Hawaiian Nationalism, Chicano Nationalism, Black Nationalism, Indian Tribes, and Reparations - Akaka Bill Sets a Precedent for Balkanizing and Dismembering America

(c) Copyright 2003 Kenneth R. Conklin, Ph.D. All rights reserved

This article was published in the on-line newspaper “Hawaii Reporter” of September 3, 2003. The Akaka bill now has different bill numbers for the 109th Congress, 2005-2006. The correct bill numbers are S.147 and H.R.309. A more detailed version, about twice as long, with updated bill numbers, can be found at:

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Hawaiian Nationalism, Chicano Nationalism, Black Nationalism, Indian Tribes, and Reparations - Akaka Bill Sets a Precedent for Balkanizing and Dismembering America
By Kenneth R. Conklin, 9/3/2003 3:04:58 AM

'''Author's note: This article, already lengthy, has a more detailed version twice as long, which can be found at:''' https://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/AkakaHawnChicanoNatnl.html

There are strong similarities between the Hawaiian sovereignty movement and the Chicano nationalist movement. The 2003 Gubernatorial recall campaign in California focused attention on the radical agenda of an ethnic nationalist group to which Lieutenant Governor Cruz Bustamante belongs. This Chicano-power group is MEChA, or Nation of Aztlan. Its view of history and demands for nationhood are strikingly similar to the Hawaiian sovereignty movement.

The same misguided theory of the Akaka bill that would allow Congress to convert an ethnic group into a racial separatist government in Hawaii could also be used to support racial separatism and eventual independence for "indigenous" people of Mexican ancestry in California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and perhaps other states. The success of one would help the other both politically and legally. There are also parallels to Black nationalism and demands for reparations for slavery.

Our country is strong enough militarily to defeat any foreign enemy. Our most dangerous enemy comes from within -- the idea of race-based rights and ethnic nationalism. S.344/H.R.665 is the thin edge of a very large knife poised to dismember America. That is a very good reason why Senators and members of Congress from throughout America must oppose this disastrous legislation.


Congress gives genuine Indian tribes special sovereign governmental powers over their lands and people, in accord with the Indian Commerce clause of the Constitution. Indigenous tribes which have maintained a separate and distinct lifestyle and have governed themselves continuously from before Western contact through the present time should be entitled to keep their autonomy. But today there are some radical members of racial or ethnic groups who would like their groups to have similar powers. They want to pull away from our integrated society, and perhaps secede entirely. They want Congress to give them recognition as though they are an Indian tribe, including a race-based government, race-based control over land, and megabucks from the federal treasury as reparations for historical grievances. The result would be unprecedented racial balkanization and political instability, possibly leading to the breakup of the United States (similar to the breakup of the former Yugoslavia and the former Soviet Union).

A View of History Shared by Hawaiian and Chicano Activists

The following three paragraphs may sound to people in the Southwestern U.S. like the viewpoint of MEChA or Nation of Aztlan; and they may sound to people of Hawaii like the viewpoint of Hawaiian sovereignty activists. Actually these are the views of both groups, and are similar to the views of other ethnic nationalist movements in America.

The activists claim to be indigenous to a certain area because they have at least one ancestor who lived somewhere in that area (in a range of hundreds of miles) prior to Western contact. Although someone's percentage of native blood may be very small, he nevertheless claims to be an aboriginal, indigenous, native person of that area.

The history of that area following Western contact goes something like this: Natives suffer extreme population decline (some call it genocide) because of newly introduced Western diseases. Gradually white people of European and American ancestry arrive in increasing numbers, and "impose" their culture, religion, language, legal system, money economy, and private property ownership, "forcing" the native people to assimilate to this strange new way of life. The white people bring in other non-natives, from Asia and Africa, as laborers. Eventually white people end up owning most of the property and running most of the government. Other non-white immigrants also get well-established. Natives end up at the bottom of society. At some point the U.S. stages an armed invasion to support a total takeover by the white oligarchy. After a few years or a few decades the area is officially annexed by the United States and sooner or later becomes a state.

