The following chronology covers the main elements of the history of Cardiff & the Vale of Glamorgan and some of the surrounding areas eg the Watford area of Caerphilly, Tongwynlais & Pentyrch mainly for the period up to 1960 with a few later events. It is intended to be of use to people researching their family history in the area, in order to provide a background to their research and maybe some pointers as to why their ancestors lived where they did or moved in or out of the area. It includes the dates of foundation of many of the main organisations in Cardiff, the opening of churches & chapels and some of the Cardiff "Institutions" eg David Morgan's & James Howells' shops, Cardiff Shipping Companies, Theatres, Cinemas, Old Inns & Hotels & Industrial Companies. I realise that it is not exhaustive and undoubtedly Cardiff residents will find that things that they might have included are not in my list. If anyone wants anything added I shall be pleased to consider it if they can give me the details. It is my hope that I will, in any case, be able to make additions in time.

This chronology really needs to be seen in the light of the wider Glamorgan, Wales & National scenes and it is intended shortly to provide a similar Chronology of Glamorgan which will include some of the Cardiff events listed here, but also an outline of the development of the South Wales Coalfield in Glamorgan, the development of Ironworking & Copper Smelting and the Industrial unrest of the 19th century surrounding the Rebecca Riots, Methyr Riots & Chartism.

A Wales timeline is already available via the Glamorgan Help pages and I have produced a Chronology of British History which is available on my website.

In order to find a specific event without reading through the whole list please use the "find" facility of your browser. In this way you should be able to find any references to a particular year or subject.

THE INDEX - PERIOD 1700 - 1849

Abt 1700 = Great House, Llanmaes built by Rev. Illtyd Nicholl

1708 = John Deer of Penllyne lands on coast of Cornwall when Sir Cloudsley Shovell's squadron lost

1708 = Cardiff Great Market (for meat) moved to Crokerton, outside the town gate, to relieve the streets of the town.

1708 = Jane Herbert of the Friars, Cardiff died leaving 600 to found a school in Cardiff. Land at Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil bought as investment to provide income for the maintenance of the school.

(known as the Gurnos Charity)

1709 = SPCK published the first Book of Common Prayer in Welsh

1710 = Baptist chapel established at Hengoed

9 November 1711 = Cradock Wells bequeathed 30 per year in trust for the setting up of a charity school at Cardiff

1711 = Francis Wyndham of Clearwell, Glos. instrumental in persuading the SPCK to establish a library in Cowbridge for the use of local clergy and school teachers

1715 = Edward Lewis gave money for the opening of a charity school at Glan y Nant, Gelligaer

10 June 1716 = Group of Cardiff Jacobite sympathisers arrested for toasting the "Old Pretender"

1719 = opening of the Cradock Wells Trust school in Cardiff with Rev.Nathaniel Wells as Master

September 1722 = George Voss presented at the Glamorgan Quarter Sessions for toasting the health of King James

1722 = South West tower and roof of Llandaff Cathedral collapsed

1730 = St.Fagans Castle passed to the Lewis family (later Earls of Plymouth)

Abt 1731 = Circulating schools started in Glamorgan by Griffith Jones, Vicar of Llanddowror, Carms. (By 1761 over 150.000 children had passed through the schools)

1731 = Mably Arms (One of Cardiff's oldest surviving Inns) established in Church St., Cardiff

1731 = Globe Inn (One of Cardiff's oldest surviving Inns) established in Castle St., Cardiff

1732 = Customs Officer at Cardiff called for assistance to rid the area of smugglers (without success)

1733 = Charlotte Herbert niece of Thomas Herbert, 8th Earl of Pembroke (and daughter of Philip Herbert, 7th Earl of Pembroke) inherited the Lordship of Cardiff which then passed to her husband Thomas, Viscount Windsor.

1734 = David Williams of Pwllypant, Caerphilly pastor at Womanby Street Independent Chapel, Cardiff

1734 = Captain John Price set aside 100 in his will for the apprenticing of poor boys in Cardiff

1737 = Thomas Price of Watford-Fawr, Caerphilly granted lease of land at Watford for the building of Watford Independant Chapel

1737 = Flat Holme Lighthouse built by Bristol businessmen

1738 = David Williams, Waunwaelod born - later founder of the Royal Literary Fund

March 1739 = George Whitefield, leader of the Oxford Methodist Group preached at Cardiff Town Hall

1739 = Watford Chapel, Caerphilly built. David Williams of Pwllypant pastor.

