Europe As It Should Be: Monarchs, Consorts, and Heirs, 2024

One problem monarchists have is that regarding some countries whose monarchies have been gone for a long time, particularly France, it's impossible for us to all agree on who the monarch should be today. Even regarding the extant monarchies, some monarchists fully embrace modern changes to succession laws while others resent them. On my website for several years I had about six different versions of this chart, some with images and some without, to try to appease different monarchist points of view. But as keeping them all updated with images working proved impossible, at the beginning of 2021 I forced myself to settle on maintaining only one. So this is my current thinking on who should be reigning in Europe. Among other considerations, I have ruled out any separatist or irredentist fantasies; existing borders would remain unchanged, though the countries of the former Habsburg Empire would share a common Emperor. (This approach would allow several countries that were under monarchical rule in 1914 to remain republics. I would love for Poland in particular to be a Kingdom again, but who the King should be is unclear.) Anyone who disagrees with this or that choice of mine is of course free to make his own chart. This is simply my proposal for a more monarchical Europe.

CountrySovereignBornAccededConsort (born)Heir (born)

Kingdom of Bulgaria

King Simeon II
16 Jun 193728 Aug 1943
Queen Margarita (1935)

Prince Boris (1997)

Kingdom of Serbia

King Alexander II
17 Jul 19453 Nov 1970
Queen Katherine (1943)

Crown Prince Peter (1980)

Kingdom of Sweden

King Carl XVI Gustaf
30 Apr 194615 Sept 1973
Queen Silvia (1943)

Crown Princess
Victoria (1977)

Kingdom of Portugal

King Duarte III
15 May 194524 Dec 1976
Queen Isabel (1966)

Afonso, Prince of
Beira (1996)

Kingdom of Montenegro

King Nikola II
7 Jul 194424 Mar 1986
Crown Prince Boris (1980)

Principality of Liechtenstein

Prince Hans Adam II
14 Feb 194513 Nov 1989
Her. Prince Alois (1968)

Kingdom of Norway

King Harald V
21 Feb 193717 Jan 1991
Queen Sonja (1937)

Crown Prince
Haakon (1973)

Russian Empire

Empress Maria I
23 Dec 195321 Apr 1992
Tsarevich Georgiy (1981)

Kingdom of Germany

High King Georg Friedrich I
10 Jun 197626 Sept 1994
High Queen Sophie (1979)
Crown Prince
Carl Friedrich (2013)

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Grand Duke Henri
16 Apr 19557 Oct 2000
Grand Duchess
Maria Teresa (1956)

Her. Grand Duke
Guillaume (1981)

Principality of Monaco

Prince Albert II
14 Mar 19586 Apr 2005
Princess Charlene (1978)

Prince Jacques (2014)

Imperial Commonwealth
(Austria, Hungary, Bohemia,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia,

Emperor Karl II
11 Jan 19614 Jul 2011
Crown Prince
Ferdinand (1997)

Kingdom of Albania

King Leka II
26 Mar 198230 Nov 2011
Queen Elia (1983)

Crown Princess Geraldine

Kingdom of the Netherlands

King Willem-Alexander
27 Apr 196730 Apr 2013
Queen Maxima (1971)

Catherina Amalia,
Princess of Orange (2003)

Kingdom of Belgium

King Philippe
15 Apr 196021 Jul 2013
Queen Mathilde (1973)

Princess Elisabeth,
Duchess of Brabant (2001)

Kingdom of Spain

King Felipe VI
30 Jan 196819 Jun 2014
Queen Letizia (1972)

Leonor, Princess
of Asturias (2005)

Kingdom of Romania

Queen Margareta
26 Mar 19495 Dec 2017
Prince Radu (1960)

Princess Elena

Kingdom of France

King Jean IV
19 May 196521 Jan 2019
Queen Philomena (1977)

Prince Gaston,
Dauphin (2009)

Kingdom of Italy

King Aimone
13 Oct 19671 Jun 2021
Queen Olga (1971)

Prince Umberto (2009)

United Kingdom of Great
Britain & Northern Ireland

King Charles III
14 Nov 19488 Sept 2022
Queen Camilla (1947)

Prince William,
Prince of Wales (1982)

Kingdom of Greece

King Pavlos II
20 May 196710 Jan 2023
Queen Marie-Chantal (1968)

Crown Prince
Constantine (1998)

Kingdom of Denmark

King Frederik X
26 May 1968 14 Jan 2024
Queen Mary (1972)

Crown Prince
Christian (2005)

European Sovereigns