A growing awareness of historical heritage produces special pride in people who have any degree of native ancestry. Some people of native ancestry choose to identify more closely with their native ancestors than with their other ancestors, even when their native blood quantum is very small. An activist's pride in his native ancestry is accompanied by anger at historical injustices committed by his own white, Asian, or African ancestors against his native ancestors. The newly self-proclaimed indigenous people demand the right to self-determination, nationhood, and reparations from the United States for the "crimes" committed against them more than a century ago.

Ethnic Hawaiian activists might think the above three paragraphs describe themselves. But no. Those paragraphs describe people who have at least one ancestor of Mexican-Indian blood. The area where they live is not the state of Hawaii, but rather the states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas; and perhaps parts of other nearby states. The lands of those states were formerly part of Mexico, and were obtained as a result of military conquest in a war with Mexico, or through treaty or purchase. And before the Spanish conquest and creation of Mexico those lands belonged to the indigenous people who lived there (especially the Aztecs), and whose descendants still live there today. The immigrants who came and took over the land, and the newer immigrants who came since then, freely chose to come (except for African slaves dragged there by their owners), and freely chose their new nationality as Americans. But the surviving "natives" of today never chose to be invaded or engulfed by a foreign culture or nation. Some radicals among them say they owe no allegiance to the United States, and they assert "indigenous rights" under "international law" to self-governance and independence.

MEChA, The Nation of Aztlan; and the Reconquista of the American Southwest

The radical Chicano group MechA, also known as the Nation of Aztlan, came to public attention in late August, 2003 during the recall campaign for Governor of California. Lieutenant Governor Cruz Bustamante, the leading Democrat contender to replace Governor Gray Davis if Davis is recalled, was an active member of this radical group during his days as a college student. But what grabbed public attention in the recall election is that Bustamante repeatedly refused to disavow his continuing support for their radical agenda of racial separatism and, indeed, racial supremacy in a secessionist nation.

The acronym MEChA stands for Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan, or the Chicano Student Movement of Aztlan. The Nation of Aztlan maintains a longstanding, large Web site called La Voz de Aztlan, at http://www.aztlan.net/

In addition to the anti-American political content and commitment to ethnic nationalist secession, there is clearly a strong anti-Jewish racism. Some of the articles prominently displayed on the front page include: The "Kosher Nostra Scam" on the American Consumer; The Petition to End Kosher Certification Labels; Fidel Castro Says US Should Return Aztlan Back to Mexico; Did Schwarzenegger pay the Wiesenthal Center to "shut up" about his father's Nazi past? Mel Gibson, Anne Emmerich, Jesus and the Jews; The Manjewrian Candidate: The making of California Governor Gray Davis

Here is some of MEChA's "El Plan de Aztlan" taken from: https://www.angelfire.com/sd/mcdsd/ElPlanDeAztlan.html Readers in Hawaii should think about the rhetoric of Hawaiian sovereignty activists when reading this material:

"In the spirit of a new people that is conscious not only of its proud historical heritage but also of the brutal 'gringo' invasion of our territories, we, the Chicano inhabitants and civilizers of the northern land of Aztlan from whence came our forefathers, reclaiming the land of their birth and consecrating the determination of our people of the sun, declare that the call of our blood is our power, our responsibility, and our inevitable destiny.

Aztlan belongs to those who plant the seeds, water the fields, and gather the crops and not to the foreign Europeans. Brotherhood unites us, and love for our brothers makes us a people whose time has come and who struggles against the foreigner "gabacho" who exploits our riches and destroys our culture. We are a bronze people with a bronze culture. Nationalism as the key to organization transcends all religious, political, class, and economic factions or boundaries. Nationalism is the common denominator that all members of La Raza can agree upon."

In November of 2001 Phyllis Schlafly published an article about the Mexican government's official endorsement of the reconquista and the concept of Aztlan on her "Eagle Forum." Here are excerpts from her essay: http://www.eagleforum.org/column/2001/nov01/01-11-28.shtml

"In Chicago on July 27, 1997, then Mexican President Ernesto Zedilla told the National Council of LaRaza, "I have proudly affirmed that the Mexican nation extends beyond the territory enclosed by its borders.

