Z2  U1  13:1-16:33. The Lord. Communication to His Disciples.
    U2  17:1-26. The Lord. Prayer to the Father.

U1  V  13:1-38. Cleansing. Washing.
     W  14:1-31. Return to the Father.
    V  15:1-16:4. Cleansing. Pruning.
     W  16:5-33. Return to the Father.

V  X  v  1-. The Hour come.
       w  -1-. Return to the Father.
        x  -1. Love to His Disciples.
         y  2. Judas. Betrayal.
          Y1  z1  3-10-. Washing. Act.
               a1  -10,11. The Traitor. Knowledge.
          Y2  z2  12-17. Washing. Example.
               a2  18,19. The Traitor. Communication.
          Y3  z3  20. Reception.
               a3  21-30. The Traitor. Revelation.
   X  v  31,32. The Hour come.
       w  33. Return to the Father.
        x  34,35. Disciples. Love to one another.
         y  36-38. Peter. Denial.

April 3rd, 29 A.D.
John 13)

This Chapter written to God's elect.

1 Now before the feast of the passover (the preparation day, our Tuesday sunset to Wednesday sunset, the day of the Crucifixion), Jesus knowing that His hour was come

that He (Gr. metabaino = pass over from one place to another) should depart out of this world to the Father,

having loved His own which were in the world, He loved them to the furthest extent. (Referring not so much to a period of time, the end of His flesh life, as to His readiness to descend to the humblest service in their behalf.)

2 And supper (the lat supper recorded) being been served (washing would naturally precede the meal), the devil (see Matt. 4:1-11. Luke 4:1-13) having already put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray Him;

3 Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into His hands, and that He was come forth from God, and is going away to God; (These statements of His Divine origin, authority, and coming glory, are made so as to enhance the amazing condescension of the service to which He humbled Himself to do the office of bond-slave.)
4 He rises from the supper-table (as we should say, i.e. after they had taken their places), and laid aside His garments (i.e. the outer garments. This was removed for working, and for sleeping was often used as a coverlet. When removed, leaving only the tunic, the man was said to be naked); and took a linen cloth, and girded Himself. (He took His street clothes off, and dresses as a slave)
5 Then that He puts water into a bason, and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith He was girded. (When you walk in this "world", you are going to get dirty, and only Christ can wash you clean.)
6 Then comes He to Simon Peter: and Peter said to Him, "Lord, do You wash my feet?" (He didn't feel worthy.)
7 Jesus answered and said to him, "What I do you do not know now; but you shall know hereafter."
8 Peter said to Him, "You shall by no means wash My feet." Jesus answered him, "If I wash you not, you have not any part with Me."
9 Simon Peter said to Him, "Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head."
10 Jesus said to him, "He that is bathed (note the distinction between washing the whole body, and only washing part of it. Cp. 1 Cor. 6:11) needs not save to wash his feet, but is clean every where: (washing of the Spirit in Christs' name.)

and you are clean, but not all. (i.e. Judas)
11 For He knew who the one who is betraying Him; on account of said He, "You are not all clean."

12 When therefore He had washed their feet, and had taken His garments, and was set down again, He said to them, "Do you know what it is I have done to you?
13 You address Me as Teacher and Lord: and you say well; for so I am. (Would that Christians today would treat Him with the same respect which He here commends, instead of calling Him by the name of His humiliation, Jesus, by which He was never addressed by the disciples, only by demons [Matt8:29. Mark 1:24; 5:6. Luke 8:28] and those who only knew Him as a prophet [Mark 10:47. Luke 18:38]. The Holy Spirit uses "Jesus" in the narratives)
14 Therefore if I, the Lord and Master, have washed your feet; you also ought to wash one another's feet. (The act of feet washing is put for the whole circle of offices of self-denying love. Support each other. Literal feet washing was not known before the 4th century A.D.)
15 For I have given you an example, that you should do as I have done to you.
16 Verily, verily, I say to you, The bond-servant is not greater than his lord; neither he that is sent (an apostle) greater than he that sent him. (Be humble and serve, but you do not have the authority to forgive sin.)
17 If you know these things, happy are you if you do them. (You will be blessed)


  1. APOSTLES. In the Gospels the word apostolos (sing. and pl) occurs only nine times as compared with sixty-nine in Acts and the Epistles, and three in Revelation. In Matthew, Mark, Luke and Acts (except 14:4, 14) the term is used of the Twelve chosen and commissioned by the Lord (Matt. 11:1; Luke 6:13) during His earthly ministry. From this office Judas fell, his place being filled later by Matthias (Acts 1:26). In the Epistles and Revelation the context shows where the Twelve are meant.

