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Books and Articles on Hoboes


Reference-Bibliography "A"

Aaron, Chester, Lackawanna, New York: Lippincott, 1986.. A novel, aimed at the Jr. High level, of a gang of abandoned children living in NYC during the depression. They take to the rails when one of their younger members is kidnapped by a "jocker." Lots of rail riding as they travel from NYC to Chicago and back.

Adams, Charles E., "The Real Hobo: What He Is and How He Lives," Forum, pp. 438-49, June 1902..

Adrian, Lynne Marie, Organizing the Rootless: American Hobo Subculture, 1893-1932, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa [see Fox 1989], 1984.

Advisory Committee of the Municipal Lodging House. 1915. "The Men We Lodge: A Report to the Commissioner of Public Charities," New York: New York Advisory Social Service Committee.

Alexander, Edwin P., Down at the Depot: American Railroad Stations from 1831 to 1920, New York, Bramhall House, 320 pages, 1970.. Includes over 300 photographs, illustrations, index and bibliography. Photographs with brief narrative of many freight and passenger stations throughout the US are presented: country, suburban and city stations - both large and small - plus a special section on bygone stations.

--- "All About the Entity of the Ego Is Taught at the Hobo University," Literary Digest, , p. 52, July 12, 1919.

Algren, Nelson, Somebody in Boots, 1935. A depression era novel with lots of rail riding.

Allsop, Kenneth, Hard Travellin': The Hobo and His History, New York: New American Library, 448 pages, 1967.. Includes eight leaves of plates, illustrations, portraits, bibliography.

--- Hard Travellin': The Story of the Migrant Worker, Pimlico (London), 1993.

Anderson, Maxwell and Harold Hickerson Gods of the lightning, [and] Outside looking in by Maxwell Anderson. New York Longmans, Green and Co. 1928.

Anderson, Nels, The American Hobo, Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1975.

--- The Hobo: The Sociology of the Homeless Man, 1923., reprinted 1967, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 296 pages. Includes illustrations and bibliography. A study prepared for the Chicago Council of Social Agencies under the direction of the Committee on Homeless Men, published 1923.

--- Men on the Move, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Sociological Series, 1940. Reprinted 1974, New York: Da Capo Press, 357 pages. Includes illustrations and bibliography. Anderson stated in the introduction that one of the failures of The Hobo [see Anderson 1923] was the overlooking of the labor implications. This work is the rectification of that oversight. It focuses on the life of the migrant worker the migrant family, the current problems of migrancy, the plans and programs that attempted to deal with such issues, and the effects of technology and industrialization. Sixty tables containing statistical information are presented throughout the book. Many photographs, predominantly from the Farm Security Administration, are included.

--- "Highlights of the Migration Problem Today," Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work, 67, pp. 109-17, 1940.

--- The Milk and Honey Route: A Handbook for Hoboes, New York: Vanguard Press, 1931..

--- "The Juvenile and the Tramp," Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology, pp. 290-312, August 1, 1923. .

Anderson, Paul, "Tramping with Yeggs," Atlantic Monthly, pp.747-55, December 1925..

Armitage, Susan and Elizabeth Jameson, The Women's West, Norman, OK and London: The University of Oklahoma Press, 323 pages, 1987. Includes illustrations, index and bibliographies.

Armstrong, Clairette P., 660 Runaway Boys: Why Boys Desert Their Homes Gorham Press, 208 pp., 1932.

Ashleigh, Charles, Rambling Kid, London: Faber, 1930..

--- "The Floater," International Socialist Review, July 15, pp. 34-38, 1914..

Aynesworth, Hugh, "Old Hobos Gather Around the Fire as Whistle Blows for a Dying Breed," Washington Times, August 14, A/1. 1989. An account of the many hoboes who traveled from all over the country to honor their departed buddies at the Hobo Cemetery and reminisce about the so-called dying tradition of the hobo at the National Hobo Convention in Britt, Iowa.