"When President Vicente Fox came to the United States this year, he reiterated this line, proclaiming that 'the Mexican nation extends beyond the territory enclosed by its borders' and includes migrants living in the United States. He called for open borders and endorsed Mexico's new dual citizenship law. Some Mexicans use the term 'reconquista,' which is Spanish for reconquest, to describe their desire to see California, New Mexico, Arizona and Texas acquired by Mexico and named the new country of Aztlan. They are teaching their youth that the United States 'stole' those areas from Mexico and that they should be 'returned.' ... Vicente Fox presented Mexico's Congress with a five-year development plan to eliminate the U.S.-Mexican border. He said he plans to serve 'the 100 million Mexicans who now live in Mexico and the more than 18 million who live abroad,' and to 'strengthen our ability to protect and defend the rights of all Mexicans abroad.' Juan Hernandez, appointed by Fox as special liaison to Mexicans abroad, lobbies to get U.S. driver's licenses issued to illegal aliens and defends the Mexican government's issuance of desert survival kits to those sneaking across the border. On ABC's Nightline on June 7, he boasted: 'We are betting that the Mexican-American population in the United States ... will think Mexico first.' ... the Mexican consul donates to the local public schools the same textbooks that are used in every elementary school in Mexico, grades 1 through 6. The books, written in Spanish and including all academic subjects, teach that America 'stole' the southwest from Mexico and that Mexico is entitled to take it back. ... The question we should ask our Mexican immigrant friends is, are you assimilating or invading?"

Those who wish to read details about California Lieutenant Governor Cruz Bustamante's support for MEChA and Aztlan are referred to the following two recently published articles whose URLs are accompanied by brief excerpts:

Bustamante, MEChA and the media, by Michelle Malkin, August 20, 2003. Excerpts taken from: http://www.townhall.com/columnists/michellemalkin/mm20030820.shtml MEChA members in the University of California system have rioted in Los Angeles, editorialized that federal immigration "pigs should be killed, every single one" in San Diego, and are suspected of breaking into a conservative student publication's offices and stealing its entire print run in Berkeley. MEChA's symbol is an eagle clutching a dynamite stick and machete-like weapon in its claws; its motto is "Por La Raza todo. Fuera de La Raza nada (For the Race, everything. For those outside the Race, nothing)." The MEChA Constitution calls on members to "promote Chicanismo within the community, politicizing our Raza (race) with an emphasis on indigenous consciousness to continue the struggle for the self-determination of the Chicano people for the purpose of liberating Aztlan."

Bustamante Ties to Student Movement Raises Questions of Racism (by Fox News). Excerpts taken from: http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,95871,00.html "California Lt. Gov. Cruz Bustamante refused Thursday to renounce his past ties to a little-known Hispanic organization considered by critics to be as racist as the Ku Klux Klan. Instead, Bustamante, who is running to be governor of California, praised the Chicano Student Movement of Aztlan, or MEChA, and said he still supports it. ... MEChA has used violence in the past to make its case. At a July 4 celebration in 1996, members of the group, who call themselves Mechistas, were videotaped attacking black and white Americans protesting illegal immigration. In 1993, students at UCLA caused $500,000 worth of damage during protests to demand a Chicano studies department. MEChA has also been associated with anti-Semitic groups like Nation of Aztlan. Bustamante has been questioned before about racism. In 2001, he had to apologize profusely to state African-American leaders after mistakenly referring to a black union using the N-word.

Provisional Government of Aztlan Expresses Solidarity with the 'Nation of Hawaii' and Acknowledges the United States as Their Common Enemy

The following email was sent by the Provisional Government of Aztlan to the Nation of Hawaii (Bumpy Kanahele) on Sept. 28, 2000. It was widely circulated among Hawaiian sovereignty activists, as evidence of international support and solidarity with their ethnic nationalist independence movement. It is copied here in its entirety.

