REFERENCES -- books and other websites which support the concept that there is no historical, legal, or moral justification for race-based political sovereignty for ethnic Hawaiians

(c) Copyright 2000 - 2018 Kenneth R. Conklin, Ph.D. All rights reserved

There are numerous books and films produced in the last twenty years which tell the History of Hawai'i from a highly biased viewpoint supporting the claims of the sovereignty activists. As I first began studying these issues around 1990, literally everything I could easily find to read, or watch on television, was one-sided. I had to wonder why the overthrow, annexation, and statehood had ever happened, if the activist view of history were correct. Surely there must be another side to the story!


Without doubt, the most complete, thorough, and balanced account of the history of Hawai'i from 1778 to 1893 can be found in

R.S. Kuykendal
The Hawaiian Kingdom
University of Hawaii Press, 1968.

Hawaiian activists complain that this book fails to describe the history of Hawai'i for the 1400 years between the earliest Polynesian arrivals until the coming of Captain Cook. However, this three-volume heavily documented masterpiece is far and away the best source on the history between 1778 and 1893.


Thurston Twigg-Smith, "Hawaiian Sovereignty: Do the Facts Matter?" (Honolulu, HI: Goodale Publishing, 1998). This book focuses on the overthrow of the monarchy (1893) and the annexation of Hawai'i to the United States (1898), but other topics are also covered, including the role of the missionaries. Mr Twigg-Smith is grandson of Lorrin A. Thurston, a leader of the overthrow; and his great-great grandparents were Asa and Lucy Thurston who were in the first company of missionaries to arrive in Hawai'i in 1820. Mr. Twigg-Smith's entire book, including historical photos, can be downloaded free of charge in pdf format by clicking on the following link: (might take about 7 minutes with a 56 K modem):


Sovereignty activists have published and republished President Grover Cleveland's lengthy statement objecting to the U.S. role in the overthrow, and the one-sided Blount Report which he used to justify his position. The Blount Report of 1893, and the anti-annexation petitions of 1897, can be found at

The protest by Lorrin Thurston complaining about fraud in the petitions can be found beginning at page 820 of the petitions webpage and also at

The United States Senate conducted a hearing regarding the overthrow, and obtained testimony from the supporters of the overthrow, whom Blount and Cleveland ignored.

The Morgan Report is Senate Report No. 227, 53 Cong. 2 Sess. It is a separate volume of 808 pages. The book by William Adam Russ, Hawaiian Revolution 1893-94, listed below, has a chapter dealing with the Morgan Report, on pp. 323-348.

THE MORGAN REPORT -- OFFICIAL U.S. SENATE REPORT OF 1894 REGARDING THE OVERTHROW OF THE HAWAIIAN MONARCHY. 808 pages of historical documents and testimony under oath in open hearings under cross-examination. BLOWS A BIG HOLE IN THE TWISTED HISTORY IN THE APOLOGY RESOLUTION OF 1993 AND THE AKAKA BILL. Morgan Report website released to the public on January 17, 2006 in honor of the 113th anniversary of the Hawaiian revolution. Please visit


Russ, William Adam
Hawaiian Revolution 1893-94
Selingsgrove, Pa.: Susquehana University Press, 1959, 372 pp, hundreds of footnotes, extensive bibliography. Hawai'i Public Library call number H 996.902 R91h.
This book was reprinted by Associated University Presses, London, 1992.
Why was this book reprinted in London instead of Hawai'i? The book should have been reprinted by the University of Hawaii Press in the interest of schoarly inquiry; but it would have been politically incorrect to do so.


Russ, William Adam
The Hawaiian Republic (1894-98): And Its Struggle to Win Annexation
Selingsgrove, Pa.: Susquehana University Press, 1961, hundreds of footnotes, extensive bibliography.
Hawai'i Public Library call number H 996.902 R.
This book was reprinted by Associated University Presses, London, 1992.
Why was this book reprinted in London instead of Hawai'i? The book should have been reprinted by the University of Hawaii Press in the interest of scholarly inquiry; but it would have been politically incorrect to do so.


Jacob Adler, "Claus Spreckels -- The Sugar King in Hawaii" (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1966). Hawaii Public Library catalog number H 338.17361 AD

This political biography of Claus Spreckels focuses on his importance to the economy of Hawaii as the largest investor in sugar plantations and the largest payer of taxes; his close relationship with King Kalakaua; and his strong opposition to annexation because of fear that U.S. law would prohibit labor contracts that allowed plantation owners to import thousands of Asian laborers. The book provides details of how the Kingdom legislature wrote and amended the law allowing the government to get the "London Loan"; how Spreckels worked closely with President Grover Cleveland and Minister James Blount in seeking to restore Liliuokalani to the throne; and how Spreckels lobbied Congress and the Southern sugar planters to oppose annexation.


