Attorney Paul M. Sullivan's detailed legal analysis of the Native Hawaiian Recognition Bill (Akaka Bill)

(c) Copyright 2001 - 2005 Kenneth R. Conklin, Ph.D. All rights reserved

The Native Hawaiian Recognition bill, also known informally as the Akaka bill, has been rewritten many times. They just can't seem to get it right! Several different versions have been introduced in Congress from summer 2000 until now.

On January 25, 2005 a new version of the Akaka bill was introduced in both the Senate and the House, as S.147 and H.R.309. A careful, lengthy, point-by-point analysis of this bill by Honolulu attorney Paul M. Sullivan can be downloaded at:

Previous versions of Mr. Sullivan's point-by-point analysis, corresponding to some of the previous versions of the bill, are offered below; along with access to the cartoons of Daryl Cagle. Everything below the line is of historical interest only, and is preserved here because of links to this page from the other webpages that tracked the history of the Akaka bill during previous years.


The most enduring old version of the bill was S.344 and H.R.665 introduced simultaneously in both the Senate and House of the 108th Congress on February 11, 2003. This version is identical with the dominant version that died in the 107th Congress (S.746 and H.R.617).

Honolulu Attorney Paul M. Sullivan produced a detailed, section-by-section analysis of this bill. Mr. Sullivan's analysis, including wonderful political cartoons by artist Daryl Cagle, can be downloaded in pdf format by clicking here:

If you would like to get Adobe Acrobat Reader free of charge, or upgrade to a better version, click here. You will have to make some choices, and the download process will take some time.

For those who do not have Acrobat Reader, Mr. Sullivan's analysis is available in ordinary html (text only, without the cartoons) at:

Artist Daryl Cagle draws editorial cartoons for a weekly Honolulu newspaper named "Midweek." Several of his cartoons focus on issues related to the Akaka bill. Paul Sullivan has included some of these cartoons in the pdf and hardcopy printed version of his analysis. As Mr. Sullivan says, "Mr. Cagle's art communicates far better than my words the stunning arrogance and naivete of those who propose racial segregation for Hawai'i." To view Mr. Cagle's cartoons, please visit his webpage where all his cartoons on Native Hawaiian topics are collected:

Mr. Sullivan might still have a limited supply of his hardcopy printed analysis and might be willing to mail one copy free of charge, especially to libraries or other institutions. He can be reached by e-mail at:


An older version of the Native Hawaiian Recognition bill was introduced in the Senate of the 107th Congress as S.81 on January 22, 2001. This was the same bill that previously died in the 106th Congress, which was then known as S.2899 and H.R.4904. Mr. Sullivan's point-by-point analysis of S.81 is now of only historical interest, but continues to be offered here:


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(c) Copyright 2001- 2005 Kenneth R. Conklin, Ph.D. All rights reserved