His Word ... a prophetic perspective

Home

God, judgment, hurricanes, disasters, catastrophic events

        With the advent of Hurricane Rita more judgmental finger pointing has been undertaken by some, who say that God is judging/punishing those areas which have suffered catastrophic events.
        I had said in the article “Hurricane Katrina Catastrophe—Judgment Of God Or Disaster Of Man?”:
        Various reasons for Hurricane Katrina, and the destruction the storm brought have been widely publicized.
        Among the reasons are:
        (1) It’s God’s judgment on the Gulf coast because of:
            (a) Rampant homosexuality in New Orleans.
            (b) Gambling casinos in Mississippi.
        (2) It’s God’s judgment on America because:
            (a) The United States has “allowed” the Gaza withdrawal where people lost their homes, therefore God has judged America by destroying homes in the Gulf coast states.
            (b) America has allowed legal abortion, which has resulted in millions of unborn babies being slaughtered.
        (3) God is showing America that global warming is real and we are responsible for it.
        (4) The hurricanes were “prophesied” in advance, therefore the natural disaster and subsequent catastrophes are judgment from God.
        (5) These natural disasters are messages from the earth, letting humanity know of the earth’s pain.
        (6) Variations of themes on the above and/or mix and match philosophies.
        (7) Add your favorite theory here if you can’t find it above.

Cause And Effect — Tunnel Vision

        A book entitled “Eye to Eye: Facing the Consequences of Dividing Israel,” by Bill Koenig states that there have been 49 catastrophic events that happened on the same day or within 24 to 48 hours of the U.S. government putting pressure on Israel to give up her land for promises of peace. And that these catastrophic events include the Storm of the Century, the 1993 floods, the fires out west, the car bombing of the World Trade Center on February 26, 1993, the Perfect Storm, 911, etc. The book description also limits these catastrophic events as having been caused only by the H. W. Bush, Clinton and G. W. Bush administrations.
Book Description
        What do these major record-setting events have in common?
        •Nine of the ten costliest insurance events in U.S. history
        •Six of the seven costliest hurricanes in U.S. history
        •Three of the four largest tornado outbreaks in U.S. history
        •Nine of the top ten natural disasters in U.S. history ranked by FEMA relief costs
        •The two largest terrorism events in U.S. history
        All of these major catastrophes transpired on the very same day or within 24-hours of U.S. presidents Bush, Clinton and Bush applying pressure on Israel to trade her land for promises of “peace and security,” sponsoring major “land for peace” meetings, making major public statements pertaining to Israel’s covenant land and/or calling for a Palestinian state.
        Are each one of these major record-setting events just a coincidence or awe-inspiring signs that God is actively involved in the affairs of Israel?
        In this book, Bill Koenig provides undeniable facts and conclusive evidence showing that indeed the leaders of the United States and the world are on a collision course with God over Israel’s covenant land.
        “And it shall come to pass in that day, that I will seek to destroy all the nations that come against Jerusalem” (Zechariah 12:9)
        These “catastrophic events” as stated in the aforementioned published book obviously include natural and man-made disasters.
        However, according to the book, a selection of only 49 such incidents have been made from the totality of all world-wide catastrophic events which are also limited to the H. W. Bush, Clinton and G. W. Bush administrations.

The Abrahamic Covenant

         In the book “Prophets And Prophecy,” I made comments about the Abrahamic Covenant. Here is an excerpt from the book:
        God made promises to Abraham in His covenant with him. In this case it is a promissory or unilateral covenant, or unconditional.
        I will refer to Abram as Abraham, as his name was changed by God in Genesis 17:5 from Abram meaning “high or exalted father” to Abraham “father of a multitude.”
        Genesis 12:1-4:
        1 Now the Lord had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, unto a land that I will shew thee:
        2 And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing:
        3 And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.
        4 So Abram departed, as the Lord had spoken unto him; and Lot went with him: and Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran.
  Land
        In verse 1, Abraham was promised land, specifically Canaan, as shown to Abraham in Genesis 13:12-17.
        Genesis 13:12-17:
        12 Abram dwelled in the land of Canaan, and Lot dwelled in the cities of the plain, and pitched his tent toward Sodom.
        13 But the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the Lord exceedingly.
        14 And the Lord said unto Abram, after that Lot was separated from him, Lift up now thine eyes, and look from the place where thou art northward, and southward, and eastward, and westward:
        15 For all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed for ever.
        16 And I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth: so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered.
        17 Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it; for I will give it unto thee.
        A similar promise is made to his offspring, Isaac, Abraham’s only son by his wife Sara (Genesis 26:2-4) and Jacob (Genesis 28:13-15). Isaac was the father of Jacob and Esau.
  Descendants
        In verse 2 God promises to make of Abraham a great nation. This is further explained in Genesis 13:16: “And I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth: so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered.” This promise is also given to Isaac (Genesis 26:4) and Jacob (Genesis 28:14).
        In addition to the land of Caanan, Abraham is promised “seed” or descendants who will make a great nation.
  Blessing
        God also promised Abraham that “I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing.” In verse 3 God states a condition for being blessed by Abraham in that He will bless those who bless him and curse those who curse him. God also states that “in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.”
    Personal, National And Global Promises
        The covenant with Abraham, as we see from scripture, involves three aspects: land, specifically the land of Caanan; “seed,” or descendants that would become a great nation; and blessing in the sense of being blessed and being a blessing.
        This can be understood as being a personal promise (the land of Caanan), a national promise (seed, or descendants who would become a great nation), and a global promise (all families of the earth shall be blessed).
        This covenant is restated, or confirmed to Abraham in Genesis 15:1-21, 17:4-21, 22:15-18. It is also confirmed to Isaac in Genesis 26:3-5,24 and to Jacob in Genesis 28:13-15, 35:9-12.
        Keep in mind that this is an unconditional, or promissory, or unilateral covenant which will be fulfilled by God and is not dependent upon what Abraham and/or his seed, or descendants, do or don’t do.