  The one occurrence in John's Gospel is in 13:16, where it is used in the general sense of one sent forth (on some special message or errand). He Who is called the Apostle (Heb. 3:1) is so constantly (presented in that Gospel as the One sent of the Father (see notes on John 14:24; 17:3) that other messengers are lost sight of.

  Besides the Twelve there were others appointed by the Lord after His Ascension (Eph. 4:11. Cp. 1Cor. 12:28). Such were Paul and Barnabas, first called so in Acts 14:4, 14; Andronicus and Junias (Rom. 16:7). Paul nineteen times calls himself and apostle, and argues his claim in 1Cor. 9 and 2Cor. 12. See also 1Thess. 1:1; 2:6, where Paul associates Silvanus and Timothy with himself. Twice the word apostolos (besides John 13:16 referred to above) is translated "messenger", in 2Cor. 8:23. Phil. 2:25. See notes there.

  2. ELDERS. "Elders" is frequently met with in the O.T. as indicating an official position, e.g. elders of the tribes, elders of the cities, elders of the Midian, &c. In the Gospels and Acts the term generally refers to the Sanhedrin. The name seems to have been taken over into the Christian Church to describe the members of the Council at Jerusalem other than the apostles (Acts 11:30; 15:2-23), and then similar officers were appointed in local churches (Acts 14:23; 20:17. Tit. 1:5). That these were identical with the "overseers" of Acts 20:28 (Gr. episkopoi, rendered "bishop" in Phil. 1:1. 1Tim. 3:2. Tit. 1:7. 1Pet. 2:25) is clear from comparison with Acts 20:17. 1Tim. 5:17. Tit. 1:5, 7. 1Pet. 5:1, 2 (see notes). There were thus "business" elders and "preaching" elders. Peter and John both call themselves elders (1Pet. 5:1. 2John 1. 3John 1).

  3. PROPHETS. A prophet was one who spoke for God (see Ap. 49), and this applies to those of the New Testament as well as those of the Old. It did not necessarily mean that he foretold the future, though sometimes that was done, as in the case of Agabus (Acts 11:28; 21:10). Prophecy was one of the gifts of the Spirit, and its chief design was to comfort, exhort (Acts 15:32), and testify from the Scriptures for the edification of believers. Prophets are included in the gifts of 1Cor. 12:28. Eph 4:11, and directions for the orderly exercise of their gifts are given in 1Cor. 14.

  Besides Acts 13:1, where it is impossible to distinguish between the five persons mentioned as prophets and teachers (two of them being called apostles also in the next chapter), -- Judas and Silas also are called prophets in 15:32.

18 I speak not concerning you all: I know whom I have chosen: but that the scripture may be fulfilled, He that eats the bread (i.e. My bread) with Me has lifted up his heel against Me. (Gen. 3:15)
19 From now I tell you before it come, that, when it is come to pass, you may believe that I am. (Like in Ps. 22.)

20 Verily, verily, I say to you, He that receives whomsoever I send receives Me; and he that receives Me receives Him that sent Me."

21 When Jesus had thus said, He was troubled in spirit, and testified, and said, "Verily, verily, I say to you, that one out of you shall betray Me." (How did He know that?)
22 Then the disciples looked one towards another, doubting of whom He is speaking.
23 Now there was reclining in Jesus' bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved. (Reclining on the divan, his head towards the Lord's bosom, John was in the favored position, on the Lord's right hand, Judas being on His left. He leaned abreast to talk to Him.)
24 Simon Peter therefore nodded to Him, that he should ask who it should be of whom He spake.
25 He then lying back abreast of Jesus (Peter was beyond Judas, and leaning back signed to John behind the Lord) said to Him, "Lord, who is it?"
26 Jesus answered, "He it is, to whom I shall give a sop, when I have dipped it." And when He had dipped the sop (a morsel, it was a mark of honor for the host to give a portion to one of the guests. The Lord had appealed to the conscience of Judas in v.21, now he appeals to his heart), He gave it to Judas Iscariot (on His left), the son of Simon. (Ps. 41 being fulfilled here)
27 And after the sop Satan entered into him (evil spirit possession, not before, but after. It is significant that the rejection of the Lord's last appeal hardened Judas, so that his heart became open to satan. Up to this moment Judas had been possessed by evil thought, now he is obsessed by the evil one.). Therefore said Jesus to him, "That what you do, do quickly." (The Lord knew what has taken place, and that further appeal was useless. He dismisses him to do the work he is set upon. See the terrible words in Ps. 41:6, "His heart gathers iniquity to itself: he goes abroad, he tells", exactly what Judas did.)
28 Now no one of those reclining knew for what intent He spoke to him.
29 For some of them were thinking, because Judas had the bag, that Jesus said to him, "Buy those things that we have need of for the feast;" or, that he should give something to the poor.
30 That one then having received the sop went immediately out: and it was night. (9 p.m. Tuesday night)

31 When therefore he went out, Jesus said, "Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in Him.
32 If God be glorified in Him, God shall also glorify Him in Himself, and shall straightway glorify Him.