1739 = David Williams of Pwllypant started a free school for local children at Cwm Farmhouse, Caerphilly

1739 = Charles Wesley invited to preach at Cardiff

October 1739 = John Wesley visited South Wales

1740s = Rees Powell of Llanharan acquired the lease of Melin Griffith (Corn Mill), Whitcurch and converted it for use as an iron works and also set up a forge

1740s = start of Methodist cause at St.Fagans by Thomas Llewelyn

1740 = John Wesley preached at Cardiff Shire Hall

1740 = Cardiff Iron Forge established by Thomas Lewis of New House, Llanishen

19 November 1740 = Charles Wesley preached at Newport, Mon & at Cardiff Town Hall

1741 = George Whitefield Methodist evangelist married Elizabeth James at Capel Martin, Caerphilly

1742 = First General Association of English & Welsh Methodists held at Plas Watford, Caerphilly

1742 = The Cardiff Society (Methodist) formed

1742 = Groeswen Methodist Chapel, Caerphilly opened (inspired by Howel Harris)

2 March 1742 = John Wesley preached at Llanishen & at Cardiff

3 March 1742 = John Wesley preached at Llantrisant

1743 = The Cardiff Methodist Society built its own Meeting Rooms in Church Street, Cardiff

January 1743 = George Whitefield elected Moderator of the General Association of English & Welsh Methodists at Groeswen Chapel

May 1743 = John Wesley received a poor hearing in Cowbridge

May 1743 = John Wesley preached to large congregation at Wenvoe

1744 = commencement of building of Llandaff Court

1745 - 67 = Small group of Cardiff area residents formed themselves into a body of Non-juring Protestants with their own priest ie although Protestants they refused to pray for the Hanoverian King but only for "our lawful Sovereign" meaning the Stuart Pretender.

1746 = Cardiff Quakers granted the use of Cardiff Town Hall for their Annual Meeting

1746 = First public weigh-house set up in Cardiff under the Gild Hall, for weighing produce.

26 March 1746 = Grand Jury found David Jones of Llanfihangel y fedw guilty of sedition for declaring himself a supporter of King James.

1749 = The Union Society established (Friendly Society)

1749 = Aberthin Methodist Chapel, near Cowbridge opened (inspired by Howel Harris)

1749 = The Sympathetic Society established in Cardiff (Mutual society for the relief of widows)

1749 = Rees Powell granted a lease on Melin Griffirh Works, Whitchurch to Richard Jordan & Francis Homfray

Abt 1750 = Llanharan House built for Rees Powell

1751 = Howell Harris and Daniel Rowland, Welsh Methodist leaders fell into dispute weakening the Methodist cause in South Wales & Howell Harris stopped his travelling preaching, withdrawing to his home at Trevecka, Mon..

21 August 1758 = John Wesley set out on a tour of the Vale of Glamorgan to rekindle support for Methodism which had declined after the schism between Howell Harriis & Daniel Rowland

1759 = Establishment of the Dowlais Iron Works near Merthyr Tydfil by Thomas Lewis of New House, Llanishen & Thomas Price of Watford Fawr, Caerphilly

1759 = Thomas Price of Watford Fawr, Caerphilly granted land at Pwllypant, Caerphilly for a school for poor girls.

1760 = Richard Jordan obtained a 200 year lease of Melin Griffith Works, Whitchurch

1762 = Meeting at Swansea to discuss the building of turnpike roads

1762 = Remodelling of Fonmon Castle for Jones Family

1763 = Reconciliation between Howell Harris & Daniel Rowland Itinerant preaching resumed. John Wesley visited Howell Harris at Trevecka

By 1764 = building of the turnpike road between Gloucester, Cardiff and Swansea started

Bef 1765 = Horse Racing became popular in Glamorgan, particularly at Stalling Down, near Cowbridge and the Great Heath in Cardiff

1765 = Thomas & Walter Jordan in charge of the Melin Griffith Works, Whitchurch. Tinplate works added to the site.