Understanding Scripture And History

        In the “Eye to Eye:” book mentioned above, Zechariah 12:9 is quoted as rationale for the hurricane catastrophic events: “And it shall come to pass in that day, that I will seek to destroy all the nations that come against Jerusalem.”
        This is an example of not only lack of understanding the contextual setting of the verse, but also plucking a biblical verse out of context. In fact, chapters 9-14 of Zechariah are “Zechariah’s picture of Israel’s glorious future and the coming of the Messiah” as explained in an excerpt from Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary:
        ZECHARIAH, BOOK OF—An Old Testament prophetic book that portrays the coming glory of the MESSIAH. Many scholars describe Zechariah as “the most Messianic of all the Old Testament books” because it contains eight specific references to the Messiah in its brief 14 chapters.
        Structure of the Book. The 14 chapters of Zechariah fall naturally into two major sections: (chapters 1-8), the prophet’s encouragement to the people to finish the work of rebuilding the Temple, and (chapters 9-14), Zechariah’s picture of Israel’s glorious future and the coming of the Messiah.”
        Other promises for the future in this section of the book include the restoration of the nation of Israel (chap. 10) and Jerusalem’s deliverance from her enemies (chap. 12), as well as her purification as the holy city (chap. 13). Like the Book of Revelation, Zechariah closes on the theme of the universal reign of God. All nations will come to worship Him as He extends His rule throughout the world (chap. 14).
        God made it clear in Genesis 12:3 that He “will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee ...” This is a divine warning that many should consider in their relationships and conduct with Israel as it could result in being cursed by God. What the working dynamics are in carrying out such a curse, or curses, are really unknown to us today.
        A matter of greater concern for us is to realize that this unconditional, promissory, unilateral covenant made by God will be fulfilled by God Himself. Regardless of what Abraham and/or his descendants, do or don’t do. And regardless of what anybody else does.
        While the Jews have had continuous presence in the land of Israel, since 587 BC the region has been ruled or controlled by Babylonian, Persian, Greek Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Empires, Islamic and Christian crusaders, the Ottoman Empire, and the British Empire.
        Many Jews migrated to Europe and North Africa after the exile by the Romans, but many also immigrated back to Israel from Arab countries and Europe at the beginning of the 20th century. Many of these people were massacred by Arab armed forces and civilians in the neighboring Arab states. Word War II records 6 million Jews put to death by Nazi Germany during the Holocaust.
        On May 14, 1948 the State of Israel was established and the Jews once again reestablished sovereignty over their homeland.
        However, the Arabs immediately rejected the U.N. partition plan and attacked Israel from every direction. In addition, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Egypt and Iraq also invaded Israel, all declaring their intent to destroy it.
        How many commentators and theologians pointed out that it looked like the Bible was wrong and said that it looked like God would not be able to fulfill that promise to Israel?
        But ... in May of 1948, Israel literally became a nation in a day, fulfilling not only this promise to Abraham, but other prophecies.
        I want to make just one simple point: We don’t know what transient changes may continue to occur in Israel today, any more than those in the past were able to.
        But we do know the final result of what will happen to the land of Israel, because God made an unconditional, promissory, unilateral covenant that He will fulfill according to His sovereignty and according to His will, and according to His timing.
        If half or more of the land of Israel is somehow taken away from them today, rest assured saints, that it’s only a temporary and transient happening. Why? Because:

        2 Corinthians 1:20: For all the promises of God in him are yea, and in him Amen, unto the glory of God by us.

        God promised it and it will happen whether you believe it or not. Just because we attempt to impose certain conditions upon God—speaking out what He can do and what He can’t do—doesn’t mean those statements are valid. And just because we attempt to impose certain time limits upon God—giving Him a certain length of time to do something—doesn’t mean those statements are valid, either.
        Today it looks like there may be some land given away by Israel. And so what? Tomorrow they will get it back. Because God promised it, didn’t He?
        If God were seeking “to destroy all the nations that come against Jerusalem” in this present time, then many of the nations on earth and prospering today, would have long since been destroyed by God!

Ten Logical Fallacies Of Catastrophic Event Cause And Effect Of Hurricanes In Pseudo-Analysis

        When we consider all the facts pertaining to cause and effects of catastrophic events, it’s readily apparent that logical fallacies of the pseudo-analysis relating to cause and effect are abounding.
        Inductive fallacies include:
  • Hasty Generalization: the sample is too small to support the conclusion
  • Unrepresentative Sample: the sample is unrepresentative of the sample as a whole
  • Fallacy of Exclusion: evidence which would change the outcome of an inductive argument is excluded from consideration
            Causal fallacies include:
  • Insignificant: one thing is held to cause another, and it does, but it is insignificant compared to other causes of the effect
  • Complex Cause: the cause identified is only a part of the entire cause of the effect
            Missing the Point fallacies include:
  • Irrelevant Conclusion: an argument in defense of one conclusion instead proves a different conclusion
            Fallacies of explanation include:
  • Non-support: Evidence for the phenomenon being explained is biased
  • Untestability: The theory which explains cannot be tested
            Fallacies of definition includes:
  • Too Narrow: The definition does not include all the items which should be included
             Fallacies of Explanation include:
  • Limited Depth: The theory which explains does not appeal to underlying causes
            (Fallacies listed are Excerpted from Stephen’s Guide to the Logical Fallacies – by Stephen Downes)

  •         I discuss in this article the transparency of these logical fallacies.