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Reference-Bibliography "B"

Bahr, Howard M., Skid Row: An Introduction to Disaffiliation, New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1973.. Includes notes, name and subject indexes. Based upon the materials collected during Bahr's eight-year program of research conducted at the Bureau of Applied Social
Research. The social organization, history, types and characteristics of homeless men and women, public attitudes about homeless men and means of control and rehabilitation are presented.

--- Disaffiliated Man, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1970..Essays and bibliography on skid row, vagrancy, and outsiders, 428 pages with an annotated bibliography.

--- Homelessness and Disaffiliation, New York: Bureau of Applied Social Research, Columbia University, under the direction of Theodore Caplow, 437 leaves, 1968..

Bailey, William, Bill Bailey Came Home: As a Farm Boy, as a Stow-away at the age of Nine, a Trapper at the Age of Fifteen, and a Hobo at the Age of Sixteen, Logan: Utah State University Press, 183 pages, 1973..

Ball, Don Jr. and Rogers E. M. Whitaker. Decade of the Trains, the 1940s, Boston: Little, Brown & Co., New York Graphic Society, 287 pages with photographs, 1977.. Contains narrative and photographs of steam locomotives, freight and passenger cars (some photographs of the typical caboose interior are included), yard, road, and maintenance operations, and the shipping of military supplies and personnel.

Barth, Charles P., Hobo Trail to Nowhere, Philadelphia: Whitmore Publishing Co., 150 pages, 1969..

Batchelor, Bronson, "The Hotel de Gink," Independent, January 25, pp. 127-28, 1915. A report on "The Hotel de Dink," established by Jeff Davis and other hoboes on the corner of Center and Worth Streets in New York City. Davis' words make up the majority of this article.

Baxter, Ellen, Private Lives/Public Spaces : Homeless Adults on the Streets of New York City, New York: Community Service Society of New York, Institute for Social Welfare Research, 1981.

Beck, Frank, Hobohemia, West Rindge, NH: Richard R. Smith, 95 pages, 1956.. Beck tells of his personal experiences with the people, places and organizations of Chicago's hobohemia. These include Lennie the Limp, a mission stiff; Mr. Porter (rich man turned beggar man-thief due to dope addiction); Emma Goldman the queen of anarchy; Ben Reitman (hobo, whorehouse physician, lecturer, anarchist); Harry Batters, the legendary I.O.Utopian; a college bred soapboxer named Martha; Lucy Parsons, the anarchic literature zealot and widow of convicted Haymarket Riot martyr, Albert W. Parsons; Nina Van Zandt, the society debutante-anarchist; the former Noble Prize winner Jane Adams (1860-1935); Bug House Square; Madison Street; the Chicago Hobo College; and the Dill Pickle Club.

Beebe, Lucius, Mixed Train Daily: A Book of Short-Line Railroads, Berkeley, CA: Howell-North. Includes approximately 300 photographs, by Charles M. Clegg Jr., six color plates of original oil paintings by Howard Fogg, acknowledgments, index, railroad glossary and bibliography, 1947. This book is focussed on the mixed train consists (passenger and freight) run by the 500 or more short-line railroads that were independently owned and/or operated in the U. S.

Beedon, David, Basic Training: A Pseudo Sophisticated Guide to the Proper Technique of Traveling by Freight Train in the USA Based Mainly on the Experiences of One Person Who Has Hopped Many Freights and Digs It, unpublished manuscript, 33 pages, 1973..

Benson, Benjamin, Hoboes of America: Sensational Life Story and Epic of Life on the Road, 1942..

--- 500,000 Miles Without a Dollar, New York, 1942.. A version of this appeared as "How To Go To California Without a Dollar" in the February 1937 issue of Hobo News [see Hobo News].

Black, Jack. 1926. You Can't Win, New York: Macmillan. Reprinted 1992, Kukukuihaele, HI: Omniun, 346 pages. Reprinted (?) 2000, San Francisco: Nabot Books.

Blatchly, Charles, "State Farm for Tramps and Vagrants," Survey, pp. 87-89, April 9, 1910..

Blau, Rapheal, "Magnificent Hobo," Holiday, December, pp. 178-85, 1955..