12 November 1766 = John Stuart, Earl of Bute married Charlotte Jane Windsor daughter of Viscount Windsor, Baron Herbert of Cardiff

1767 = Jordan Brothers of Melin Griffith, Whitchurch became insolvent

September 1767 = John Wesley embarked on a prolonged tour of South Wales

25 September 1767 = birth of John, eldest son of John Stuart, Earl of Bute

1768 to 1788 = many visits to various parts of South Wales by John Wesley

1769 = Rhys Thomas of Llandovery set up as a printer in Cowbridge - the first printer in Glamorgan

1770 = James Harford, Richard Partridge and other Bristol Quakers took a lease on Melin Griffith Works, Whitchurch plus other local property at Forest Farm & Velindre, Whitchurch

5 April 1770 = First part of John Walters' English-Welsh Dictionary published by Rhys Thomas of Cowbridge

Bef 1772 = establishment of copperworks at Cardiff

1772 = Iolo Morganwg (Edward Williams of Flemingston), probably the most learned Welshman of his day, and founder of the Gorsedd of the Bards published his first booklet

28 October 1772 = Glamorganshire Agricultural Society founded at a meeting at the Bear Inn, Cowbridge under the chairmanship of Thomas Mansel Talbot of Margam

21 July 1773 = death of Howell Harris at Trevecka from tuberculosis aged 60

1774 = A private Act passed for the paving, cleansing and lighting of the streets of Cardiff

1776 = Charlotte Jane Windsor daughter of Herbert, Viscount Windsor inherited the Lordship of Cardiff which then passed to her husband, John Stuart, Earl of Bute & Lord Mount-Stuart who then became Baron of Cardiff Castle (Lord Cardiff of Cardiff Castle)

1776 = construction of Wenvoe Castle, near Cardiff

1777 = Very severe snow and ice in Glamorgan

1778 = Beginning of reconstruction of Cardiff Castle

1780 = only three Quakers left in Cardiff

1783 = Death of Thomas Price of Watford Fawr, Caerphilly

1784 = Baptists started meeting at Tonyfelin, Caerphilly

1784 = Thomas Knight active as a smuggler at Barry Island

1785 = John Wood became Senior Treasurer of Glamorgan

1785 = Ruperra Castle burned down. Rebuilding started.

1786 = Formation of the Melingriffith Benefit Club by workers with support of management to provide relief for workers in times of distress

1788 = death of Charles Wesley in London

6 March 1789 - John Wood, Attorney at Law, sworn in as Town Clerk of Cardiff

2 November 1789 = Public meeting held in Swansea to promote additional turnpike roads

By 1790 = Glamorganshire Races established

1790 = John Stuart, Earl of Bute elected MP for Cardiff

1790 = Glamorganshire Canal Navigation Company formed under a private Act of Parliament

1790s = Establishment of Caerphilly Market by William Price of Watford Fawr, Caerphilly

2 March 1791 = death of John Wesley aged 89, in London

1791 = John Bird of Cardiff bought the Cowbridge printing business of Rhys Thomas

1792 = Tait & Wood opened their bank at Cardiff

1793 = Friendly Societies Act established a firm footing for Friendly Societies which provided some measure of assurance in sickness or old age. eg Order of Oddfellows, Ancient Order of Foresters, Hibernian Liberal Society, Total Abstinence Society.

1793 = completion of the Glamorganshire Canal between Abercynon and Cardiff

10 August 1793 = birth of John Stuart, son of John Stuart (d.1794) and grandson of the Earl of Bute

1793 to 1795 = 9000 tons of iron and considerable quantities of cannon sent from Cardiff to Woolwich Arsenal for use in the war

1794 = Glamorganshire Canal opened

22 January 1794 = John Stuart, eldest son & heir of John Stuart, Earl of Bute died as a result of a fall from his horse

By 1795 = Daily mail coaches operating between London and Cardiff and Milford Haven and Cardiff

June & July 1795 = Tour of Glamorgan by JMW Turner, Artist.

1795 = John Harford & Richard Partridge purchased Tre-Oda House & Caer Castell, Whitchurch

1796 = John Stuart, eldest son of the Earl of Bute created Marquis of Bute

1796 = New Cardiff Bridge completed on its present site.

1797 = Threats of French invasion resulted in hasty raising of Militia forces

24 February 1798 = Ballots held at Cardiff to raise the Glamorgan Militia

11 June 1799 = Sheriff of Glamorgan enforced an ejectment order against people who had encroached on Cardiff Great Heath and the Cavalry had to be brought in to quell ensuing riots in the area.