    Cause And Effect—The Big Picture

            When we review the totality of all such world-wide catastrophic events we also find many additional categories of these events, which when researched run into the thousands. Some of these categories of world-wide catastrophic events from 430 B.C. to 2005 include:
    Avalanches Bubonic plague Chemical pollution Cholera epidemics Coal mine disasters
    Cyclones Dam disasters Droughts Earthquakes Famines
    Floods Forest fires Heat waves Home fires Hurricanes
    Influenza pandemic Landslides Meningitis epidemics Nuclear plant disasters Smallpox epidemics
    Snow blizzards Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Yellow fever epidemics

         World-Wide Disasters

            A Fox News story dated Thursday, December 30, 2004 reports:

    Fast Facts: World’s Worst Disasters
            Some of the world’s deadliest natural disasters — including earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions — since the start of the last century:
    • Dec. 28, 1908 — A magnitude-7.2 earthquake kills 123,000 people in the Messina-Reggio Calabria area of eastern Sicily and southernmost Italy.
    • Jan. 13, 1915 — An earthquake with a magnitude of 7.5 leaves 29,980 dead in Avezzano, Italy.
    • Dec. 16, 1920 — Gansu, China is hit with an earthquake reaching magnitude 8.6 that kills 200,000 people.
    • Sept. 1, 1923 — An temblor of 8.3 magnitude in Japan destroys one-third of Tokyo and most of Yokohama. More than 140,000 are killed.
    • May 22, 1927 — An earthquake reaching 7.9 magnitude hits near Xining, China and kills approximately 200,000.
    • Dec. 25, 1932 — Approximately 70,000 people are killed after an earthquake reaching 7.6 magnitude hits the Gansu region in China.
    • May 30, 1935 — A magnitude 7.5 temblor strikes Quetta, Pakistan, killing more than 30,000 people.
    • Jan. 24, 1939 — An earthquake of 8.3 magnitude in Chile kills roughly 28,000 people.
    • Dec. 27, 1939 — More than 32,000 die in the Erzincan province in eastern Turkey during a 7.9-magnitude quake.
    • Oct. 5, 1948 — An earthquake of 7.3 magnitude in Turkmenistan kills over 110,000 people.
    • Aug. 15, 1950 — Up to 30,000 are estimated to have been killed in an earthquake of 8.6 magnitude in Assam, India.
    • May 31, 1970 — An earthquake reaching a magnitude of 7.9 in Peru leaves over 60,000 dead.
    • Nov. 13, 1970 — A cyclone in the Ganges Delta of Bangladesh kills at least 300,000 people.
    • Feb. 4, 1976 — A series of earthquakes reaching a magnitude of 7.5 in Guatemala leave over 23,000 dead.
    • July 28, 1976 — The worst earthquake to hit China in 20th century with an estimated magnitude at between 7.8 and 8.2 leaves more than 240,000 dead in Tangshan.
    • Sept. 16, 1978 — An earthquake of 7.7 magnitude in Tabas, Iran kills 25,000 people.
    • Nov. 14-16, 1985 — Volcanic eruption of Nevada del Ruiz near Bogota, Colombia, kills approximately 25,000 people.
    • Dec. 7, 1988 — A 6.9-magnitude earthquake in Armenia kills nearly 25,000.
    • June 21, 1990 — An earthquake of 7.7 magnitude in northwest Iran destroys cities and villages in Caspian Sea area and kills at least 50,000 people.
    • Sept. 30, 1993 — As many as 10,000 are killed from an earthquake of 6.0 magnitude that struck the state of Maharashtra in India.
    • Aug. 17, 1999 — More than 17,000 are killed as a magnitude-7.4 quake hits western Turkey.
    • Dec. 26, 2003 — More than 26,000 killed after an earthquake of 6.5 magnitude strikes the ancient historic city of Bam in southeast Iran.
    • Dec. 26, 2004 — A 9.0 earthquake off the western coast of Indonesia’s Sumatra island launches tsunami waves that slam shorelines in Asia and Africa, killing more than 117,000 people.
            Worst weather disasters internationally in the 20th century from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration:
    • Drought and famine in China in 1907, toll estimated at 24 million. Millions dead in other drought-related famines in 1928-30, 1936 and 1941-42.
    • Drought in the Ukraine and Volga region of the Soviet Union in 1921-22, deaths estimated at 250,000 to 5 million.
    • Yangtze River flood, China, 1931, 3.7 million killed due to flooding and subsequent disease and starvation.
    • Great Smog of London in 1952, 4,000 deaths linked to the smog, that many others to related causes.
    • Great Iran flood in 1954, with more than 10,000 dead.
    • Typhoon Vera in Japan in 1958, with 5,000 dead.
    • Violent winter storms along the coasts of northern Europe, including the Netherlands and United Kingdom, in 1965, with 2,000 lives lost.
    • Indian drought of 1965-67, estimates of dead at 1.5 million. In 1900, drought in India blamed for 250,000 to 3 million deaths.
    • Bangladesh cyclone in 1970, with 300,000 to 500,000 dead in wind and storm surge.
    • Flooding in Vietnam in 1971, with 100,000 killed.
    • Iran blizzard of 1972, with about 4,000 people dead.
    • Sahel drought in Africa in 1972-75, with estimates of dead at 600,000.
    • Bangladesh cyclone in 1991, with 138,000 killed.
    • Typhoon Thelma in 1991 in the Philippines, with 6,000 fatalities.
    • Hurricane Mitch in Central America in 1998, with an estimated 11,000 dead, the region’s greatest hurricane loss since 1780.

