# JACOB LIFTERS

## A NEW WAY TO PUSH

An airplane wing works partly because of the difference of velocity above and below the wing surfaces. That difference is seldom more than 10%. Both surfaces are moving together and the wind is moving the same direction on both surfaces. Wouldn't it be nice if we could make the wind under the wing go the same direction and speed as the bottom of the wing? You would get 100% difference between the top and the bottom of the wing.

The pitched curve ball curves because one side is moving into the wind and the other side is moving with the wind. So the ball moves sideways. That's the effect we are looking for and it still works when the ball is rotating in the other plane. The horizontal axis. When the top of the ball is moving into the wind and the bottom is moving with the wind the ball will move up or at least not fall as fast. The converse is also true.

Now lets remember it is the surfaces that do the work so it will still happen when the surfaces are switched around. Let's make the ball a flat surface and rotate it. A disc will do nicely. That will give it two flat faces turning in the same direction but notice we don't have to expose all of it to the same wind. We can make the air move across the top face only in one direction. We can also expose the other face to a wind moving in the opposite direction. The result of this is both faces have wind with of one face moving into the wind and of the opposing face moving with the wind. The same situation as the pitched curve ball.

Such a device would be a bit difficult to build so let's make some more changes to make it easier. If we use two disc rotating in opposing directions we have the conditions in only one area between them and that is easier to deal with. All we need to do is inject the fluid between them on the tangent and let it out with a hole at the center. Now we have a system which could produce nearly 100% difference in the velocity above the lower disc and below the upper disc.
So we have the machine shown below.

A BLOWER POWERED VERSION:

The fan at the top pulls the air in and blows it down to the gap between the contra rotating disc. The air enters the area on the tangent of the disc in the direction that the upper disc is rotating. The air is forced by it's velocity to rotate spiraling toward the center where it is exhausted.

When the air and the upper adjacent surface are moving nearly the same velocity the Bernoulli pressure loss will be less than the pressure loss on the lower adjacent surface which is moving the opposite direction.

Present research involves an attempt to use fins on the under side of the upper disc instead of a second motor to cause the rotation. This would be much lighter construction although the matching of the fluid velocity to the surface velocity will be reduced.

An expanded version could be assembled with several disc stacked as shown here:

POTENTIAL USES OF A CLOSED CONTAINER PRODUCING LIFT.
Important factors: 1- The constant used in the Bernoulli principal is derived from the specific gravity of the fluid. This why a boat propeller is much smaller that an airplane propeller. Using a liquid such as oil or water in this machine allows a big reduction in size of the unit. 2- The static pressure can be increased considerably by pressurizing the unit. this would give a much greater potential pressure reduction by Bernoulli. 3- Bernoulli does not add a pressure to a system. It reduces a pressure that is already there. A- If a craft can be built light enough to use solar cells for the power source it would not have a maximum altitude. Take off like an helicopter and "fly" to the moon. B- Replace the rotors on a helicopter with units of this design and never fear hitting a power line or tree branch. C- Small units could be used for individual transportation. Can you imagine the striking power of 100 Marines coming straight down on an enemy position at night?

Other possible configurations:

The thing that makes it work is the flow being injected between counter rotating surfaces. The flow has to enter into that area from the edge on the tangent and then exit out of that area. The flow can be directed straight across half the disc (FIG.1) or forced to spiral toward the center then exit as in FIG 2.

FIGURE 1                                                    FIGURE 2

A closed version can be made by recirculating the fluid back to the pump. using this flow pattern.

another closed version flow pattern.

Such a machine might look a lot like this using FIG 2 flow pattern.
The counter rotation can be caused by several methods. The two or more disc can be on the same shaft as the motor with the first disc pined to the shaft and the next disc (on a bearing) being turned by gears either at the center or at the edge. In addition two disc could be on seperate motors facing each other.

fig 4

Most importly it should be noticed that the fluid having already caused lift as it exits the gap between disc could then be returned to the pumping system and reused. There is no need for the fluid to exit the vehicle. This condition alows the machine to be a closed container as shown above.
When the closed version is selected the fluid could be a liquid under pressure causing considerable reduction in overall size of the unit. When the size of the unit is reduced to such an extent then the unit could be built into the craft and the craft could have an stremlind exterior allowing it to move about in wooded areas.

There are two directions of argument against the possibility of a closed container producing lift.

1- Newtons first law says a body at rest will remain at rest until it is affected by a second body outside of itself. This does not mean that a closed container could not be moved by something "inside" of it. Newton ment "outside" in the logical sense not the geometric. He ment "not a part of". Get a cardboard box and put a bowling ball in it. Close it. Pick it up and let it tip slightly. When the ball hits the "inner" surface of the box you will feel the box moved by the ball. The ball is not a part of the box. The ball can move the box. Just as the fluid in a closed container is not a part of the container and it can move the container.
2- A flow in a closed container will be bounded in all directions therefore it will produce an equal velocity on all surfaces and equal pressure in all directions. This argument has the flaw that it does not allow that the surfaces might be moving. The movement of the surfaces changes the velocity on those surfaces and so the pressure is different in some directions.