From: noevilempire@earthling.net Date: Thu, 28 Sep 2000 To: exec@hawaii-nation.org Subject: Provisional Government of Aztlan


Since 1848 when the Mexican government "signed" the "Treaty" of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the U.S. has been occupying the northern half of Mexico known as Aztlan. What makes this occupation as patently illegal as their current occupation of the Kingdom of Hawaii, is the fact that the U.S. Army forces occupying Mexico City and other parts of Mexico had standing orders to overrun the rest of the country if the government refused to sign this "treaty." This is known in legal circles as BLACKMAIL-rendering the "agreement" entered into null and void! From California to Texas, millions of U.S. citizens are in fact residing on foreign soil. Millions of others, born and raised in this territory, think they are U.S. citizens, when in LEGAL reality, they are MEXICAN. Many are aware of this situation and, tired of U.S. racism and economic exploitation on both sides of the false border (frontera falsa), are struggling to end U.S. occupation of their land.

A provisional government has been set up to address these issues: 1. Ending YanKKKee occupation and 2. Shall Aztlan be independent, or re-unify with Mexico? Those who support independence argue that Mexico's current government is so dominated by the U.S. and its corporate interests, that it represents de facto total occupation of the entire country by the U.S.-reunification will solve nothing. Those who support re-unification argue that while engaging in a process of transition toward re-unification, Aztlan will support the liberation of Mexico by the Zapatistas(EZLN), and other popular revolutionary movements. Once Mexico is liberated, the transition to re-unify Aztlan with the rest of Mexico will be completed.

With this background in mind, I hope the Kingdom of Hawaii will support the Provisional Government of Aztlan (Revolutionary Council) in its efforts to end U.S. occupation, just as we would support the Kingdom of Hawaii in its efforts to accomplish the same objective. We have a common enemy. We have a common struggle, for Aztlan and Mexico are also Indigenous nations (remember Mexico RE-GAINED its independence from Spain in 1821, after 300 years of colonial occupation by that country. Mexico as a nation was founded in 1325 by representatives of the Tenochca Mexica-"Aztecs"), which is why, as you will find, the representatives of our provisional government have names in the Indigenous Nahuatl language.

Here then, is the URL for the Revolutionary Council of the Provisional Government of Aztlan: http://www.serve.com/Aztlan/revgov.html The e-mail address for Cuauhtli, Minister of Information is Cuauhtli@Aztlan.Org. We need to support each others efforts for International recognition and hopefully, establish mutual agreements, fair trade and SELF-DETERMINATION for both Aztlan and the Kingdom of Hawaii.



Professor Haunani-Kay Trask, Hawaiian Nationalist, Clearly Expresses Similar Anti-White and Anti-American Attitudes

Excerpts from a speech available in its entirety at: https://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/leasetofeetrask090202.html which is part of a larger Web page of writings and speeches of Professor Trask at: https://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/trask.html

Aloha, my people, aloha. I want to talk today about the causes, both historical and contemporary, for the situation that we, the native people of Hawaii, now find ourselves in. If we go back in time to contact with the syphilitic Captain Cook, what we realize is that the first thing that was a gift of Western civilization was disease. The second thing that was a gift of Western civilization was violence -- they tried to take our chief hostage, and as a result of that we killed him. That was called Justice. Death to the conqueror is justice, that's what it is. In 1848 the missionaries -- the disease-laden racists -- that's a very good word. Racism. Racist. Race. Very very good words. These were racist people. They came here to colonize us because we didn't have the right gods.

Don't let anybody tell you not to be angry. And we are angry. And the reason that we're angry is because this is OUR country, and they took our government and imprisoned our queen -- right here she was imprisoned in her palace. And they banned our language. And then they forcibly made us a state of the racist, colonialist United States of colonial America. Do you have a right to be angry? Of course you do!

Foreigners came. They conquered. They took our lands. They imprisoned our queen. And they divided us by blood quantum. They did. Isn't it ironic that a Haole -- Freddy Rice -- Mr. missionary, whose illustrious ancestor overthrew Kalakaua and created the bayonet constitution that that racist man, who received so much of our land, now says that we are racists. impossible. Do we have power? No. They all have power. The power of white supremacy. The power of white courts. The power of a white country called the United States of white America.

Why are we, as native people, subjugated in our own land? Why are we made to be afraid? Because we are colonized. We live in a colony. The United States of America. All that military theft of our lands, our homelands, our ceded lands, all of that, all of that was done by the United States of America.