    United States of America Disasters
    The Most Intense Mainland United States Hurricanes, 1900-2000 (includes only major hurricanes at their most intense landfall)

    RankName YearCate-
    gory
    1Unnamed (FL Keys) 19355
    2Camille (MS, SE LA, VA)19695
    3Andrew (SE FL, SE LA)19925
    4Unnamed (FL Keys, S TX)19194
    5Unnamed (Lake Okeechobee FL) 19284
    6Donna (FL, Eastern U.S.)19604
    7Unnamed (Galveston TX)19004
    7Unnamed (Grand Isle LA)19094
    7Unnamed (New Orleans LA)19154
    7Carla (N & Cent. TX)19614
    11Hugo (SC) 19894
    12Unnamed (Miami FL, MS, AL, Pensacola FL) 19264
    13Hazel (SC, NC) 19544
    14Unnamed (SE FL, SE LA, MS)19474
    15Unnamed (N TX) 19324
    16Gloria (Eastern U.S.)19853
    16Opal (NW FL, AL)19953
    18Audrey (SW LA, N TX)19574
    18Unnamed (Galveston TX)19154
    18Celia (S TX)19703
    18Allen (S TX)19803
    22Unnamed (New England)19383
    22Frederic (AL, MS)19793
    24Unnamed (NE U.S.)19443
    24Unnamed (SC, NC)19063
    26Betsy (SE FL, SE LA)19653
    26Unnamed (SE FL, NW FL)19293
    26Unnamed (SE FL)19333
    26Unnamed (S TX)19163
    26Unnamed (MS, AL)19163
    31Diane (NC)19553
    31Unnamed (S TX)19333
    33Beulah (S TX)19673
    33Hilda (Central LA)19643
    33Gracie (SC)19593
    33Unnamed (Central TX)19423
    37Unnamed (SE FL)19453
    37Bret (S TX)19993
    39Unnamed (Tampa Bay FL)19213
    39Carmen (Central LA)19743
    41Edna (New England)19543
    41Unnamed (SE FL)19493
    41Fran (NC)19963
    44Eloise (NW FL)19753
    44King (SE FL)19503
    44Unnamed (Central LA)19263
    44Unnamed (SW LA)19183
    44Unnamed (SW FL)19103
    49Unnamed (NC)19333
    49Unnamed (FL Keys)19093
    51Easy (NW FL)19503
    51Unnamed (N TX)19413
    51Unnamed (NW FL)19173
    51Unnamed (N TX)19093
    51Unnamed (MS, AL)19063
    56Elena (MS, AL, NW FL)19853
    57Carol (NE U.S.)19543
    57Ione (NC)19553
    57Emily (NC)19933
    60Alicia (N TX)19833
    60Connie (NC, VA)19553
    60Unnamed (SW FL, NE FL)19443
    60Unnamed (Central LA)19343
    64Unnamed (SW FL, NE FL)19483
    65Unnamed (NW FL)19363
    Click here for the full report.

            Worst weather disasters of the United States in the 20th century from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (this list also contains the names of major hurricanes)
  • Galveston Hurricane, 1900—A 20-foot storm surge swept over Galveston Island and killed an estimated 8,000 people, the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history.
  • Tristate tornado of 1925—Killed 695 in Missouri, Illinois and Indiana.
  • Great Okeechobee flood and hurricane in 1928—Killed 1,836.
  • Dust Bowl of the 1930s—When drought swept the Great Plains and plunged thousands into poverty as farmers abandoned their land to seek better lives elsewhere.
  • Florida Keys Hurricane—Also known as the Labor Day Hurricane, killed more than 400 in 1935.
  • New England hurricane in 1938—With 600 fatalities and millions in damage from New York to Boston.
  • Storm of the Century, 1950—Brought snow and hurricane-force winds to 22 states and claimed 383 lives.
  • Hurricane Camille in 1969—Claimed 256 lives.
  • Tornado outbreak in 1974—When 148 tornadoes swept through the country from the Great Lakes to Alabama and Mississippi and killed 315 people.
  • New England blizzard of 1978—Paralyzed New England for a week.
  • El Nino episodes of 1982-83 and 1997-98—Caused storms that battered the West Coast and set rainfall records in the Southeast.
  • Great Midwest Flood of 1993—The costliest flood in U.S. history, claimed 48 lives and caused $18 billion in damage.
  • Hurricane Andrew in 1992—Caused 23 deaths and $25 billion in damage in Florida and Louisiana.
  • Winter superstorm of 1993—Battered the eastern seaboard and claimed 79 lives.
  • Oklahoma-Kansas tornado outbreak in 1999—With 42 dead.
  •         The following is excerpted from information by the National Hurricane Center:
    U.S. Hurricane Strikes by Decade
    Number of hurricanes by Saffir-Simpson Category to strike the mainland U.S. each decade.

    Decade Total Storms Major Storms, Category 3, 4 and 5
    1851-186019 6
    1861-1870151
    1871-1880207
    1881-1890225
    1891-190021 8
    1901-1910184
    1911-1920217
    1921-1930135
    1931-1940198
    1941-19502410
    1951-1960178
    1961-1970146
    1971-1980124
    1981-1990155
    1991-2000145
    2001-200493
    Hurricane Category Major Category
    1 2 3 4 5 All 3,4 and 5
    Totals: 1851-2004
    109 72 71 18 3 273 92
    Average Per Decade
    7.1 4.7 4.6 1.2 0.2 17.5 6.0

            These samplings of world-wide earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, droughts, famine, floods, smog, winter storms, blizzards, and intense major hurricanes (Categories 3, 4 and 5) in the United States since the start of the last century are only the tip of other iceberg.

            These catastrophic events listed are only from 1900 to almost now (from 1851 in the U.S. Hurricane Strikes by Decade table). There are simply too many events of cataclysmic significance to post here. (There is a partial list of web sites containing listings of catastrophic events at the end of this article).

