A More Historically Constrained Variant For "Manifesto"
By Michael Callahan
The rules are identical for both games except for the following
Here is where the decisive changes originate.
"Democracy" had been deleted from the list because it is not, properly
speaking, an ideology-it is rather a mode of governance (see Aristotle's
"Communism", "Fascism", and "Socialism" are retained (although, in this
new context, the last represents a non-Marxist system, such as Guild
Socialism or one of the 'Utopian' socialisms).
"Imperialsm" is a policy, "Totalitarianism" is a characterization, and
"Parlimentarianism" is a style of government, therefore, they have been
Aristotle, again, classifies "Dictatorship" (tyranny) as the degenerate
form of "Monarchy", which in turn is actually another mode of
governance. Because they aren't ideologies they have also been
eliminated as options. As a catch-all term for reactionary
anti-modernism (as exemplified by everyone from Taliban to the Priory of
Sion), I've kept "Fundamentalism".
To the initial standard list, there has been added the faction
"Revolutionary Capitalism". Fascists, Marxists, and the gaggle of
Post-Modernists all agree that modern capitalism is more than an
economic philosophy implicating certain political arrangements, it is
also, perhaps pre-eminently, the most rapidly expanding and tenacious
cultural ideology of the last century. The phrase, "Revolutionary
Capitalism", encompasses both periods of its modern apology and
development: the first, when capitalism was extolled as the most
efficient means of nation-building, and its current incarnation as the
antithesis of national individuality.
In order to expand the list of optional ideologies, the movement
"Anarcho-Syndicalism" has been added. Even if the viability of this
socio-economic philosophy was-and still is-nothing but problematic,
before the first World War in France and the United States, and
especially in Spain during their civil war, Anarcho-Syndicalism had some
chance of overcoming the old orders.
However sui generis, the Weltanschauung (lit. "a looking at the world")
of the Empire of Nippon did constitute an authentic ideology. Thus, if
desired or necessary, 'Japan' is available as an extra player.
So, to recapitulate, the ideologies available in the standard four
player game are: "Communism", "Fascism", Socialism", and "Revolutionary
Capitalism". As options for fifth , sixth and seventh players:
"Fundamentalism", "Anarcho-Syndicalism", and "Nipponism".
The game begins in the year 1925 and concludes in 2025. If this version
had commenced at the start of the 20th century, "Christian Monarchism"
(America and France not withstanding) would be the predominant
'ideology'-by 1925 monarchism per se was vestigial and irrelevant,
except for Imperial Japan (see above).
IF "Influence" is to be defined as a Region's endowment of natural and
human resources as well as whatever historically given infrastructure
said area has managed to fabricate in order to exploit those resources
both domestically and internationally, then I recommend this minor
change: In 1925 Russia should only have Influence of 1, and at no time
can I see it as being the equivalent of North America, but for the sake
of playability, I'll split the difference and give it an Influence of 2.
Although a player still represents an ideology and not a country or a
bloc, in "Manifesto Destiny", a given ideology (with one exception) is
assigned intially to that nation where it originated, prevailed, or had
the best opportunity of becoming the ruling rationalization of social
relationships. Players should refer to the following table:
Communism/Russia (+2 cards);
Fascism/Mediterranean (+4 cards);
Socialism/United Kingdom (+2 cards);
'Revolutionary Capitalism'/North America;
Fundamentalism-the player roles a d20 and compares the result to the
corresponding number on "The Map" chart (if the number is that of a
region which has already been attached to another ideology, reroll; and
if that region's influence is 1 then the player gains an additional 4
cards, he draws 2 cards if the region's influence is 2);
Anarcho-Syndicalism/West Europe (+4 cards);
'Nipponism'/Japan (+ 2 cards)
The conflict card "League of Nations" has been replaced by
"International Assemblage", and "Big Power Summit" has been substituted
for the card "United Nations" (see below).
Conflict Card List
I have removed the "League of Nations" and "United Nations" cards
because they are TOO historically stipulative. They have been exchanged
for the more generalized concepts embodied in the cards "International
Assemblage" and "Big Power Summit". Parenthetically, I believe the
phrases "Cold War" and "Cultural Revolution" have idiomatically
transcended the historical events that occasioned the creation of these
terms, and so, I have left those cards untouched.
Influence Card List
"Iron Curtain" is another title which strikes me as to conceptually
inflexible. The card "Autarchy" (which in the 20th century has come to
mean economic self-sufficiency), analogous in intent but more broadly
applicable, is it's substitute. As with the conflict cards, though the
name may change, the factors remain the same.
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