A book published in 1998 deserves much more attention than it has received so far. This book is written by a descendant of Gerrit Judd, a major figure in the Hawaiian Kingdom. This book clearly shows the fact that kanaka maoli at all levels of society exercised self-determination by eagerly welcoming non-kanaka maoli as full partners, and embracing their cultural values of material acquisitiveness, Christianity, literacy, the rule of law, equal voting and property rights, etc.

Judd, Walter F.
Hawai'i Joins the World
Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 1998.
Hawai'i Public Library Call Number H 996.902 J.


Noenoe Silva
"Aloha Betrayed: Native Hawaiian Resistance to American Colonialism."
Durham (North Carolina) and London: Duke University Press, 2004.
ISBN 0-8223-3349-X
Hawai'i Public Library catalog number H 996.902 Si

Silva's book portrays the history of Hawai'i from 1778 through 1900 as a constant struggle by the natives to resist American imperialism. Her main focus is on information from the Hawaiian-language "resistance" newspapers. However, this book paints a very lopsided picture, because it focuses only on resistance by natives, ignoring enthusiastic cooperation by natives and also ignoring resistance to the overthrow and annexation by white subjects and denizens of the Kingdom. Silva's book is an attempt to stir up racial resentment by today's descendants of the Kingdom's natives by portraying the political struggle of the late 1800s as a racial one, when in fact it was a political struggle with both whites and natives on both sides of the overthrow and annexation. For a heavily documented essay-length book review, see:


Cahill, Emmett
The Life and Times of John Young (Confidant and Advisor to Kamehameha the Great)
Honolulu: Island Heritage, 1999.

This book describes the role of Englishman John Young in providing technology (canons, guns, and ships) and military and administrative expertise that were essential to Kamehameha's conquest of the Hawaiian islands and his subsequent statecraft. John Young was given chiefly status, many large tracts of land, a governorship, and wives in Kamehameha's family. He was grandfather of Queen Emma. He and his descendants were buried with the monarchs.


Douglas Warne, "Humehume of Kaua'i - A Boy's Journey to America, an Ali'i's Return Home" Honolulu: Kamehameha Publishing, 2008, 237 pages.
ISBN 978-0-87336-151-4. Printed in China!
Hawaii Public Library Catalog # HB, Kaumualii, Wa

Synopsis published on "Booklines Hawaii" consisting mostly of content from the back cover of the book [additional material by Conklin inside square brackets]:

Humehume was the firstborn son of Kaumuali'i, the last great ali'i nui (paramount chief) to rule over Kaua'i and Ni'ihau. [born about 1799]. As a four-year-old, Humehume was sent to America and promised a Western education. He reached New England but received little schooling and was eventually abandoned. His father presumed him dead.

In actuality Humehume survived his adverse childhood and escaped to join the U.S. Marines. As an adolescent he fought in the War of 1812, was injured in combat at sea, and later traveled to distant lands [Algeria] while serving in the U.S. Navy [punitive mission against Barbary pirates].

[Following his military adventures, Humehume was brought to the attention of the Christian missionaries at the Foreign Mission School in Cornwall, Connecticut. A total of seven Hawaiian natives, including the famous Opukaha'ia, studied Christianity there with a view to helping the missionaries learn Hawaiian language and assist them when they went to Hawaii.]

After sixteen years of separation, he returned to Kaua'i with the first group of Protestant missionaries [arriving in 1820] and reunited with his father.

Yet Humehume’s homecoming was bittersweet. The American missionaries expected him to be fully converted to Christianity and an example to his countrymen. But Humehume – as the son of Kaua'i’s most powerful ruler – was expected to know the ways of his people and to follow the lead of his father. Humehume of Kaua'i is the story of those conflicting expectations.

The accounts of Humehume’s life after his return to Kaua'i illuminate a specific time and place that have received little attention in the history books. The story of his journey also sheds light on Kaua'i’s unique position in the larger context of Hawaiian history. It was Humehume who led the last, desperate revolt against the Kamehameha dynasty in 1824 and his defeat solidified the control of the Hawaiian Islands under one rule.