    Analysis Of The Climatologists About Cause And Effect of Hurricanes

            Excerpted from a CNN article:
    It’s a ‘new era’ of hurricanes
    Experts: String of intense storms is part of normal cycle
    By Ann O’Neill, CNN
    Friday, September 23, 2005; Posted: 3:52 p.m. EDT (19:52 GMT)

            Max Mayfield, director of the National Hurricane Center in Miami, told a Senate subcommittee on Tuesday that we’re in a period of heightened hurricane activity that could last another decade or two.
            “The increased activity since 1995 is due to natural fluctuations (and) cycles of hurricane activity driven by the Atlantic Ocean itself along with the atmosphere above it and not enhanced substantially by global warming,” he testified.
    Return to normal

            “From 1970 to 1995, there weren’t that many hurricanes, and the ones we had were nice, well-mannered, housebroken hurricanes that stayed out to sea and didn’t make a mess,” said Hugh Willoughby, a hurricane researcher at Florida International University in Miami.
            “The only thing I can say,” he added, “is this run of good luck we had is ending.”
            “This year you can just say nature is averaging out its climatology,” said Colorado State University’s famed hurricane predictor, William Gray.
            Katrina and Rita are what Gray calls “Bahama busters,” storms that form off the Bahamas rather than near the coast of Africa. They explode after feeding on the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico.
            The past century saw 18 “Bahama busters,” Gray said.
            Even Katrina’s and Rita’s back-to-back pounding of the Gulf Coast has a precedent. In 1915, Gray said, New Orleans and Houston areas were hit by Category 4 storms six weeks apart.
            “You can’t blame that on global warming,” he observed.
            Gray first sounded the alarm in 1995, noting that the surface waters in the north Atlantic Ocean had warmed slightly. 1995 saw 11 hurricanes and eight tropical storms, the highest tally since 1933.
            By 1997, Gray’s annual forecasts warned of “a new era” of hurricanes.
            He put forth the theory that many climatologists, including Mayfield and Willoughby, now embrace–that hurricanes are driven by cycles of rising water temperature and salinity that affect the speed of currents in the Atlantic. Warm currents drive hurricanes
            The technical name for the engine driving the hurricane cycles is the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, or AMO for short. It can cause droughts in the West and hatch hurricanes in the East.
            “This cycle has been repeating back to the Ice Age,” Willoughby said. “It’s related to changes in the ocean currents that move heat northward. If it’s fast, we get a lot of hurricanes.”
            Studies show the AMO was cool–and the currents slower–from 1900 to 1925, warm from 1926 to 1969, cool from 1970 to 1994 and warm since 1995.
            And so, to a generation of Americans with little experience with hurricanes, it seems like these monsters are coming out of nowhere.
            Gray and Willoughby are among the skeptics who doubt global warming can be blamed for the trend of the past few years. They are joined by the hurricane trackers at the National Hurricane Center.
            “We’re just entering a busy time here,” said Chris Lauer, a meteorologist at the center.
            “You see a few decades of slower activity, followed by a few decades of higher oscillation,” he said. “Our position is the recent increase in hurricane activity is not caused by global warming.”
            Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, Georgia, suggested earlier this month that more than nature and coincidence might be driving the storms.
    More study needed

            In the September’s issue of the journal Science, Peter Webster and Judith Curry documented a 60 percent global jump in major hurricanes with winds of 131 mph or more and a 1-degree increase in the tropical ocean surface temperature.
            But Webster warned on Georgia Tech’s Web site that more study was needed before blaming global warming.
            “We need a longer data record of hurricane statistics,” he said, “and we need to understand more about the role hurricanes play in regulating the heat balance and circulation in the atmosphere and oceans.”
            Willoughby said he is keeping an open mind about the role of global warming but believes it won’t be a factor for at least another 100 years.
            “The answer I give everybody, because it has all been so politicized, is I don’t know,” he said.
            Gray was more direct. “There are all these medicine men out there who want to capitalize on general ignorance on this subject,” he said.
            “With all the problems in the world, we shouldn’t be dealing with this.”
            Willoughby believes the debate over hurricanes and global warming is healthy. “It’s good for the science,” he said.

    Analysis Of An Environmental Historian About Cause And Effect of Hurricanes

            In the book, Acts of God: The Unnatural History of Natural Disasters in America by Theodore Steinberg, Hardcover, 294 pages, Publisher: Oxford University Press (September, 2000), the author addresses some of the factors involved in causation of catastrophes in U.S. history.
    Book Description
            Incredibly, the ten most costly catastrophes in U.S. history have all been natural disasters—seven of them hurricanes—and all have occurred since 1989, a period, ironically, that Congress has dubbed the Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Why this tremendous plague on our houses? While some claim that nature is the problem, in fact, as environmental historian Ted Steinberg explains, historically speaking, much of the death and destruction has been well within the realm of human control. Surveying more than a century of losses from weather and seismic extremes, Steinberg exposes the fallacy of seeing such calamities as simply random events.
            Acts of God explores the unnatural history of natural calamity, the decisions of business leaders and government officials that have paved the way for the greater losses of life and property, especially among those least able to withstand such blows—America’s poor, elderly, and minorities. Seeing nature or God as the primary culprit, Steinberg argues, has helped to paper over the fact that, in truth, some Americans are better protected from the violence of nature than their counterparts lower down the socio-economic ladder. How else can we explain that the hardest hit areas have been mobile home parks and other low-income neighborhoods?
            Beginning with the 1886 Charleston and 1906 San Francisco earthquakes, and continuing to the present, Steinberg spotlights the defective approach to natural hazards taken by real estate interests, the media, and policymakers. By understating the extent of storm damage in news reports and offering quick repairs and cosmetic solutions to damaged property, fundamental flaws in the status quo go unremedied, class divisions are maintained, and unsafe practices continue unquestioned. Even today, with our increased scientific knowledge, he shows that reckless building continues unabated in seismically active areas and flood-prone coastal plains, often at taxpayer expense.
            Sure to provoke discussion, Acts of God is a call to action that must be heard before the next disaster hits.
            Editorial Reviews of Acts of God:
            From “Booklist:”
            Steinberg has an unabashedly political agenda in this work, but that does not interfere with him making a powerful point concerning the economics of disaster preparation and recovery. He examines how many of America’s worst natural disasters were made more devastating through economic decision making. Most of the time these decisions protect the wealthy and commercial interests while leaving the poor and minorities vulnerable. He shows how newspapers and even scientific publications after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake played up the fire to convince businesses interested in moving into the area that it wasn’t earthquake prone. He points to how dikes that were constructed to protect towns like Hannibal, Missouri, were made more “cost effective” by being placed where they could prevent damage to landmarks, while leaving the poor and black sections of the town to the mercy of flood waters. This is an insightful work that raises serious questions about who really directs our philosophy of disaster preparedness. Eric Robbins
    Copyright American Library Association. All rights reserved

            The book, Acts of God: The Unnatural History of Natural Disasters in America by Theodore Steinberg was written in the year 2000. The news coming out about the handling of the catastrophes created by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita substantiate the allegations made by the author.