33 Little children, yet a little while I am with you. You shall seek Me: and even as I said to the Jews, Where I go, you are not able to come; so now I say to you.

34 A new commandment I give to you, That you love among one another; as I have loved you, that you also love one another.
35 In this shall all men know that you are My disciples, if you have love among yourselves." (Agape, is spontaneous love, irrespective of "rights".)

36 Simon Peter said to him, "Lord, where do You go?" Jesus answered him, "Where I go, you can not follow Me now; but you shall follow Me afterwards. (Transformed body, different dimension, spiritual, you can see Him with the eye of your mind.)
37 Peter said to him, "Lord, why cannot I follow You now? I will lay down my life on behalf of You."
38 Jesus answered him, "Will you lay down your life for My sake? Verily, verily, I say to you, A cock shall not crow, till you have utterly denied me three times. (Divine declaration for your benefit, temporarily blinded for you? [the reader?])


  There are several facts that have to be noticed before we can arrive at a clear understanding of all the denials recorded by Peter by the four evangelists : -

  I. We have to note that the fact that Peter would deny His Lord was foretold in three distinct prophecies uttered on three separate occasions and differing both as to the occasion and as to particulars.

    1. The first was in the upper chamber, recorded in John 13:38. It was absolute as to the fact, general as to the day, but particular as to the number of denials : "a cock shall by no means crow [from this time forth] until thou hast denied Me thrice"

    2. The second was in the upper chamber, recorded by Luke 22:34. It was after the "strife", and immediately before leaving the room. It was absolute as to the fact but particular as to the day and the number of denials : "a cock shall not crow this day, before thou wilt thrice deny that thou knowest Me"

    3. The third was after the Lord had left the city and immediately before entering the garden of Gethsemane. It is recorded in Mark 14:30, and was particular in every detail : "Verily I say unto thee that (hoti) thou (added by all the texts) this day, in this night, before a cock crow twice, thrice thou wilt deny Me". Cp. the fulfillment.

  This last prophecy furnishes the key to the whole problem. For, note : -

          (a) that a cock was to crow twice, and
          (b) that Peter would deny thrice;
  i.e. before each of the two cockcrowings Peter would thrice deny His Lord. This is confirmed by the repetition in the fulfillment (Mark 14:72).

  Thus, there would be six denials in all; three before each cockcrowing.

  Note that the word "cock" has no Article in any of the four records : in each case it is not "the", but "a cockcrowing".

  II. Consonant with these data, we have the remarkable fact that Matthew, Luke and John each record three denials, and one concluding cockcrowing. Mark also records three denials, but mentions the two cockcrowings.

  Consequently, in the four Gospels there are no less than twelve denials mentioned. And the questions are, which of these are duplicates, and which are the resulting six required by the Lord's third prophecy in Mark 14:30?

  III. If we note accurately the marks of time in each Gospel, the place and the persons addressing Peter, every condition required by each of the Greek words employed is fully and perfectly satisfied, without a shadow or suggestion of "discrepancy".

   i. The First Series of Three.

     1. The First Denial, John 18:17. Place:  the door (thura) without.  Time:   
          entering.  The questioner: the porteress (Gr. thuroros).

     2. The Second Denial, Matt. 26:70 (Mark 14:68).   Place:  the hall (aule). Time:  
          sitting.  Questioner: a certain maid.  Luke 22:56-58 combines the same place  
          and time, with the same maid, and another (heteros, masc.).

     3. The Third Denial, Matt. 26:71. Place:  the gateway or porch (pulon).  Time:  an 
          interval of an hour.  John 18:25, 26 combines the same place and time, with    
          another maid and bystanders, one of them being a relative of Malchus.

  A COCK CREW. (Mark 14: 68. John 18:27)

ii. The Second Series of Three. 1. The First Denial, Mark 14:63. Place: "beneath in the hall". Time: shortly after. Questioner: the maid again. 2. The Second Denial, Matt. 26:73 (Mark 14:70). Place: the gate (pulon). Time: shortly after. Questioners: the bystanders. 3. The Third Denial (Luke 22:59, 60). Place: the midst of the hall (aule; v. 55). Time: "an hour after" (v. 59). Questioner : a certain one (masc.). A COCK CREW (Matt. 26:74. Mark 14:72. Luke 22:61)

  IV. We thus have a combined record in which there remains no difficulty, while each word retains its own true grammatical sense.

above taken from appendix 160 of the Companion Bible

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