Blurr, Buz, hoohoohobos fortuitous logos, 1999., Modern Realism, P.O. Box 410837, San Francisco, CA  94141, $15 ppd.

Botkin, Benjamin Albert, and F. F. Harlow, A Treasury of Railroad Folklore: The Stories, Tall Tales, Traditions, Ballads, and Songs of the American Railroad Man, New York: Crown Publishers, 530 pages, 1953.. Includes illustrations and melodies with lyrics.

Botkin, Benjamin Albert, The American People in Their Stories, Legends...Traditions, Ballads & Songs, 1946. Ballads of sailors, miners, hoboes, slaves, lumberjacks, etc.

Brackett, Jeffrey, The Transportation Problem in American Social Work, New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1936.

Bragg, Roy, "Lars & Lizbeth," Houston Chronicle, November 21, 1993.. Bragg discussed author Lars Eighner's book "Travels With Lizbeth," an autobiographical saga of a modern-day hobo (hitchhiking, walking), Lars, and his dog, Lizbeth.

Brewer, W. H., "What Shall We Do With Tramps?" New Englander, p. 521, 1878.

Brissendon, Paul F., The I.W.W.: A Study of American Syndicalism, New York: Russell and Russell, 438 pages, 1919.

--- and Emil Frankel, "The Mobility of Industrial Labor," Political Science Quarterly, December, pp. 566-94, 1920.

Broderick, Richard, "The Hobo Camp," Prairie Schooner, (Fall), p. 135, 1994. A short poem about a hobo camp.

Brown, E. A. "Broke: The Man without a Dime."

Bruere, Robert, "The Industrial Workers of the World," Harper's Monthly Magazine, July, pp. 250-57, 1918.

Bruns, Roger, The Damndest Radical : The Life and World of Ben Reitman, Chicago's Celebrated Social Reformer, Hobo King, and Whorehouse Physician, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 332 pages, 1987. Includes 18 pages of plates, illustrations, index, and bibliography. Compare with Reitman 1937.

--- Knights of the Road: A Hobo History, New York: Methuen, 214 pages, 1980. Includes illustrations, hobo dictionary and selected bibliography. A comprehensive historical examination of the American hobo phenomenon with focus on hoboes and subtypes (e.g., jockers, moochers, thieves) of the Great Depression era. Topics also include Chicago, the work of Dr. Ben L Reitman, Nels Anderson, the I.W.W., life on the road. Convincing argument on why hoboes are not bums is provided in chapter five.

Buck, Solon, The Granger Movement: A Study of Agricultural Organization and it's Political, Economic, and Social Manifestations 1870-1880, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1913. Reprinted, 1963, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 384 pages. Includes illustrations and

--- Travel and Description, 1765-1865, Together with a List of County Histories, Atlases, and Biographical Collections and a List of Territorial and State Laws, Springfield, IL., The Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, Collection of the Illinois State Historical Library
Series, vol. IX., Bibliographical series, vol. II., 514 pages, 1914. Includes portraits, and facsimiles.

Bull, William, Trampery: Its Causes, Present Aspects, and Some Suggested Remedies, Boston, G.H. Ellis, 1886.

Bunce, Frank, "I've Got To Take a Chance," Forum, February, pp. 108-12, 1933..

Burns, Stella E., illustrated by Evelyn Kenyon The Lonesome Whistle's Call West Kingston, Rhode Island: Kingston Press, 1997. Forced to leave home, a teenager rides the rails during depression  
years. A true story.

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Reference-Bibliography "C"

Cannon, James Patrick, The I.W.W., New York: Merit Publishers, 1971.

Caplan, Sam, Train Tags, a University research paper, Dec. 14, 1997.

Carlin, Peter, "Social Outcasts: The Tramp in American Society 1873-1910," paper delivered at the annual meeting of the American Historical Association, New York, December 28, 1979.

Carnagey, Dale, "The World's Best Known Hobo," American Magazine, October, pp. 58-59, 1914.