    Other Factors Contributing To Catastrophic Event Damage

            There are also other factors which contribute to the increasing wider scope of damage from these catastrophic events:
  • accelerated population growth
  • environmental degradation accompanied by increasing urbanization
  • urban sprawl in hazard-prone areas
  • loss of community memory about catastrophic events because of increased mobility
  • aging population
  • aging and obsolete infrastructure
  • greater reliance on aging and obsolete infrastructure
  • increasing over-reliance on obsolete technology
  • Analysis Of The Pseudo-Analysis About Cause And Effect of Hurricanes

            The question must be asked: Are, as some have suggested with flawed logic, all of these catastrophes the judgment of God on those areas? If this is so, as their flawed theses state, then where is the logical rationale of cause and effect for each one of them? In other words, where is the “proof” that these areas “sinned” against God in such a manner as to cause God to loose His wrath and anger against people in other areas, or the same area? Where is the rationale for “God’s judgment” being the cause of all the world disasters that have always occurred throughout history?
            Various scriptures are quoted as “proof” that God is judging America for going against the Abrahamic Covenant and dividing Israel by causing catastrophic events to punish America. Other scriptures may be quoted to substantiate the fact that yes, God, in the Old Testament, sent catastrophes against those who sinned against Him as punishment.
            All of these “proofs” raise many questions.
            Who is making the actual decisions to “divide” the land in Israel? Yes, it’s clear from news accounts that these administrations have urged, counseled, and advised the leaders of Israel to take certain courses of actions for various reasons. But who is making the actual decisions to implement action to “divide” Israel? Did H. W. Bush, Clinton or G. W. Bush make those decisions and implement them in Israel? Or did the leaders of Israel make those decisions? Since it’s obvious that Israel’s leaders made those decisions, then why doesn’t God punish them? Or punish the Palestianians who were given the land?
            Hurricanes have wreaked havoc on this earth for thousands of years. If humans build a city where hurricanes are known to cause catastrophic events, especially in coastal areas and below sea level. what do you think will eventually happen?
            What happened to “God’s judgment” in the years when there were no catastrophic events in various cities?
            What is the explanation for catastrophic events before Israel became a nation in 1948?
            Why does one area “sin” and suffer nothing, but instead another area suffers “God’s judgment?”
            Who has been the world’s greatest defender of Israel and her sole ally? An ally that continues to send billions of dollars in aid to Israel?

    A Biblically Supported Viewpoint

            Job suffered by permission of God Himself. Job asked why. God didn’t tell him. However, Job had “friends” that all advanced their theories ... theories that were all discredited by God. Sound familiar?

            Maybe, just maybe, natural disasters really have no moral significance. And maybe, just maybe, we need to take a broader overview and get ourselves out of the Old Testament, and orientate ourselves to the New Testament ... the New Testament teachings of Jesus Christ. If we did we would discover that is exactly what Jesus Christ told us to do. Try it ... just read through the New Testament lettering in red ink, i.e., the spoken words of Jesus Christ. And those words before and after those sections which explain under what circumstances He said them.

            The fall of Adam and Eve caused effects on this earth that explain why there continue to be catastrophic events. This is recorded for us to know and understand in Genesis:

            Genesis 3:16-18:
            16 Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.
            17 And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life;
            18 Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field;

            Paul, the apostle, reminds us of this fact in Romans:

            Romans 8:20-22 (NIV):
            20 For the creation was subjected to frustration, not by its own choice, but by the will of the one who subjected it, in hope
            21 that the creation itself will be liberated from its bondage to decay and brought into the glorious freedom of the children of God.
            22 We know that the whole creation has been groaning as in the pains of childbirth right up to the present time.

            The results of the same sin of rebellion against God in Genesis is reflected in this earth that we live upon in its “bondage to decay.” That sin causes us human beings to get sick, have good and bad days, grow old and eventually die. It also causes natural catastrophic events to happen in this earth that we live upon. That was not God’s original destiny for the human race before Adam and Eve fell.
             Excerpted from Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary:

            “Adam and Eve did not sin simply as private persons, but as the representatives of all members of the human race. Their sin is the sin of all; and all persons receive from them a corrupt nature. It is this nature that stands behind all personal violations of the Lord’s commandments. For this reason, the fall of Adam is the fall of the human race. The apostle Paul thought of Christ as the second Adam who would rebuild the old, sinful Adam through His plan of redemption and salvation. “As in Adam all die, even so in Christ all shall be made alive” (1 Cor. 15:22).”
            So what is the cause for all of these catastrophic events in the earth? It is our very own sin nature, isn’t it?

    The New Covenant

            Jesus mentioned the Galilaeans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices, i.e., killed. He said “And Jesus answering said unto them, Suppose ye that these Galilaeans were sinners above all the Galilaeans, because they suffered such things? I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish” (Luke 13:2,3).
            Jesus went on to say “Or those eighteen, upon whom the tower in Siloam fell, and slew them, think ye that they were sinners above all men that dwelt in Jerusalem? I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish” Luke 13:4,5).
            Jesus also said about the Father “... he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust” (Matthew 5:45).
            Jesus also said about a man born blind in answer to the question “Master, who did sin, this man, or his parents, that he was born blind?” (John 9:2), “Neither hath this man sinned, nor his parents: but that the works of God should be made manifest in him (John 9:3).” Then Jesus healed the man’s eyes so that the man could see.