When Kamehameha was getting ready to go to war, he didn't sit there and think, "Oh gee I wonder if we should make nice." When you gonna make war, you get your facts down and you make war. The opposition knows that. Aren't they making war against us? You bet they are. And you do not belong on the American side. You do not belong on the Hawaii state side. You belong on the side of your people --lahui Hawaii [racially defined Hawaiians] -- that's the side you belong on.

We need to think very, very clearly about who the enemy is. The enemy is the United States of America, and everybody who supports it. You have to know which side of history you're on, and who is there with you. They are not there with you, Hawaiians. They want to take every single thing away from you.

This is what is affecting us today is racism. And we have to tell it like it is. As black people say, it's not [inaudible], it's racism. That's what it is. You are not a racist because you fight racism. You're a warrior, like I am. You are a warrior.

Black Nationalism, The Republic of New Africa, and Reparations for Slavery

Racial separatists and ethnic nationalists among both Hawaiians and Chicanos have always looked for inspiration to radical leaders of the black power movement. Of course the situation of African Americans is different from Hawaiians and Chicanos. Africans were brought in chains across an ocean to America, and their descendants today demand reparations for slavery. Hawaiians and Chicanos remained in the lands of their indigenous ancestors and were invaded and overrun by foreigners -- they demand reparations not for slavery but for loss of lands and loss of political control. But viewed from the present situation of the United States of America, all three groups are minorities who claim historical grievances against America. Radicals in all three groups demand enormous amounts of money, land, and power as reparations. Some in each group demand political recognition as sovereign governments. Here are some excerpts from two Web pages focusing on Black nationalism.

Republic of New Africa. Excerpts from: http://www.africana.com/research/encarta/tt_433.asp

At the height of the Black Power Movement in the late 1960s, members of the Republic of New Africa (RNA) called for the creation of an independent black nation spanning the states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina. ... Their manifesto demanded that the U.S. government cede the five proposed states to the Republic of New Africa and pay $400 billion in reparations to African Americans for the injustices of slavery and segregation. In 1968, attorney Milton Henry and his brother Richard, former acquaintances of Malcolm X who renamed themselves Gaidi Obadele and Imari Abubakari Obadele, respectively, convened a group of militant black nationalists in Detroit, Michigan, to discuss the creation of a black nation within the United States. Conference members established the Republic of New Africa and declared their allegiance to the provisional government. They elected Imari Obadele as provisional president. Based in Washington, D.C. with a membership of almost 10,000, the Republic of New Africa continues to promote the formation of a black nation.

The following excerpts from: http://www.africana.com/articles/daily/index_20000601.asp

The issue of reparations has received increased attention in the last several months. Local and state legislative bodies have taken up the issue; articles have appeared in leading newspapers and magazines; it has been a topic of lively debate on the Internet and local and national television and radio programs; and Randall Robinson's TransAfrica conducted a nationally televised symposium on the subject. [In 1988] Obadele and his associates formed the National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America (NCOBRA).

NCOBRA initiates litigation, publishes a newsletter and sponsors national and regional conferences. At its tenth annual convention held in St. Louis in June 1999, NCOBRA adopted the "Six Down-Payment Demands on the U.S. Government," which demanded that a billion dollars each be given to 10 black colleges, that a billion dollars be placed in a black economic development fund, that $20,000 be awarded to each black family, that a billion dollars be given to black farmers, and that all "political prisoners" be released.

The principal aim of the RNA since its formation has been the organization of a plebiscite among African Americans in order to determine whether they would wish to form an independent nation-state within the current boundaries of the United States. Professor Obadele has written extensively on the right of blacks under prevailing standards of international law to have been accorded after the Civil War the opportunity to choose independent nation-state status rather than forcible incorporation into the United States.