THE FEASIBILITY OF A CLOSED LIFT PRODUCING MACHINE

by

Paul Jacoby

The argument against such a machine includes Newton's laws. The first law is that a body at rest remains at rest until a force acts upon it. The common belief is that the force must come from outside the mass and that works well for solid masses. There is a flaw in the assumption based on our definition of outside. The problem being that a hollow mass has a peculiar situation of occupying a volume of space but not filling it. The hollow volume is confused with the mass. It should be thought of as external to the mass not internal. The simple condition of surrounding the hollow volume does not make it a part of the mass. Therefore the "inner" surfaces should be thought of as external to the mass. The mass of an object never extends beyond it's surface.

An accurate description of a container could be like this:
A mass of brass measuring 12 inches long by 6 inches diameter excluding a volume measuring 10 inches long by 4 inches diameter and centered in all directions within the brass. When a container is described in this fashion it becomes clear that the volume and any thing in that volume is not a part of the container and should be thought of as external to the mass (brass). Unless it is secured (glued, bolted etc.) to the "inner" wall which makes it a part of the container and requires adapting the description to fit.

Given this condition it can be seen that a force originating from the hollow volume could cause movement of the mass (brass) although the simple geometry of closure causes a limitation of movement. None the less the container can be moved by an action against the "inner" surface which is really an external surface and it is not necessary for the force to come from "outside" the container since the volume is actually outside (not a part of) the container.

A container can be of any configuration as long as it restricts the free movement of a substance. It can be open in one place or more. A cylinder open on both ends is a container. It might be containing air or water but it is still a container. It might contain a blower and combustion machines as in the the case of some jet engines. It also might contain only a blower and be open on both ends.

The nature of a closed container is the same as an open container except that it is not open to the rest of the world. It can be composed of several sub compartments which might be open or closed separately. In fact it can be made with two open containers connected front to back and back to front. In this fashion the two would still act as open containers. A fluid would still go in and out of each by the same flow pattern.

The nature of closure is a real problem of how to construct a machine to produce lift continuously. Any fluid in it will have two opposing adjacent surfaces which will neutralize each other. However this contains an assumption that the adjacent surfaces are stationary in relation to each other. Which need not be true. It is quite possible to build an arrangement which will have the two adjacent surfaces moving.

Newton's third law is also part of the problem. For ever force there is an equal and opposite force. This law is a bit subtle. It has to do with contact of objects and the force exchanged between them. It applies to a fluid on a surface. Each molecule is hitting the surface with a velocity. It is that force exchanged which we measure as atmospheric pressure or fluid pressure. The fluid pressure on a surface is also affected by a velocity (wind) of the fluid viewed as a single mass unit. Bernoulli Principle is about the flow velocity affecting the pressure on the surface. The flow velocity could be thought of as giving the fluid molecules a bias all in the same direction thereby changing the angle of contact and the force exchanged on contact. Thus the pressure is reduced by increasing the flow velocity.

Taking the larger view of the situation causes some people to say that Newton requires a force to be pushing down equal to the lift since the container is closed. The force is there and is redirected by the velocity of the fluid. It becomes part of the drag on the surface.

Normally in a closed container a gas will exert an approximately equal force in all directions. This condition is even used as part of the definition of "gas" but it is not an absolute requirement. The pressure in a closed container can be different at different locations. One rather obvious example is a container starting at sea level and going up a mile high. The pressure inside will clearly be the same as outside at the same altitude.

Considering that the pressure on the inner surface is a function of the fluid molecules hitting the surface all that is necessary to create an uneven (unbalanced) condition is to simply cause the fluid to hit the surfaces differently. This could be done easily by making two opposing surfaces move in opposing directions. When a surface and a fluid are moving together the relative velocity between them is less. Furthermore if the two are moving in opposing directions the relative velocity between them is greater. When both conditions are used the lift generated could be considerable.

In a closed container with both adjacent surfaces stationary the result is equal pressure in both directions but if both surfaces are moving in opposing directions then one surface is moving with the flow and the other surface is moving against the flow which makes different flow velocities on the opposing surfaces and different pressures. Therefor it seems possible to construct a machine to produce lift continuously in the same direction.

More drawings:

GEARS

by
Paul Jacoby

BERNOULLI PRINCIPLE IN DETAIL:

The best way to understand Bernoulli principle is to think in terms of the molecules hitting the surface.
When a molecule hits at an angel of (90 deg.) it will impart more energy to the surface than it would at 45 deg. That's just simple mechanics.

So if all of the fluid molecules are given a bias in the same direction (fluid is moving) then it stands to reason that all of them will hit the surface at a sharper angle than they would have if the fluid were not moving. So the average force imparted to the surface is less.

It doesn't really matter if the movement is the surface or the fluid or both. The only way to measure the movement is at the surface. So if both are moving together no movement is happening on the surface. Likewise if both are moving in opposing directions the velocity of the movements must be added together.

There is the reason that makes it work. The fluid is injected into the gap between moving surfaces that are moving in opposing directions. This makes a different velocity and so a different pressure on the two opposing surfaces. Once the fluid exits the gap the lift is already made so there is no reason to exhaust the fluid. It can be channeled back to the pump and reused. So the container can be sealed and pressurized and a liquid used instead of air.

Venture capitol needed.