             The Gallilaens were not killed because they were worse sinners than others. The tower of Siloam didn’t kill people because they were worse sinners than others. God makes the sun to rise on the evil people who sin and on the good people who don’t sin and sends his rain on the just who don’t sin and also on the unjust who do sin. A man was not born blind because he or his parents sinned.

    Jesus Exercises Judgment And Executes Justice

            Psalms 89:14: “Justice and judgment are the habitation of thy throne: mercy and truth shall go before thy face.”

            Proverbs 21:3: “To do justice and judgment is more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice.”

            Isaiah 9:6-7: “For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this.”

            Jeremiah 23:5: “Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth.”

            Judgment and justice are the “habitation,” i.e., foundational to the establishment, or support, of God’s throne, from which our King, Jesus, will execute judgment and justice. “Execute” is asah meaning “to do or make, in the broadest sense and widest application.” Vine’s Expository Dictionary defines it as “to create, do, make.”      

    Judgment

            “Judge” krino, means to form an opinion as a process leading to a decision. “Judgment” krima, is a pronounced decision made based on opinions.
            James, chapters three and four, and Titus 3:2-7 instruct us not to judge fleshly weaknesses, as we all have the same problems. We are not to judge opinions, observances of days or what is eaten. We are not to be a stumblingblock, but are to use our strength (in the Lord) to bear up those who are weak (Romans 14-15:13 — see also John 7:24; 8:15; 1 Corinthians 8-11:1; Colossians 2:16; Galatians 6:1-10). We are not to judge prematurely the “counsels of the hearts” (i.e., motives or purposes) of another’s ministry. When the Lord comes He will “bring to light the hidden things ...” (1 Corinthians 4:1-7 — see also 1 Corinthians 2:15,16).
            1 Corinthians 5 is clear that we are not to judge those in the world. However, we are to judge the effects of fellow believers on the body (see also 2 Corinthians 2:5-11; 7:8-12).
            We are also to judge between the brethren (1 Corinthians 6:1-8 — see also Matthew 19:28, Luke 22:25-30) and are to judge carefully and intelligently (Acts 4:19; 15:19 (where krino is translated “sentence”); 16:4 (where krino is translated “ordained”); 16:15; 21:25 (where krino is translated “concluded”); 1 Corinthians 7:37 (where krino is translated “decreed”); 10;15; 11:13,31; 14:29).
            In this matter of judgement, the Father’s heart is love, and He Personified this love in Jesus Christ, His only begotten Son. God’s character is love and His compassion displays his love and mercy. However, there are many who attempt to ignore the conscience of God, i.e., His wisdom, judgement and justice. (Justice is the use of authority and power to uphold that which is good). God will not ignore His own justice, which is beyond our human comprehension. Therefore as an essential characteristic of God, He must judge, as a God of justice. There is, however, a kind of “holy reluctance” on the part of the Father and the Son to judge, as explained below.
            Those who do not believe on Jesus are judged (John 3:17,18, where krino is translated “condemn(ed)” and verse 19 states the reason. Jesus did not come into the world to judge the world, but to save it (John 3:17; 12:47). The Father does not now actively judge but has placed that task into the hands of Jesus (Acts 17:31 — Psalms 9:8; 96:13; 98:9), Who has stated that His Word will judge (John 5:22-27; 12:47-50). The Holy Spirit teaches and reminds us of His Words (John 14:16,17,26; 15:26; 16:7,13). Therefore final judgment exercised after the second coming of Jesus (Matthew 25:31-46; John 5:22-30; 8:26; Acts 10:42; 17:31; Romans 2:16; 14:9-12; 1 Corinthians 4:5; 2 Timothy 4:1; 1 Peter 4:5; Revelation 20:11-15) will be according to His Word.
            So our God of love, grace, mercy and wisdom has relegated His final judgment, ultimately, and after the second coming of Jesus, to His written word to bring about justice.      

    Justice Of God

            We have seen from scripture that Jesus is the Wisdom of God and that judgment and justice are foundational to the rule of Jesus.
            We, on the other hand, are not to judge fleshly weaknesses, opinions, observances of days, what is eaten, “counsels of the hearts” (i.e., motives or purposes) of another’s ministry or those in the world. We are not to be a stumblingblock, but are to use our strength (in the Lord) to bear up those who are weak. Since final judgment exercised after the second coming of Jesus will be according to His Word, we are bound to judge in these areas according to the word of God.
            When Jesus comes He will “bring to light the hidden things ...” The things that we, in our limited human perspective, are unaware of.
            We are, therefore, limited in our judgment to judge the effects of fellow believers on the body, to judge between the brethren, and are to judge carefully and intelligently.
            Only God in His wisdom, can exercise Godly judgments and execute Godly justice.
            We must be guided by scripture: James 2:13 tells us “For he shall have judgment without mercy, that hath shewed no mercy; and mercy rejoiceth against” [read: triumphs over] “judgment.” We must extend mercy, as we have received mercy, and forego our human judgments.
            Jesus said that when you judge your brother without judging yourself, and remedying the wrongs you find in yourself first, that you are a hypocrite:

            Matthew 7:1-5:
            1 Judge not, that ye be not judged.
            2 For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again.
            3 And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother’s eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye?
            4 Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye; and, behold, a beam is in thine own eye?
            5 Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye; and then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy brother’s eye.

            Paul the apostle, emphasized the same thing, saying that you are storing up God’s wrath for yourself against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God:

            Romans 2:1-5:
            1 Therefore thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art that judgest: for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself; for thou that judgest doest the same things.
            2 But we are sure that the judgment of God is according to truth against them which commit such things.
            3 And thinkest thou this, O man, that judgest them which do such things, and doest the same, that thou shalt escape the judgment of God?
            4 Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering; not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance?
            5 But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God;

    Perverted Justice Of Man

            The Bible makes it abundantly clear that Jesus died for all men so they could come to God and His salvation.