1800 = Plan for enclosure of the Great Heath at Cardiff accepted by the Town Council on the recommendation of John Wood, Town Clerk

1800 = Troubles in Ireland result in the despatch of troops from Cardiff to that country

1800 = major unrest in Glamorgan over low wages, scarcity of provisions and the activities of the Press Gangs

28 January 1800 = death of Charlotte Jane, wife of 1st Marquis of Bute.

1801/2 = Act of Enclosure of the Great Heath, Cardiff

20 April 1801 = Demonstrations at Swansea by women & children regarding the price of food. Cardigan Militia, stationed at Swansea, called out to quell the disturbance. Supposed threat of riot by colliers in Swansea resulted in the Inniskilling Dragoons (stationed at Cardiff) being called in. The threatened riots did not occur.but there were some minor disturbances.

1802 = Dunraven Castle, Southerndown built

7 April 1803 = John Stuart, grandson of 1st Marquis of Bute inherited from his maternal grandfather the title of Earl of Dumfries

1804 = John Wood (snr) resigned as Town Clerk of Cardiff

1804 = John Wood (jnr) appointed Town Clerk of Cardiff

1805 = Pentyrch Iron Works taken over by Harford & Partridge and linked with Melin Griffith Works

1806 = Merthyr Mawr House built for Sir John Nicholl

1810 = Guest & Co opened a bank in Cardiff

1810 = Melin Griffith Works, Whitchurch under management of Richard Blakemore, nephew of Partridge

1810 = The Union Jubilee Society established (Friendly Society)

1812 = The Friendly Society established

1812 = Walter Coffin moved from Bridgend to live at Llandaff Court, Cardiff

1812 = Parishes of St.Mary and St.John officially re-united

By 1813 = Classical & Commercial Academy (Mr.John Morgan) established in Cardiff - one of the first schools to provide a Classical education in Cardiff

1813 = John Vine established as the first Cardiff Ship Broker

1813 = formation of the Cardiff Welsh Baptist cause

1813 = Philadelphia Baptist Chapel, Barry opened

1813 = Nantgarw Pottery established near Treforest by William Weston Young & William Billingsley

1814 = The Women's Club (Friendly Society) established

1814 = John Stuart, Earl of Dumfries, grandson of 1st Marquis of Bute & Lord Cardiff inherited the titles and estates of his paternal grandfather and became 2nd Marquis of Bute & Lord Cardiff

1815 = Sion Calvanitic Methodist hapel, Cadoxton-juxta-Barry opened on land obtained from Thomas French of Wenvoe

1815 = twice weekly boat service from Cardiff to Bristol

9 October 1815 = opening of a boys school as The Cardiff School for Promoting the Education of the Poor, under the Presidency of the Marquis of Bute and supported by the Town Council

1816 = The Friendly Society at the Red Lion established

1817 = Cardiff publicans ordered to submit their drinking measures for test at the Gild Hall

1817 = opening of a girls school under the same arrangements as the boys school opened in 1815

27 April 1817 - death of John Wood, late Town Clerk of Cardiff & Treasurer of the County of Glamorgan

1817 = John Bird appointed Town Clerk of Cardiff

1818 = Nicholl Wood appointed Town Clerk of Cardiff

1818 = Samuel Brown ( ex Lieutenant in the Royal Navy) came to Pontypridd and took over a nail works previously oprated by William Crawshay Brown and his cousin Samuel Lennox set up the Brown Lennox Company as the Newbridge Chain & Anchor Works (Pontypridd)

1819 = Iolo Morganwg managed to get the Gorsedd of the Bards (his invention) associated with the eisteddfod held at Carmarthen, thus starting the now traditional link between the Eisteddfod and Bardic Culture

3 January 1819 = opening of Cardiff Free School for boys and girls on a site given by the Marquis of Bute adjoining the Grey Friars, Cardiff

1819 = Towgood, Yerbury & Towgood operating a bank in Cardiff

2 October 1819 = establishment of a public savings bank in Cardiff with help from the Marquis of Bute

By 1820 = Clwyd-y-Gurnos Inn & Travellers' Rest Inn established on Caerphilly Mountain

1820 = Daily mail coach started operating between Cardiff and Merthyr Tydfil

1820 = regular boat service between Bristol and Newport with connecting coach to Cardiff