Evelyn Cook
100 Years of Healing: The Legacy of a Kauai Missionary Doctor
Kaua'i: Halewai Publishing, 2003 (P.O. Box 460, Koloa, Kaua'i, HI, 96756)
ISBN 0-9723831-0-7; Library of Congress Catalog Card # 2003109480
Hawaii Public Library # HB Smith

A celebration of the contributions to Hawaiian history of the missionaries in general, and especially of missionary doctor James W. Smith of Kaua'i and his descendants. Dr. Smith's oldest son was W.O. Smith, who grew up in Koloa Kaua'i as a playmate and lifelong friend of Sanford B. Dole. W.O. Smith was a leader of the revolution of 1893 that overthrew the monarchy. Later he became a close friend of ex-queen Lili'uokalani, and was her attorney in establishing the Queen Lili'uokalani Childrens Trust, and was appointed by her to serve as its first trustee. He successfully defended her against a lawsuit by Hawai'i's Territorial Delegate to Congress, Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalaniana'ole, who tried to invalidate Lili'uokalani's trust in order to get her property for himself. The book also describes the history of Kaua'i in resisting Kamehameha, and the role of George Kaumuali'i and Henry Opukaha'ia in persuading the missionaries to come to Hawai'i.


Curtis Piehu Iaukea and [his daughter] Lorna Kahilipuaokalani Iaukea Watson
By Royal Command
Honolulu: Hui Hanai [an auxiliary of the Queen Lili'uokalani Children's Center], 1988
Hawai'i Public Library call # H B Iaukea

This book is an autobiography of Colonel Curtis Pi'ehu 'Iaukea based on his diary notes and official documents, as assembled and interpreted by his daughter Lorna, and edited by Niklaus Schweitzer [a Hawaiian sovereignty independence activist who has no native ancestry, is a long-term resident of Hawai'i, and is honorary consul in Hawai'i for Switzerland and honorary member of the Royal Order of Kamehameha I].

Mr. 'Iaukea served in the inner circle of every Hawai'i head of state from Kamehameha IV through Sanford Dole, personally witnessed at close quarters the most important personal and political events of Hawai'i's leaders, and served as a Hawaiian diplomat in the United States, Europe, and Japan. The book also includes some important historical documents. Mr. 'Iaukea makes fascinating observations about the corruption, infighting, and political instability of the Kalakaua and Lili'uokalani regimes; and provides an insider's look at the death of Kalakaua, the ascent of Lili'uokalani, and the overthrow of the monarchy. It is interesting to observe how Mr. 'Iaukea himself gradually comes to support the political efforts of Sanford B. Dole and to work in his administration during the Republic and Territory periods.


Ernest Andrade, Jr., "Unconquerable Rebel: Robert W. Wilcox and Hawaiian Politics, 1880-1903 (University Press of Colorado, 1996). 299 pages including extensive footnotes. ISBN: 0-87081-417-6.


This book is a fair, balanced, and heavily documented description of both the political activities of Robert W. Wilcox, and the tumultuous events in Hawaii, from 1880 to 1903. Andrade uses the word "demagogue" to describe Wilcox's flamboyant style. Andrade describes Wilcox as an arrogant, unprincipled zealot who frequently changed sides in the political struggles and whose only long-term allegiance was to his own quest for political power. Wilcox, who was half white and half Hawaiian, deliberately stirred up racial antagonism by Hawaiians against whites in order to build political support for himself. Wilcox collaborated with Lili'uokalani in a plot against Kalakaua; opposed Lili'uokalani while she was Queen; urged that the monarchy be overthrown in favor of a Republic; and supported annexation to the United States. But after the revolution he worked to restore the monarchy and opposed annexation. Wilcox led armed rebellions resulting in several deaths, including an attempted Palace coup in 1889 and an attempted counter-revolution in 1895. When annexation was achieved, Wilcox maneuvered to become leader of the race-focused Home Rule Party and won election as Hawaii's first Territorial Delegate to Congress. But his performance in Congress was so poor, and the Home Rule's performance as majority party in the Territorial legislature was so bad, that the party split into factions and soon ceased to exist. Prince Kuhio walked out of the Home Rule Party convention in 1903 in disgust, joined the Republican Party, and won election as Territorial Delegate where he served for 20 years. Aside from information about Wilcox, this book is especially valuable because of detailed objective information about political and diplomatic events related to the Constitution of 1887 (Bayonet Constitution), the revolution of 1893, and annexation; including analysis of the biased nature of the Blount Report and the role of President Grover Cleveland in opposing annexation and seeking to restore Lili'uokalani to the throne. The dust jacket says "Ernest Andrade, Jr. is a retired professor of history from the University of Colorado - Denver. He was born in Hawaii and received his bachelor's and master's degrees at the University of Hawaii. His teaching was primarily in U.S. diplomatic and naval history, but he has always remained deeply interested in the history of his native islands."