Cassady, Neal, The First Third, San Francisco: City Lights Books, 225 pages, 1971.

Charles Chaplin, director and writer, The Tramp, Essanay Films, 20 minutes, black and white, 16 mm, 1915. In this comedic film, Chaplin portrays a persnickety tramp that rescues a beautiful woman from robbers and then falls in love with her. Upon discovering that she loves someone else, he takes to the road. The cast includes Charles Chaplin, Edna Purviance, Bud Jamison, Leo White, and Paddy McGuire.

Chaplin, Ralph, Wobbly: The Rough-and-Tumble Story of an American Radical, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 435 pages with portraits, 1948. An autobiography.

"Chicago: Hobo Capitol of America," Survey, pp. 303-5, June 1,1923.

Chazin, Suzanne, "Long Journey Home," Reader's Digest November, pp. 83-6, 1991. Includes illustrations. Chazin recalled her father's days as a hobo during the Great Depression and how his experiences gave her the freedom to travel but also to return home.

Chelemedos, Peter, Peter, the Odyssey of a Merchant Mariner, Seattle, WA: Peanut Butter Publishing, 188 pages, 1980.

Chiles, James R., "Hallelujah, I'm a Bum," Smithsonian Magazine, August 1998.

Cohen, Norm, Long Steel Rail: The Railroad in American Folksong, Urbana, Chicago and London: University of Illinois Press, 710 pages, 1981. Includes illustrations, melodies with chord symbols, index, discography, and bibliography. A definitive work on the subject.

Comerford, Mike, "Hobo Heaven," Chicago Tribune, August 17, 1990.. Comerford commented on the National Hobo Convention in Britt, Iowa, and the traditions that surround it including the annual election of a King and Queen of the Hoboes.

Complete Directory of Railroad Lingo. A definitive reference of the railroad parlance used in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. 2,500 words, 143 pages with illustrations. Contact: H.A. Durfy, 1220 NE 1143rd G#15, Seattle, WA 98125.

Conlin, Joseph Robert, Big Bill Haywood and the Radical Union Movement, Syracuse, NY, Syracuse University Press, 244 pages, 1969. Includes portraits and bibliographical references.

Conover, Ted, Rolling Nowhere: A Young Man's Adventures Riding the Rails with America's Hoboes, New York, NY, Viking Press, 274 pages, 1984. Includes two pages of plates and a journey map. Conover, an anthropology student, gives his account of riding sixty-five freight trains, over 12,000 miles in fifteen states.

Crabb, James. The Gipsies' Advocate; or, Observations on the Origin, Character, Manners, and Habits of The English Gipsies...London Lindsay 1831.

Cramer, Alexander A Night In Moonbeam County New York: Scribner's : Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada : New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, circa 1994. Juvenile Fiction. Summary: While riding the rails, two teenagers meet a mysterious group of hoboes who tell the boys a series of ghostly stories.

Crampton, Frank, Deep Enough: A Working Stiff in the Western Miners' Camp, Denver: Sage Books, 1956.

Cresswell, Tim, Tramp in America, Reaktion Books Ltd.

Cronon, William, Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West, New York, and London: W.W. Norton, 530 pages. Includes 30 pages of plates, illustrations, maps, index bibliographical references, 1991.

--- George Miles and Jay Gitlin editors, Under an Open Sky: Rethinking America's Western Past, New York, NY, W.W. Norton, 354 pages, 1992. Includes illustrations, index, and bibliographical references.

Crouse, Joan M. The homeless transient in the Great Depression: New York State, 1929-1941. Albany State University of New York Press 1986.

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Reference-Bibliography "D"

d'Autremont, Hugh, Rails North, Vantage Press, 1989.

Davenport, Paula, "Retired Hobo Eager to Hit the Road Again," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, August 7, I/1, 1989. A feature about Rudy Phillips, the National 1986 King of the Hobos, and his Hobo Museum in Shawneetown, IL.

Davis, Jeff "Devil on Wheels" Volume I, Cincinnati: Jeff Davis Publisher, 1962. An autobiographical notes of the "King Of Hoboes And Emperor of Knights of the Road" Hoboically, Jeff Davis, King of Hoboes.