            John 10:10-11: The thief cometh not, but for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy: I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly. I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep.

            What makes you judgmental “gloom and doomers” think that God wants to kill these people off because their sin is more obvious to you, and to others, that your very own sins?
            Repeating the excerpt from Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary:

    “Adam and Eve did not sin simply as private persons, but as the representatives of all members of the human race. Their sin is the sin of all; and all persons receive from them a corrupt nature. It is this nature that stands behind all personal violations of the Lord’s commandments. For this reason, the fall of Adam is the fall of the human race. The apostle Paul thought of Christ as the second Adam who would rebuild the old, sinful Adam through His plan of redemption and salvation. “As in Adam all die, even so in Christ all shall be made alive” (1 Cor. 15:22).”
            We are all born into this world as sinners. Sin in your life is just as bad as the sin in their life. Did you think there is a qualitative difference between your sin and somebody else’s sin? Or a quantitative difference? Did you think that God grades on the curve and that your sin is “more acceptable” to God than those that you want God to judge and punish?
            Did you think that making those hateful and prejudiced and biased accusations and pretending that God is somehow “endorsing” your judgmental statements would make those who need to accept Jesus into their lives more likely to turn to God? Only in Christ can they be “made alive!” But they won’t, will they? They will turn away from you and, not knowing what a hypocrite you are, they will think you speak for God and will turn away from Him.
            You say this irresponsible junk, implicate God and actually go against God’s will and purposes for the humanity He has created, and you attempt to take His place!

    The Bottom Line

            Luke 15:1-32:
            1 Then drew near unto him all the publicans and sinners for to hear him.
            2 And the Pharisees and scribes murmured, saying, This man receiveth sinners, and eateth with them.
            3 And he spake this parable unto them, saying,
            4 What man of you, having an hundred sheep, if he lose one of them, doth not leave the ninety and nine in the wilderness, and go after that which is lost, until he find it?
            5 And when he hath found it, he layeth it on his shoulders, rejoicing.
            6 And when he cometh home, he calleth together his friends and neighbours, saying unto them, Rejoice with me; for I have found my sheep which was lost.
            7 I say unto you, that likewise joy shall be in heaven over one sinner that repenteth, more than over ninety and nine just persons, which need no repentance.
            8 Either what woman having ten pieces of silver, if she lose one piece, doth not light a candle, and sweep the house, and seek diligently till she find it?
            9 And when she hath found it, she calleth her friends and her neighbours together, saying, Rejoice with me; for I have found the piece which I had lost.
            10 Likewise, I say unto you, there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner that repenteth.
            11 And he said, A certain man had two sons:
            12 And the younger of them said to his father, Father, give me the portion of goods that falleth to me. And he divided unto them his living.
            13 And not many days after the younger son gathered all together, and took his journey into a far country, and there wasted his substance with riotous living.
            14 And when he had spent all, there arose a mighty famine in that land; and he began to be in want.
            15 And he went and joined himself to a citizen of that country; and he sent him into his fields to feed swine.
            16 And he would fain have filled his belly with the husks that the swine did eat: and no man gave unto him.
            17 And when he came to himself, he said, How many hired servants of my father’s have bread enough and to spare, and I perish with hunger!
            18 I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and before thee,
            19 And am no more worthy to be called thy son: make me as one of thy hired servants.
            20 And he arose, and came to his father. But when he was yet a great way off, his father saw him, and had compassion, and ran, and fell on his neck, and kissed him.
            21 And the son said unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in thy sight, and am no more worthy to be called thy son.
            22 But the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet:
            23 And bring hither the fatted calf, and kill it; and let us eat, and be merry:
            24 For this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found. And they began to be merry.
            25 Now his elder son was in the field: and as he came and drew nigh to the house, he heard musick and dancing.
            26 And he called one of the servants, and asked what these things meant.
            27 And he said unto him, Thy brother is come; and thy father hath killed the fatted calf, because he hath received him safe and sound.
            28 And he was angry, and would not go in: therefore came his father out, and intreated him.
            29 And he answering said to his father, Lo, these many years do I serve thee, neither transgressed I at any time thy commandment: and yet thou never gavest me a kid, that I might make merry with my friends:
            30 But as soon as this thy son was come, which hath devoured thy living with harlots, thou hast killed for him the fatted calf.
            31 And he said unto him, Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I have is thine.
            32 It was meet that we should make merry, and be glad: for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; and was lost, and is found.

            John 3:17: For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved.

            Luke 19:10: For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost.

            Acts 2:21: And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved.

            Romans 5:18: Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life.

            Romans 10:13: For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.

            1 Timothy 2:4: Who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth.

            Titus 2:11: For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men,

            2 Peter 3:9: The Lord is not slack concerning his promise, as some men count slackness; but is longsuffering to us-ward, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance.

            Quit thinking and living Old Testament, saints. And focus on Jesus, Jesus, Jesus!

            Selah! ... pause and calmly think of that ...
            In the Greek “anti” means both “against” and “in place of.” When we humans begin to judge based upon our limited understanding of God and the Bible and boldly proclaim, according to our subjective human wisdom (which James tells us is earthly, sensual and demonic ... and prone not to recognize logical fallacies), that God is “judging” we are actually coming “against” God’s sovereign and infinite wisdom and replacing it with our earthly, sensual and demonic wisdom. In so doing, we are making ourselves to be a god, “in place of” the true and living God of the Bible.
            Would it be fair to identify such human judging as being anti-Christ?



    Partial list of web sites containing listings of catastrophic events:

    BBC News-Tsunami among world's worst disasters

    CBC News Online-World's worst natural disasters since 1900-January 11, 2005

    GEsource Thematic Timeline - Disasters

    infoplease-Worst United States Disasters

    Wikipedia- List of deadliest natural disasters

    Wikipedia-List of notable tropical cyclones

    The Worst Natural Disasters Ever

    World's Worst Natural Disasters 66


    Home