Ken Conklin's notes taken while reading Mr. Andrade's book, including extensive and lengthy quotes, are at:


In 2011 a major book was published by a highly respected historian who analyzed the Hawaiian revolution and annexation, and Grover Cleveland's attempt to overthrow President Dole and restore the Hawaiian monarchy. He gave special attention to Japanese immigration, Japanese diplomatic and military involvement in opposing annexation, and the normalcy of using joint resolution as the method of annexation.

William Michael Morgan, Ph.D., "Pacific Gibraltar: U.S. - Japanese Rivalry Over the Annexation of Hawai'i, 1885-1898" (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2011), 330 pages including index, bibliography, and footnotes. Hawaii Public Library catalog number H 996.9028 MO, 16 copies available among various branches (any branch can borrow from any other branch at no cost to the borrower).

There are 1016 footnotes, most of them containing both explanatory material and citations, mostly citing original sources including unpublished papers in the Library of Congress, Hawaii state archives, the archives of various historical societies, the U.S. Naval Records collection, Department of State, Washington (DC) Navy yard, and the national archives of Great Britain.

This is the 46th volume in the Diplomats and Diplomacy book series produced by the Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training, and the Diplomatic and Consular Officers, Retired.

See Book Review, including numerous lengthy quotes from each chapter in the book.


Samuel Kamakau, "Na Mo'olelo a ka Po'e Kahiko (Tales and Traditions of the People of Old) (translated from the newspapers Ka Nupepa Kuokoa and Ke Au Okoa by Mary Kawena Pukui), Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1991

Samuel Kamakau was a kanaka maoli scholar, born in 1815, who thoroughly studied the Hawaiian culture as contained in ancient stories passed down from generation to generation through the oral tradition. Between 1865 and 1871 he published articles in the Hawaiian language newspapers describing some of these ancient stories.

Regarding the racial claims of Hawaiian sovereignty activists, one portion of this book is especially interesting. On pages 113-118 are several stories about haole (white foreigners) who came to Hawai'i as early as before the year 900. The earliest group arrived in Kane'ohe and Kailua, O'ahu; and many prominent hills and lands were named after them, including Olomana and Mololani (the highest peak on Mokapu). Over the centuries many haole mated with kanaka and produced descendants, some of whom became important chiefs.


Jocelyn Linnekin, "Children of the Land." New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1985.

Ms. Linnekin, a student of famed ethnohistorian Marshall Sahlins, spent a year (ending in 1975) living among the kanaka maoli on the isolated Keanae peninsula in windward Maui, along the picturesque road to Hana. She focused on the persistence of tradition, and the role of "exchange-in-kind" as the economic model. She notes that even in 1975, in this isolated community where almost every resident is kanaka maoli living on land passed down for generations, ancient rituals and cultural practices do not survive in ancient forms. Cultural practices are often invented and then used for asserting political claims.


Valerio Valeri (trans. Paula Wissing), "Kingship and Sacrifice." Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

This book is an anthropological study of the role of ritual in the society of precontact Hawai'i, focusing especially on the ritual of human sacrifice. Rituals are seen as mediating between people of different social classes, or between humans and spirits or gods.


Pali Lee and Kauakokoula Willis, "Tales From the Night Rainbow." Honolulu: privately published, 1984. Hawai'i Public Library catalog # H-572-K

An oral history of a Moloka'i woman who lived from 1816-1931, handed down within her family. This is a description of the pre-ali'i culture of Hawai'i (prior to the Tahitian invasion) among the people now known as Menehune. It paints an idyllic picture of a profoundly spiritual and peaceful subsistence lifestyle without warfare or human sacrifice, without the social stratification between ali'i and maka'ainana, and without the kapu system. Some kanaka maoli today claim that Captain Cook's arrival in 1778 was responsible for the establishment of Kamehameha as supreme conqueror and unifier of the islands; and the culture was permanently warped by growing colonial influences. Therefore, the ali'i culture prior to 1778 is seen as more authentically Hawaiian. But this book claims that the ali'i culture was similarly superimposed on the prior pre-ali'i culture through an invasion. The pre-ali'i culture is portrayed as an even more pure pre-colonial Hawaiian culture.


Two books totally destroy the pernicious rumor that Hawaiian language was ever "illegal" in the society of Hawai'i or in the schools of Hawai'i. On the contrary, Hawaiian language newspapers were published continuously for a century, from the mid-1800s to the mid-1900s. And Hawaiian language was taught in school continuously, although English became the preferred language by the middle of the Kingdom period and Hawaiian language had nearly died out as the language of instruction by the time the monarchy was overthrown.

A scholarly study of the history of language in Hawai'i was done as a dissertation by John Reinecke at the University of Hawai'i in 1935. The dissertation was improved and published as a book. John E. Reinecke, "Language and Dialect in Hawaii: A Sociolinguistic History to 1935." Edited by Stanley M. Tsuzaki. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1969. Reprinted 1988. Paperback edition February, 1995.