1820 = Tabernacle Chapel, Cardiff built

1820s = Richard Blakemore adopted his nephew, Thomas William Booker and trained him to manage the Melin Griffith & Pentyrch Iron Works

1820s = Establishment of Wesleyan Methodist Society in Melingriffith, Whitchurch

1821 = Tabernacle Welsh Baptist Chapel, The Hayes, Cardiff opened

1821 = Bethany English Baptist Chapel, St.Mary Street, Cardiff opened

1821 = The Cardiff Male Benefit Society established

1821 = Establishment of Cardiff Gas Works

1822 = Nantgarw Pottery ceased production

1824 = Founding of Cardiff Charitable Midwifery Institution

1824 = Ararat Baptist Chapel, Whitchurch founded

1825 = Theatre Group formed in Cardiff

1826 = 40000 tons of coal exported from Cardiff

13 March 1826 = Formation of the Mechanics Institute in Cardiff

12 September 1826 = First Theatre opened in Cardiff at Crockerton as the Theatre Royal with a performance of Macbeth with Mr W.C.Macready in the principal role

1826/7 = Guest & Co Glass Works established in Cardiff

1827 = Zion Welsh Methodist Chapel, Trinity Street, Cardiff opened

1827 = George Insole entered into partnership with Richard Biddle as a timber merchant in Cardiff

1828 = Ebenezer Welsh Congregational Chapel , Cardiff opened

1828 = The Cardiff Female Benefit & Annuitant Society established

Bef 1829 = Richard Tredwin established as a prominent shipbuilder in Cardiff, opened the first Cardiff Dry Dock

1830 = George Insole acquired a wharf at Cardiff on the Glamorganshire Canal and set up in business as a coal shipper

1830 = Cardiff Assizes replaced Court of Great Sessions

1830 = Second daily coach service between Cardiff and Merthyr Tydfil

1830 = 66000 tns of iron exported from Cardiff

1830 = Parlimentary Bill obtained for the building of the Bute West Dock by 2nd Marquis of Bute.

By 1830 = The Cardiff & Bristol Company conveying goods by sea on a regular service from London to Bristol and Cardiff and The Cardiff & London Shipping Company also established for conveyance of goods

13 July 1831 = start of the trials of the ringleaders of the riots at Merthyr at Cardiff Assizes

14 July 1831 = Dic Penderyn (Richard Lewis) and Lewis Lewis sentenced to death

30 July 1831 = Lewis Lewis reprieved of the death sentence and condemned to transportation for life

3 August 1831 = Lewis Lewis transported to Australia

13 August 1831 = Dic Penderyn (Richard Lewis) executed on the gallows near St.Mary Street, Cardiff

1832 = George Insole acquired the Maesmawr Colliery, Llantwit Fardre from J.Bennet Grover

1832 = Reform Bill

1832 = Nash Point Lighthouses erected in response to request from 440 ship owners of Bristol Channel ports

1832/3 = new County gaol built in the Spital Field, Cardiff (the present site of Cardiff Gaol)

1833 = First steam boat service between Cardiff & Bristol

1833 = Nantgarw Pottery site used by the Pardoe family for manufacture of earthenware.

1834 = Eisteddfod held in Cardiff

1834 = William Crawshay commenced Treforest Tinplate Works

1834 = Anthony Alsop, Iron Master, leased the Old Boring Mill in Cardiff for the boring of cannon

1835 = Rolling Mill built at Treforest Tinplate Works

1835 = National Provincial Bank branch established in Cardiff

1835 = First export of Cynon Valley coal from Cardiff

7 September 1835 = Municipal Corporations Act ended the control of towns by their herditary lords,

replacing this with control by elected representatives of the people

19 December 1835 = opening of Cardiff Market Hall

26 December 1835 = First elections to the new Cardiff TownCouncil

1836 = First Cardiff Police Force organised. John Stockdale, ex London Police Force appointed first Superintendent of Police for Cardiff

21 June 1836 = Private Act of Parliament obtained by Sir John Josiah Guest for the construction of a single track railway from the Merthyr Tydfil & Dowlais ironworks to the dock proposed for construction at Cardiff (Taff Vale Railway)

1836 = Founding of Glamorgan & Monmouthshire Infirmary and Dispensary (Cardiff Royal Infirmary)