Excerpts of the NCOBRA platform for black slavery reparations, taken from: http://www.ncobra.com/ncobra_info.htm

What do we want? We want our just inheritance: the trillions of dollars due us for the labor of our ancestors who worked for hundreds of years without pay. We demand the resources required removing all badges and indicia of slavery. When do we want it? We want it NOW! How much is owed? Once we know how much damage has been done to us, and what is required to repair the damage, we will know how much is owed. For example, the four year internment of Japanese in America, or the five year holocaust of Jewish people in Europe may require a different set of remedies than the 500 years holocaust of Africans in America. Some estimate eight trillion dollars. How would reparations be paid? Payment may include all of the following: land, equipment, factories, licenses, banks, ships, airplanes, various forms of tax relief, education & training, to name a few. Who would pay reparations? The U.S. Government would pay reparations in the same manner as they voted for and paid billions to Europe through the Marshall Plan after WWII, or billions to Israel every year since WWII, or to Russia, or Eastern Europe, or to prop up some puppet African Government. Who would receive reparations? People identified as Negro, Colored, Black, African American, New Afrikan, Black American who are the descendants of persons enslaved in the United States. Of course, those who feel that they are not due reparations, or do not need reparations will not be forced to accept it. What about Africans enslaved in other countries? Black reparations is an international movement. The descendants of Africans in Canada, Barbados, Haiti, Jamaica, and Brazil, West Indies, Caribbean, etc., are due preparations, but from their particular European colonizer. Colonized African countries too are due reparations. We recognize that although we were colonized and enslaved by different European colonizers and slavers, we are one people with many family members dispersed to different Countries.

The Senate of the State of Hawaii in 2001 Passed a Resolution Questioning Whether the Statehood Vote of 1959 was Legitimate, and Calling Upon the United Nations to Come to Hawaii and Perhaps Supervise a Plebiscite Offering the Option of Total Independence

This resolution might be seen as just one of those crazy things which state legislatures sometimes do. However, a resolution reaffirming pride in statehood and calling upon the governor to hold a celebration on the official statehood day holiday failed to pass out of committee in both 2002 and 2003; and meanwhile the legislature has passed resolutions supporting the Native Hawaiian recognition bill. Thus it appears the legislature supports both racial separatism (the recognition bill in Congress) and ethnic nationalism (the independence resolution) but lacks the courage or desire to express pride in being the 50th state. Members of Congress should defeat S.344/H.R.665 if for no other reason than to discourage the separatist/nationalist mentality, which has clearly run amok in Hawaii. Here is the independence resolution which passed the Hawaii Senate in 2001, visible directly on the Legislature's Web site: http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/session2001/bills/sr98_.htm

Hawaii Senators Akaka and Inouye -- Why Both Are Members of the Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs; and Why Inouye is America's Most Powerful Advocate of Racial Balkanization

U.S. Sen. Daniel Inouye is one of the most powerful members of the Senate. He has high seniority because of the many years he has served there. He has always been one of the top pork-barrel Senators, bringing billions of federal dollars home to Hawaii. He is the top-ranking Democrat on the Defense Appropriations subcommittee, which makes him chairman whenever the Democrats are in control. That gives him enormous power to steer federal military expenditures to Hawaii -- military spending is the second-largest factor, after tourism, in Hawaii's economy. He is also the top-ranking Democrat on the Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs, which makes him chairman whenever the Democrats are in control. Hawaii Sen. Daniel Akaka is also a member of the Indian Affairs committee, where he has served throughout his Senate career.

Why would Senators from Hawaii want to serve on the Indian Affairs Committee? Especially considering that there are no Indian tribes in Hawaii, and neither of them has any Indian ancestry! Why would both Senators from this state choose to serve on the same committee, when they could spread Hawaii's influence by serving on different committees? The only other state that has both of its senators on the Indian Affairs committee is North Dakota, where Indian tribes are very important. All the other members of the Indian Affairs committee come from states where tribes are numerous and powerful.

So, why have both of Hawaii's senators spent their careers on this committee? The answer is pork barrel politics. Senators Inouye and Akaka have been successful in quietly inserting "Native Hawaiians" among the beneficiaries of legislation for Native Americans and Alaska Natives. They are like the cuckoo bird that lays its eggs in the nests of other birds who then hatch and feed the babies. They are like tapeworms inside the bowels of legislation intended to benefit genuine Indian tribes. Thus the senators bring megabucks in federal spending for Indians to Hawaii. The money directly helps "Native Hawaiians" and indirectly helps the rest of Hawaii's economy. Federal legislation to provide healthcare, education, or housing to Indian tribes has always been easier to pass than similar legislation to benefit everyone. Providing free healthcare or college scholarships to all Americans has never been considered an obligation of the federal government; but providing those benefits to Indian tribes is clearly a federal responsibility.