A scholarly study of the history of Hawaiian language studies was published in 1994 by a linguistics professor at the University of Hawai'i. Albert J. Schutz, "The Voices of Eden: A History of Hawaiian Language Studies," (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994). Hawai'i Public Library call number H499.4S

For a thorough explanation of these topics, see:


A very important book published in 2003 seeks to develop a philosophical theory to support racial separatism in education. Obviously, this viewpoint in that book is not being endorsed here. But the book is important for anyone who wants to understand the kinds of philosophical concepts and methods underlying Hawaiian racial separatism and ethnic nationalism.

Manulani Aluli Meyer received her Ph.D. from Harvard, and is currently a professor of teacher education at the University of Hawai'i at Hilo. Her work is focused on epistemology, the branch of philosophy that examines how we get knowledge, and how we know whether our beliefs are true. That branch of philosophy has a special, very important relevance to education. Professor Meyer's first book was a mimeographed copy of portions of her Ph.D. dissertation, distributed through a bookstore in Honolulu owned by her sister. Her second book is also self-published, but very nicely produced, and includes portions of her dissertation as well as articles she wrote as student term-papers or for publication since then. Professor Meyer tries to synthesize an eclectic philosophical viewpoint mainly drawing from empiricism and the contextualist theories of Pragmatist philosopher John Dewey. She uses a methodology of obtaining wisdom from ancient Hawaiian cultural practices as interpreted by modern Hawaiian kupuna, and then using the concepts of her favorite philosopers to systematize and explain her theories of Hawaiian epistemology and Hawaiian education. Her clear goal is to establish that ethnic Hawaiians have a unique style of experiencing the world through a lens of cultural practices and family relationships; and that ethnic Hawaiians have a unique style of learning which makes it essential that they have a unique educational system which only they can properly design and implement. Professor Meyer seems to believe that Hawaiian ancestral wisdom is somehow passed genetically and spiritually from the ancestors to today's Hawaiians, as well as being passed through cultural upbringing. Hawaiian religious beliefs are an important part of her theories. Thus, Meyer's work is a rationale for Hawaiian sovereignty on the political level and in the school system. It should not be surprising that the back cover of her book says "All proceeds from the sale of this book will go to the Hawaiian Charter School movement" and provides contact information for sending donations to a 501-C3 tax exempt group dedicated to that cause. Manulani Aluli Meyer, "Ho'oulu -- Our Time of Becoming (Hawaiian Epistemology and Early Writings). 'Ai Pohaku Press, Native Books Inc. P.O. Box 3080, Honolulu HI, 96802,, (c) 2003. LCCN 2003110403. ISBN 1-883528-24-0.

A lengthy critique of Meyer's work is offered on a webpage by Ken Conklin

Hawaiian Epistemology and Education -- A claim that anyone with a drop of Hawaiian native blood has genetically and culturally encoded unique ways of knowing and learning; and therefore ethnic Hawaiian children (and other ethnic minorities to a lesser degree) have special needs for uniquely tailored curriculum and instructional methods. See


The following sources are very old, but available through the Hawaii Public Library, with call numbers as indicated.


Two Weeks of Hawaiian History: A Brief Sketch of the Revolution of 1893.
Honolulu, Hawaiian Gazette Co., 1893. 47 p.

Events of the two weeks leading up to the revolution, beginning with Queen Lili'uokalani's preparation of a new constitution. A pro-overthrow account.

Hawaii Public Library call number RH 996.9 T93


Alexander, William De Witt
History of Later Years of the Hawaiian Monarchy and the Revolution of 1893
Hawaiian Gazette Co., 1896

Hawaii Public Library call number H 996.9 A

Mr. Alexander also gave very lengthy sworn testimony regarding the history of Hawai'i, which later was incorporated into that book, which is available on pp. 622-684 in the Morgan Report at


Thurston, Lorrin Andrews
A Handbook on the Annexation of Hawaii.
St. Joseph, Mich., A.B. Morse Co. n.d. 83 p.

Lorrin Thurston, member of the Advisory Council of the Provisional Government and a supporter of annexation, summarizes his case.

Hawaii Public Library call number H 996.9 T42

See also STATEMENT OF L. A. THURSTON, HAWAIIAN MINISTER, PUBLISHED NOVEMBER 21, 1893 on pp. 956-962 of the Morgan Report at


Thurston, Lorrin Andrews
Memoirs of the Hawaiian Revolution.
Honolulu, Advertiser, 1936. 664 p.

Thurston, one of the prime movers in the overthrow of Queen Lili'uokalani, gives his views of the events of those times.