1 January 1836 = First meeting of new Cardiff TownCouncil

1 January 1836 = Thomas Revel Guest elected first Mayor of Cardiff under the new arrangements

By 1837 = Batchelor Bros set up timber importing business in Cardiff

By 1837 = Daniel Thomas and Watson & Co. had set up saw-mills on the wharf at Cardiff

1837 = Act of Parliament obtained for the provision of Gas Lighting in Cardiff

By 1838 = Formation of the Glamorganshire Literary and Scientific Institution

1838 = Union Street Welsh Methodist Chapel , Cardiff opened

1838 = Dr.William Price erected two roundhouses at Glyntaff as part of a projected Druidic Museum

9 October 1839 - opening of Bute West Dock, Cardiff - the first of the Cardiff docks

1839 = Publication of The People's Charter

1839 = 133000 tons of iron exported from Cardiff

4 November 1839 = Monmouthshire Chartists led by John Frost, William Jones & Zephaniah Williams "attacked" Newport, Mon.but a volley of shots from the army killing or injuring some 20 people broke up the riots and the leaders were eventually arrested and tried. John Frost & William Jones condemned to death but the sntence was commuted and they were transported to Van Diemenslad.

By 1840 = National Schools established in St.Marys, Cardiff (Mr & Mrs Goyne), Llandaff (Miss Snell & , Roath. (Miss Thomas)

1840 = attempt by Cardiff to get permission to set up its own Ship Pilotage Authority defeated

9 October 1840 = first sector of the Taff Vale Railway opened from Cardiff to Abercynon

1841 = First Cardiff Police Station opened in St.Mary Street, Cardiff

5 April 1841 = extension of Taff Vale Railway to Merthyr Tydfil

June 1841 = Taff Vale Railway branch to Dinas, Rhondda opened

1842 = St.Davids Catholic Church built in Bute Terrace, Cardiff

1842 = Outbreak of Cholera in Cardiff

1842 = John Nixon took the first cargo of Glamorgan coal to France

By 1843 = South Wales supplying iron rails to Russia, Germany and USA for the railway expansion, all being exported via Cardiff. William Crawshay of Cyfarthfa supplied rails for every rail line in the USA and Guest for many rail lines in Russia

1843 = John Batchelor set up his shipbuilding yard in Cardiff (having moved fromNewport, Mon)

1843 = Site of the old St,Mary's Church, Cardiff bought by Lord Bute

1843 = Restoration of Llandaff Cathedral commenced by Dean Knight

19 June 1843 = Crowd led by "Rebecca" destroyed the Carmarthen Workhouse. 4th Light Dragoons arrived from Cardiff and the crowd ran away

June 1843 = 73rd Regiment of Foot sent to Carmarthen to join the 4th Light Dragioons

July 1843 = first "Rebecca" incidents in Glamorgan at Pontarddulais & Llangyfelach. Leaders of the Glamorgan rioters were Shoni Sgubor Fawr (John Jones) from Penderyn, Merthyr Tydfil & Dai'r Cantwr (David Davies) from Llancarfan.

September 1843 = Shoni Sgubor Fawr & Dai'r Cantwr informed upon and arrested

14 December 1843 = opening of new St,Mary's Church, Cardiff

27 December 1843 = Trial of Shoni Sgubor Fawr & Dai'r Cantwr at Carmarthen Assizes. Both transported to Australia

1844 = John Williams ironmongery business set up in Cardiff (later John Williams Iron Foundry)

1845 = The South Wales Railway incorporated to run from Chepstow to Swansea via Newport & Cardiff (with Isambard Kingdom Brunel as engineer)

1846 = Greyhound Inn, Caerphilly Mountain (Whitchurch side) built

1847 = Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the State of Education in Wales (the Blue Books)

12 September 1847 = birth of John Stuart, son and heir of the 2nd Marquis of Bute by Sophia (Hastings)

1848 = Public Cemetery opened in Adamsdown

1848 = an old smithy in Rhiwbina rented as a meeting house by the Congrgationalists and called Beulah Chapel

1849 = Further outbreak of Cholera in Cardiff

1849 = extension of the Taff Vale Railway to Dowlais

1849 = start of the diversion of the River Taff in Cardiff to allow for the construction of the railway

1849 = Rebuilding of Cowbridge Grammar School started (completed 1852)