1. At the following site, click the LAUNCH INTERACTIVE button, and then enlarge and explore the details of the different interactive illustrations. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/parthenon-quarry.html
Explain a) where the Ancient Athenians got the stone they used to build their temples and
b) how they extracted it from the earth and
c) how they transported it.
Include a small illustration.

Technique for elevation of loaded carriages. By utilising the weight of the empty carriages and having the mules pull downhill, the elevation of the loaded carriage was made easier and the mules were not unnecessarily exhausted (source of the drawing: Korres 1994).

Braking system for downhill movement. The stabilising ropes are coiled around stable wooden stakes to prevent the sledge from sliding downhill too fast. The slow uncoiling of the ropes (controlled by workers) allowed the sledge to slide at a steady speed. Another worker, wielding a wooden pole, released the sledge should it get stuck (source of the drawing: Korres 1994).

 Braking system for uphill movement. A pair of wooden, wedge-shaped stops are placed behind the rear wheels. The stops are connected by a wooden rod, itself tied to the underside of the carriage to keep the whole system in place (source of the drawing: Korres 1994).

2. Explain how the Ancient Greeks were able to move heavy stone shapes up a steep hillside.

A number of clever solutions were available to the problem of suspending the heavy marble blocks and winching them to position with millimetric accuracy. During sculpture at the quarry, 'handles' could be formed, which were later removed with on site minute sculpture (Fig. 6, 7). Also, holes (Fig. 1, 2) or grooves (Fig. 3, 4) could be carved in the blocks, if their final position in the completed building rendered them invisible.

The 'cancer' (Fig. 10) is a device which tightens its grip as tension increases on its suspension points. All techniques prevent the long blocks from swaying. (source of the drawing: Muller-Wienen 1988).

3. Stone blocks were lifted vertically to the top of a building using a crane.
    But what methods did they use to attach the crane ropes to the stone block?
    In your answer also explain how a 'cancer' gripped the stone block. Include a simple sketch.

Stonecutting tools. This collection of tools was used in stonecutting. Even today their shape remains unchanged, proving that it was honed to perfection through practice. (source of the drawing: Muller-Wienen 1988).

The hand-drill (Fig. 9)...consists of two parts: the drill itself and a bow-like part attached to the top of the drill. At the top of the drill there is a round wooden handle used to manipulate the drill.

The string of the bow coils around this handle. The operator applies a vertical force on the wooden handle with one hand. With the other hand he 'saws' at the bow. The drill tip...drills or  revolves on either direction.

This means that both the forward and backward movement of the hand are put to use. It can be argued  that the 'sawing' movement is just as comfortable, if not more so, as the circular movement of modern hand-drills. An added advantage is that large versions of this drill can be operated by two workers, if large holes are required. Drills of this shape were still in use a few decades ago in the stone cutting business.

From: http://ergou.simor.ntua.gr/research/


4. Explain what method the ancient Greeks used to drill holes.
    Include a simple  sketch.

5. Explain how the tool marked as No. 11( the A shaped tool, with a small triangular shaped piece of lead, hanging from it by a string) was used to make sure that their walls and were vertical and not leaning.


6. The above illustrations are artists impressions of two types of ancient cranes used to lift heavy objects.
a) Pick which is the ancient Ancient Roman style of crane and which is Ancient Greek style of crane.
b) Explain what methods the two cranes use to raise a heavy object.
7. Now do the interactive build an Ancient Greek temple activity.