European Rulers
at the time of the Discovery of America
October 12, 1492

Holy Roman EmpireEmperor Friedrich III21 September14152 February
19 March
MoldaviaPrince Stefan III143312 April1457
NaplesKing Ferrante I2 June142327 June1458
MuscovyGrand Prince Ivan III22 January14405 April1462
SwedenRegent Sten Sture14401 June1470
Bohemia King Vladislaus II 1 March 1456 22 August 1471
Hungary18 September1490
CastileQueen Isabel I22 April145111 December1474
MilanDuke Gian Galeazzo Sforza20 June146926 December1476
Aragon King Fernando II10 March 145220 January 1479
DenmarkKing Hans I2 February14551 May1481
Norway20 July1483
Ottoman EmpireSultan Bayezid II3 December14473 May1481
PortugalKing João II3 March145528 August1481
WallachiaPrince Vlad Calugarulc 14251482
NavarreQueen Catalina I14687 January1483
FranceKing Charles VIII31 June147030 August1483
EnglandKing Henry VII28 January145722 August1485
VeniceDoge Agostino Barbarigo14201486
Scotland King James IV 17 March 1473 11 June 1488
SavoyDuke Carlo II23 June148913 March1490
FlorenceGran Maestro Piero de Medici15 February14721492
LithuaniaGrand Duke Alexander Jagiellon5 August146130 July1492
Papal StatesPope Alexander VI1 January143111 August1492
PolandKing Jan I Olbracht27 December145923 September1492

"Columbus before the Queen" (1843) by Emanuel Leutze (1816-1868)

1492: sailing to a new world (Relationships of European Monarchs of 1492)

European Sovereigns