"Native Hawaiians" comprise 20 percent of Hawaii's people, so programs that benefit them are a major factor in Hawaii's economy and political power structure. Until 2000, nobody thought of challenging the inclusion of "Native Hawaiians" in Indian legislation. But then along came the Rice v. Cayetano decision by the Supreme Court. The decision only directly affected the right to vote for statewide office without racial restrictions, but in reaching its decision the Court ruled that "Native Hawaiians" are a racial group and not a political entity. And then it began to occur to government officials and civil rights lawyers that it is probably unconstitutional to give government benefits to the racial group "Native Hawaiians" exclusive of all other racial groups like Filipino-Americans or Chinese-Americans. And that's when there was a sudden urgency to convert this racial group into an Indian tribe even though they have never been regarded as such.

In retrospect, Hawaii Senators Akaka and Inouye can be regarded like "sleeper agents" in spy stories. For many years they served in positions where they worked very quietly to add the term "Native Hawaiians" to Indian legislation in order to bring home the pork. But nobody could have imagined that the time would come when they would suddenly spring to life to create a phony Indian tribe out of thin air. It is as though their entire careers have been pointing in this direction all along.

As the years went by and Sen. Inouye acquired more seniority, he became the highest ranking Democrat on the Indian Affairs committee. He acquired great power over the Indian tribes. While his main motivation had been merely to bring home the pork to Hawaii, now he began receiving huge political campaign contributions from the Indian tribes. When tribes got the right to have tax-exempt gambling casinos, tribal casino money (tax free) and tribal political influence grew tremendously. Senator Inouye began sponsoring legislation to give federal recognition to bogus tribes who wanted to build casinos, like the Mashantucket Pequot "tribe" of Connecticut (see Jeff Benedict's book "Without Reservation" about the creation of this phony tribe and Sen. Inouye's role). Inouye also got more aggressive about sponsoring legislation demanded by the tribes to greatly expand the sovereign powers of the tribes and give them more leverage against the states and local communities. Among the sovereign powers of the tribes is the right to give unlimited political campaign contributions to candidates -- because sovereignty means tribes are not governed by federal, state, or local laws limiting political contributions. The vast bulk of Senator Inouye's campaign contributions come from outside Hawaii, mostly from Indian tribes and their affiliated contractors. Thus, Senator Inouye has become the most powerful person in America in the business of racial balkanization. He and Sen. Akaka talk very nicely about the rights of the "indigenous people" of Hawaii to have "self-determination," and how these poor, downtrodden people so desperately need government assistance to preserve their beautiful culture and their future as "a people." But it's really pork barrel politics. See: https://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/AkakaPorkBarrel.html

Any short-term gain from protecting existing racial programs against court challenges would be far outweighed by long-term damage to Hawaii's local businesses and local communities. See: https://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/tribeimpactbizandcommunity.html
There would even be severe damage to the political and legal rights of the "Native Hawaiians" who are supposedly being helped by the legislation. See: https://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/tribeimpactethnichawns.html

The expansion of tribal power, and the resulting balkanization of America and loss of Constitutional rights, is very well described in a newly published article by Elaine D. Willman, entitled "United States: 562 Nations Under God." Professor Willman's article also shows the role of Hawaii's two Senators, Akaka and Inouye, in sponsoring a bill now pending that would greatly expand the powers of Indian tribes and deny Constitutional rights to Indians, to non-Indians living on tribal lands, and to non-Indians just passing through. People of Hawaii should consider the consequences, in view of the fact that the "ceded lands" claimed by OHA to be Native Hawaiian (tribal) lands comprise nearly half the land of Hawaii and are scattered throughout all the islands. Here are a few excerpts from Professor Willman's article:


Fabric left unattended can be devastated from tiny moth-eaten holes that grow. For a moment, please visualize in your minds, a map of the United States, all 50 states -- a map that includes the fabric of traditional American government as established by our Constitution, that manifests in small townships, villages, cities, counties states and a federal center in Washington D.C. Now imagine holes in the fabric of that American government map -- 562 sizable holes that are daily enlarging in more than 40 of our states across that map. There are over 100 such holes in California, and 29 such holes in Washington State alone -- governments known as federally recognized Indian reservations predominantly require their enrolled tribal members, even though American citizens, to forego their Constitutional guarantees and Bill of Rights. The prevailing form of government within these holes is known as tribalism. It bears no relationship to a republic form of government or a democracy, as you and I understand democracy.