Hawaii Public Library call number HI 996.9 Th


Loomis, Albertine
For Whom are the Stars? Revolution and Counterrevolution in Hawaii, 1893-1895.
Honolulu, University Press of Hawaii, 1976. 229 p.

An history of this turbulent period, telling both sides of the story. Based on 30 years of research with many first-hand accounts.

Hawaii Public Library call number H 996.9 L


Dole, Sanford Ballard
Memories of the Hawaiian Revolution.
Honolulu, Advertiser, 1936. 188 p.

Personal recollections of a turbulent period in Hawaiian history by a man who played a leading role in that history. He was a cabinet member under Queen Lili'uokalani, and was the President of the Republic of Hawai'i following the overthrow.

Hawaii Public Library call number H 996.9 D


Damon, Ethel M.
Sanford Ballard Dole and His Hawaii.
Palo Alto, Pacific Books, 1957

This book is an excellent biography of Mr. Dole, focusing on the political and legal issues in which he was involved regarding the revolution of 1887 (Bayonet Constitution), 1893 (overthrow of monarchy), establishment of the Provisional Government, Republic, and Territory. The book includes the text of some very important documents which can be difficult to find elsewhere, such as President Dole's December 23, 1893 reply to Mr. Willis regarding the Blount Report and Mr. Dole's refusal to reinstate Lili'uokalani to the throne as demanded by President Cleveland. From reading this book it is very clear that the Provisional Government was not in any way a "puppet regime" of the U.S. On the contrary, the Provisional Government and Republic were very concerned that the U.S. might use military force against them to obtain Lili'uokalani's reinstatement, with the connivance of Japan and perhaps also Britain and France. Citations are provided to some mainland newspaper coverage of these events.


Allen, Helena G.
Sanford Ballard Dole: Hawaii's Only President 1844-1926
Glendale, California, Arthur H. Clark Company, 1988

This biography of Mr. Dole starts out in a fairly balanced way, but becomes hostile toward Dole as the events of his life move through the overthrow, Provisional Government, Republic, and annexation. The strength of this biography is its focus on Mr. Dole's private life, his family and his descendants. For example, Mrs Dole bore no children; but informally Mr. Dole adopted (hanai) a half-Hawaiian girl, (Elizabeth) Lizzie Puiki Naoleon who was rumored to be his biological child. The mother, Pamaho'a Napoleon was active in the royal court. Lizzie remained very close to Dole throughout her life, and had a strained relationship with Mr. Dole's wife. Lizzie married Ebenezer Low, a grandson of John Palmer Parker of the Parker Ranch. Lizzie named both her first male child (who dies as an infant) and her last male child Sanford Ballard Dole Low. One of Lizzie's children was Elizabeth (Clorinda) Low, who married Charles Lucas. Their daughter Laura Lucas married Myron "Pinkie" Thompson (a Bishop Estate Trustee) whose son, Nainoa Thompson, is renowned as a navigator who learned the ancient Polynesian skill of navigating by the stars and successfully captained the voyaging canoe Hokule'a on numerous major voyages. Thus Nainoa Thompson is at least the hanai great-grandchild of Sanford B. Dole, and might actually be his biological great-grandchild.

The Sanford B. Dole Intermediate School in Kalihi, O'ahu, Hawai'i is named after Mr. Dole, and has a website where some biographical information and a photograph can be seen:


See also a webpage about President Sanford B, Dole at:


Sometimes legal documents are difficult to read because of their complexity and specialized language. However, by reading slowly and thoughtfully, even non-lawyers (like the author of this website!) can learn a great deal from them. These documents have massive numbers of footnotes referring to laws or to other legal decisions or official documents. Here are some recommended readings, in chronological order:


Liliuokalani v. United States, 45 Ct. Cl. 418 (1910). This cryptic bibliographic citation translates to: Volume 45, page 418, of the official reports of the United States Court of Claims, opinion issued in 1910. The ex-queen Lili'uokalani, overthrown in 1893, sued the United States government in 1910 for compensation and/or return of "her" crown lands ceded to the United States in the annexation of 1898 and the Organic Act of 1900. The verdict, officially reported here, includes analysis of the laws of the Kingdom of Hawai'i showing that the crown lands belonged not to the monarch personally, but to the office of head of state. Therefore, when the monarchy was overthrown, the crown lands became indistinguishable from the government lands, and clear title to the crown lands now (1910) rests with the United States, as a result of the overthrow, annexation, and Organic Act. The ex-queen presented the same arguments now presented by sovereignty activists, and lost her case. She never appealed to the Supreme Court, although she lived for another 7 years. By acknowledging that the U.S. had clear title to the crown lands, the court, in effect, upheld the validity of the overthrow, annexation, and organic act. The full text of this important decision, and an extended analysis of it, can be seen on this website at


