cry came before Him, even into His ears. (cried...ears. See note on v.21.)

F2  o  7. Wonders on earth.
     p  8.  Fire from heaven.
      q  9. Darkness in the heavens.
       r  10-. Yahaveh's speedy succour.
       r  -10. Yahaveh's speedy succour.
      q  11. Darkness in the heavens.
     p  12-14. Fire from heaven.
    o  15. Wonders on earth.

7 Then the earth shook and rocked;
the foundations also of the mountains moved
and were shaken, because He was wroth.

8 There went up a smoke into His nostrils,
And fire out of His mouth devoured:
Coals were kindled by it.

9 He bowed the heavens also, and came down:
And darkness (Heb. 'rphel. See Job 3:6) was under His feet.

10 And He rode upon a cherub (see Ezek. 1:5-14; 10:20. Rev. 4:6-9), and did fly:

Yea, He did fly upon the wings of the wind (Heb. rach).

11 He made darkness His secret place; His pavilion round about Him
Were dark waters and thick clouds of the skies.

12 At the brightness that was before Him His thick clouds passed,
Hail stones and coals of fire.

13 The LORD also thundered in (or from. Cp. 2 Sam. 22:14) the heavens,
And the Highest (Elyn) gave His voice;
Hail stones and coals of fire.
14 Yes, He sent out His arrows, and scattered them;
And He shot out lightnings, and discomfited them.

15 Then the channels (Heb. 'phkm. See 2 Sam. 22:16) of waters were seen,
And the foundations of the habitable world (Heb. tbl. Gr. oikoumen) were discovered
At Your rebuke, O LORD,
At the blast (Heb. neshamah) of the breath (Heb. rach) of Your nostrils.

F3  s  16,17-. Yehovah's deliverance.
     t  -17. Compassed by enemies.
     t  18-. Compassed by enemies.
    s  -18,19. Yahaveh's deliverance.

16 He sent from above, He took me,
He drew me out of many waters (put for troubles).
17 He delivered me from my strong (for might. Heb. 'zaz) enemy,
And from them which hated me:

For they were too strong (for activity. Heb. 'maz) for me.

18 They prevented me in the day of my calamity:

But the LORD was my stay.
19 He brought me forth also into a large place;
He delivered me, because He delighted in me. (This is the one ground of blessing. See Num. 14:8, and 2 Sam. 15:25:26.)

20 The LORD rewarded me according to my righteousness;
According to the cleanness of my hands has He recompensed me.
21 For I have kept the ways of the LORD,
And have not wickedly departed from my God.
22 For all His judgments were before me,
And I did not put away His statutes from me.
23 I was also upright with him,
And I kept myself from my iniquity. (Some codices read "the wicked". Heb. 'vh.)
24 Therefore has the LORD recompensed me according to my righteousness,
According to the cleanness of my hands in His eyesight.

25 With the gracious You will show Yourself merciful;
With an upright strong man (Heb. geber) You will shew Yourself upright;
26 With the pure You will show Yourself pure;
And with the perverse You will show Yourself a wrestler (or contender).
27 For You will deliver the afflicted people;
But will bring down high looks.

B  u  28-31. Help. General.
    v  32-39-. Vengeance on enemies.
     w  -38-42. Subjugation of enemies.
      x  43-45. Deliverance.
   u  46. Help. General.
    v  47-. Vengeance on enemies.
     w  -47. Subjugation of enemies.
      x  48. Deliverance.

28 For You will light my lamp: (Used today, in the East, more for comfort than light.)
The LORD my God will enlighten my darkness.
29 For by You I have broken through a troop;
And by my God have I leaped over a wall.
30 As for GOD (El), His way is perfect:
The sayings (as in Ps 12:6; 19:14; 119:11, &c.) of the LORD is refined:
He is a buckler to all those that flee for refuge to Him.
31 For who is GOD (Eloah) save the LORD?
Or who is a rock (Heb. zur. See Ex. 17:6; 32:13) except our God?

32 It is GOD that girds me with might (for valor. Heb. hl),
And makes my way perfect.
33 He makes my feet like hinds' feet,
And sets me upon my high places. (Ginsburg thinks this should be omitted.)
34 He teaches my hands to war,
So that a bow of steel is bent by my arms.
35 You have also given me the shield (Heb. mgn. See v.2; Ps. 5:12) of Your salvation:
And Your right hand has held me up,
And Your condescension has made me great.
36 You have enlarged my steps under me,
That my feet did not slip.
37 I have pursued my enemies, and overtaken them:
Neither did I turn again till they were consumed.
38 I have wounded them that they were not able to rise:
They are fallen under my feet. (The tenses may be future, and prophetic.)
39 For You have girded me with might (for valor) unto the battle:

You have subdued under me those that rose up against me.
40 You have also given me the necks of my enemies;
That I might destroy them that hate me.
41 They cried with fear, but none gave them ear:
Even to the LORD, but He answered them not.
42 Then did I beat them small as the dust before the wind:
I did cast them out (or, scattered. Some codices read "crush". Cp. 2 Sam. 22:43) as the dirt in the streets.

43 You have delivered me from the strivings of the People;
And You have made me the head of the nations (or Gentile peoples):
A people whom I have not known shall serve me.
44 As soon as they hear of me, they shall obey me:
The sons of the foreigner shall come cringing themselves to me.
45 The sons of the foreiner shall fade away,
And come trembling out of their close places.

46 The LORD lives; and blessed be my rock;
And let the God of my salvation be exalted.

47 It is God that avenges me,

And subdues the people under me.

48 He delivers me from my enemies:
Yes, You lift me up above those that rise up against me:
You have delivered me from the violent man.

49 Therefore will I give thanks to You,
O LORD, among the heathen,
And sing praises to Your name.
(Quoted in Rom. 15:9.)

50 Great deliverance gives He to His king;
And shows mercy to His ANOINTED (= Messiah. Looking beyond David, to David's Son and David's Lord),
To David, and to his seed for evermore.

(To the Chief Musician. The changes from 2 Sam. 22 were made when David handed the Psalm over for general use in public worship.)

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