Now consider Senate Bill 578 entitled the "Tribal Governments Amendment to the Homeland Security Act of 2002." Four senators sponsor it: Daniel Inouye and Daniel Akaka, both from Hawaii, Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R-CO) and Maria Cantwell (D-WA). SB 578 would remove the remnants of American government from Indian reservations, directly impacting more than 500,000 Indians, and as many other, non-Indian American citizens. The indirect impact affects millions of nearby Americans and even more millions of touring Americans.

For example, in Yakima County, Washington, SB 578 would remove the governance, jurisdiction and authority of three municipalities, county government and state government from 45 percent of Yakima County's total land base. Thus would traditional American government be removed from some 40,000 American citizens (the reservation is 90 percent non-Indian) who reside or work within or near the Yakama Indian reservation. Now apply the same or similar measuring stick to approximately 1,400 other counties in the United States that contain or surround Indian reservations (and many reservations spread out over several counties). Except for the Navajo Reservation, the great majority of Indian reservations are predominantly non-Indian in population. Congress, in its "Dancing With Wolves" mentality entirely ignores the reality of census data on Indian reservations. Congress now dances with new wolves -- the gaming industry.

Senate Bill 578 does several other things. It grants tribes a sovereignty status equal to the 50 states - a direct violation of Article IV, Section 3 that disallows the creation of a state within a state. Worse, it allows these non-republic, unaccountable forms of government that do not abide by the Constitution, access to Homeland Security data, secret information, and additional federal funds.

I hope that you will help all of us across the country talk openly, freely and incessantly about spreading "holes" of tribalism in American government, called "Federal Indian Policy." I encourage you to keep up all individual and collective effort to preserve our United States as One Nation Under God -- forever indivisible.


The Native Hawaiian Recognition bill, S.344/H.R.665, is the thin edge of a knife poised to dismember America. It would set a precedent for racial balkanization. It must be defeated. Hawaiian nationalism, Chicano nationalism, Black nationalism, and reparations for alleged historical injustices threaten the political stability of America.

Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, in his concurring opinion in Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena, (1995) made the following statement:

"Individuals who have been wronged by unlawful racial discrimination should be made whole; but under our Constitution there can be no such thing as either a creditor or a debtor race. That concept is alien to the Constitution's focus upon the individual, see Amdt. 14, 1 ('[N]or shall any State ... deny to any person' the equal protection of the laws), and its rejection of dispositions based on race, see Amdt. 15, 1 (prohibiting abridgment of the right to vote 'on account of race') or based on blood, see Art. III, 3 ('[N]o Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood'); Art. I, 9 ('No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States'). To pursue the concept of racial entitlement -- even for the most admirable and benign of purposes -- is to reinforce and preserve for future mischief the way of thinking that produced race slavery, race privilege and race hatred. In the eyes of government, we are just one race here. It is American."

That's why those patriotic Americans in Hawaii who are able to see the "big picture" must humbly ask people from other states to rescue us from our own Senators and Congressmen. We are like drug abusers hooked on federal dollars, willing to prostitute ourselves and ruin our health to get more. Please take away the drugs and restrain us from hurting ourselves further, even if we cry in the pain of withdrawal and scream angrily at your persistence in helping us. In your own best interest, please stop sending megabucks to Hawaii for racially exclusionary programs. Either send us money to help all needy people, or else keep your money for yourselves. And in the interest of protecting America against racial balkanization and dismemberment, please defeat S.344/H.R.665, even though our politicians demand that you pass it and claim that our people want it.

Kenneth R. Conklin is an independent scholar in Kaneohe, Hawaii. His Web site on Hawaiian Sovereignty is at: https://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty '''He can be contacted at: mailto:Ken_Conklin@yahoo.com

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