The Native Hawaiians Study Commission was created by the Congress of the United States on December 22, 1980 (Title III of Public Law 96-565). The purpose of the Commission was to "conduct a study of the culture, needs and concerns of the Native Hawaiians." The Commission published and released to the public a Draft Report of Findings on September 23, 1982. Following a 120-day period of public comment, a final report was written and submitted on June 23, 1983 to the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources and to the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

The NHSC examined the history of Hawai'i and the current conditions (1980) of Native Hawaiians. One purpose of the commission was to explore whether Native Hawaiians have special needs, and what those needs might be. Another purpose of the commission was to explore whether the United States has any historical, legal, or moral obligation to meet the special needs of Native Hawaiians by providing them with political sovereignty or race-specific group rights.

The commission found that Native Hawaiians have higher rates than other ethnic groups for indicators of dysfunction in health, education, income, etc. The commission concluded that the U.S. has no obligation to remedy those problems in any way other than the usual assistance given by government to all people afflicted with difficulties.

Portions of the "Conclusions and Recommendations" section of the NHSC final report focus on topics of special interest regarding the Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization bill (Akaka bill).

1. There is no historical, legal, or moral obligation for the U.S. government to provide race-based reparations, assistance, or group rights for Native Hawaiians.

2. Affirmative outreach is appropriate to ensure Native Hawaiians are given the assistance they need; but race-based or racially exclusionary programs are not recommended. Native Hawaiians may be disproportionately afflicted by some specific medical or social problems. Native Hawaiians should receive affirmative outreach to ensure they are aware of and receive help from existing programs open to all needy people. When considering what new programs government should sponsor, care should be taken to target some of those new programs to areas of concern which disproportionately afflict Native Hawaiians. However, the NHSC carefully worded its recommendations to avoid proposing race-based or racially exclusionary programs or group rights.

The NHSC report is now available on the internet, at:


Patrick W. Hanifin, "Hawaiian Reparations: Nothing Lost, Nothing Owed," Hawaii Bar Journal, Vol XVII, No. 2 (1982), pp. 107-121, including 152 footnotes. Kanaka maoli have neither a legal nor a moral right to reparations for overthrow, annexation, or ceded lands. See


Environmental Impact Statement for the Land Use and Development Plan at Bellows Air Force Station, Waimanalo, Hawai'i. Federal Register, Vol. 61, No. 109, Wednesday, June 5, 1996pp. 28568-28571. See also Chapter 6, Section 6 "Title Issues" in the Final EIS for Land Use and Development Plan, Bellows AFS. Some sovereignty activists had made claims that the U.S. government did not have clear title to these lands because they were ceded lands; and they claimed that these lands belong to kanaka maoli due to the "illegality" of the overthrow and annexation. However, legal counsel reviewed history and law and denied these claims, and the denial was never appealed.

The complete Bellows EIS report is available on the internet, including letters from Hawaiian sovereignty activists asserting historical and legal claims, and the official responses repudiating those claims. See:

"Bellows Air Force Station -- 1995 Environmental Impact Statement Considers and Rejects Claims About Ceded Lands, Overthrow, Annexation, Apology Bill" at:


Stuart Minor Benjamin, "Equal Protection and the Special Relationship: The Case of Native Hawaiians," The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 106, No. 3, December 1996, pp. 537-612. Includes 294 footnotes referring to numerous cases regarding Indian law, with special emphasis on tribal status, tribal law, special relationships with tribes vs. racial preferences for non-tribal individuals or groups. This essay can be seen as a "warm-up" for the Rice v Cayetano Supreme Court case of 1999-2000. Full text of Professor Benjamin's essay is available at


Paul M. Sullivan, "Customary Revolutions: The Law of Custom and the Conflict of Traditions in Hawai'i," University of Hawai'i Law Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, Summer/Fall 1998, pp. 99-163, containing 371 footnotes. Deals with "Native Hawaiian customary and traditional gathering rights," and focuses on the PASH decision (Public Access Shoreline Hawai'i). See


For a thorough discussion of the ceded lands issue, including some important legal arguments, see

"Ceded Lands Belong to All the People of Hawai'i; There Should Be No Racial Allocation of Ceded Lands or Their Revenues" at


Two books published in 2003 are typical examples of how Hawaiian sovereignty activists twist Hawaiian history and try to portray ethnic Hawaiians as the poor downtrodden victims of haoles and of the United States. These two books have essay-length book reviews on this website.

"Kahana: How the Land Was Lost" by Robert H. Stauffer.

"Then There Were None" by Martha H. Noyes (based on Elizabeth Lindsey Buyers TV docudrama)


Neil Bernard Dukas, "Battle of Nu'uanu 1795: An Illustrated Pocket Guide to the O'ahu Battlefield." (Honolulu, Mutual Publishing, 2010). Barcode price $9.95. Hawaii Public Library catalog H 996.902 Du

There was a book review in August 2010 at

The book is well worth reading. From a sovereignty perspective, it grievously downplays the role of John Young, and does not mention Isaac Davis; but it does make very clear the important role of Western ships, cannons, guns, steel cutlasses etc. and Western techniques of military organization. There are lots of excellent photographs and drawings to facilitate driving and hiking to the places of battle, and plenty of explanatory and documentary footnotes.


In July, 2002, a graduate student at an East Coast university who was doing research on Kingdom of Hawai'i diplomatic relations during the period 1843-1898 sent an e-mail asking for help on that topic. Here is part of the reply sent.

Your topic is very interesting, and very difficult to research.

As you must have found out by now, history is a weapon in the arsenals of both the Hawaiian sovereignty activists and of their opponents. Each side takes historical "evidence" favorable to its viewpoint and ignores or trashes evidence to the contrary. The sovereignty activists have been working very hard for about 20 years, nearly unchallenged, to assemble their history and use it to brainwash school children, college students, and public opinion. We who seek to preserve unity and equality have gotten off to a slow start, but are working to catch up. Since you are a scholar, I'll try to give you a balanced set of references for further exploration (naturally, my thumb will be on the scale!)

To get an overview read "Shoal of Time" by Gavan Daws. His book is filled with hints of historical detail, and the detailed notes and references will lead you to valuable primary sources. Daws interprets things in a way mildly favorable to the sovereignty activists, so they like his book; but those notes and references make it valuable.

For details, of course, the best overall source is the three-volume history by Kuykendall.

The book by Walter Judd "Hawai'i Joins the World" (see my bibliography) might have some historical references related to Hawaiian diplomacy throughout the Kingdom period (and especially related to Gerrit Judd), but I don't remember since that was not my main focus when I read the book.

Probably the best book pulling it all together from the viewpoint of the activists is by Tom Coffman, "A Nation Within." That book appears very scholarly, but of course it is strongly biased in its selection and interpretation of material. It is a scholarly version of some blatant propaganda pieces published for the centennial of annexation, such as Michael Dougherty, "To Steal a Kingdom." A book on the "good guy" side of the fence, focusing mostly on the period 1887-1893 but also containing some insights about the earlier missionary period, is Thurston Twigg-Smith: "Hawaiian Sovereignty: Do The Facts Matter?" Twigg-Smith is a great-great grandson of the missionaries Asa and Lucy Thurston, and a grandson of overthrow leader Lorrin Thurston; so he is defending the family's honor, and has some good bibliographic references. In some ways the Coffman and Twigg-Smith books are counterpoints to each other.

Two very lengthy "reports" written shortly after the overthrow are filled with valuable historical material about the history of U.S. relations with Hawai'i. The report I prefer, of course, is the Morgan Report (see my bibliography) -- it was formal testimony before Congress, taken under oath; but it is very difficult to actually find a copy because the activists have absolutely no motive to make it easily accessible. The competing report, which the activists love, is the Blount Report. The Blount Report was created by someone sent to Hawai'i by Grover Cleveland specifically to gather "evidence" favorable to a restoration of the monarchy. Blount did exactly what today's activists do: he took only unsworn "testimony", interviewed only people who agreed with him, ignored everyone else, and produced a massive report. His report is valuable because it includes many historical documents. Some very large parts of the Blount Report, including some historical documents, can be found at
I wonder what materials are contained in the portions of the Blount Report missing from that website! Somebody clearly made a conscious decision not to make those missing parts easily accessible!

Two books by Russ are very important (see bibliography), one focused on the period leading up to and surrounding the overthrow, and the other providing a history of the Republic of Hawai'i that will include information on how the Republic conducted its foreign diplomacy (1894-1898)

The contents of all the Hawaiian Kingdom constitutions, a list of all the Kingdom's treaties and the contents of some of them, can be found at the huge Nation of Hawai'i website (use their internal search engine) at

The treaty of annexation offered by the Republic of Hawai'i in 1897, which was accepted by the U.S. in its joint resolution of annexation in 1898, can be found in an appendix to the Crown Lands court decision of 1910 Lili'uokalani v. U.S. You'll find that entire decision, including the valuable appendices, at

(c) Copyright 2000 - 2012 Kenneth R. Conklin, Ph.D. All rights reserved