Davis, Kingsley, Youth in the Depression, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1935.

Davis, Marc, "On the Road Again: College Professor Cliff Oats Williams is at Home with Hobos and Homeless," Chicago Tribune, Sunday, March 12, 1995.

Davis, William Henry, The Autobiography of a Super-Tramp, London: McKenzie Flowers & Co., 1897. Reprinted 1917, New York, NY: A. A. Knopf, 345 pages; 1942, 1952, London: Jonathan Cape, 318 pages, with preface by G. Bernard Shaw. 1926. The Adventures of Johnny Walker, Tramp, London: J. Cape. Reprinted 1970, London: A.C. Fitfield, 256 pages.

DeCaux, Len, Labor Radical: From the Wobblies to CIO, Boston, MA: Beacon Press/Unitarian Universalist Association, 1970..

Dees, Jesse Walter, Jr. Flophouse: An Authentic Undercover Study of "Flophouses," "Cage Hotels," ...A Sociological Study That Includes English Origins of Mass Relief...Public and Private Policies in Chicago Francestown, New Hampshire: Marshall Jones Company, 1948. Jesse Walter Dees, Jr., "The Hobo Professor."

Dewhurst, H.S., The Railroad Police, Springfield, IL, 1955.

Dillof, Richardm Hobo, Tower, 1981. "He's one of the last steam train riders, an apprentice hobo who has traded home and family for the only true freedom left. In the hobo jungles by the railroad tracks, in seedy bars, rundown hotels and nameless towns, the derelicts and rejects congregate, intitiating him into their lonely fraternity, the brotherhood of the road." ......back cover.

"The Disappearing Tramp," The Nation, p.5, January 3, 1907. A commentary about types of hoboes and their respective profiles with particular comparison between "yeggs" and "tramps."

Dixon, Winifred Hawkbridge Westward Hoboes. NY: Ch. Scribner. 1922

Dohrn, John personal interview, Feb. 25, 1998

--- "The Great Depression", written and produced by Craig Constantine for the History Channel. Mar. 7, 1998.

--- "Introduction to Train Hopping" (Jan. 28, 1998).

--- "Train Hoppers Dictionary" (Jan. 28, 1998).

Douglass, William O., Go East, Young Man, New York: Dell Publishing Company, 1974.

Downing, Mortimer, "The Case of the Hop Pickers," International Socialist Review, pp. 210-213, October, 1913.

"Drawbacks of Being a Knight of the Road," Literary Digest, pp. 1281-86, November 11, 1916.

Dubofsky, Melvyn, We Shall Be All: A History of the Industrial Workers of the World, Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1968, also 1986. Reprinted 1969, Chicago and New York: Quadrangle,
1987. "Big Bill" Haywood [1869-1928], New York: St. Martin's Press, 184 pages. Includes index and bibliography.

Ducker, James H., Men of the Steel Rail: Workers on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad, 1869-1900, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 220 pages, 1983. Includes 10 pages of plates, illustrations, index, and bibliography.

Duffy, Bruce, "Catching a Westbound Freight," Harper's Magazine, pp. 49-61, June 1989. Novelist Duffy recounted his first experience hopping a freight train with veteran hoboes Beargrease and Seattle Slim. The National Hobo Convention in Britt, IA is mentioned.

Duke, Donald., "The Railroad Tramp," American Railroad Journal, 2, pp.32-45, 1967-8.

Duis, Perry R., The Saloon: Public Drinking in Chicago and Boston, Urbana and Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press, 380 pages with an index, 1983.

Dunn, Martha, "Philosophy and the Tramps," Atlantic Monthly, pp. 776-83, June 1906.

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Reference-Bibliography "E"

Edge, William, The Main Stem, New York: Vanguard Press, 1927.

Ehrman, Mark, "A Tradition Rides 'the Westbound'," Los Angeles Times, August 27, 1991. A feature about the National Hobo Convention in Britt, Iowa.

Eighner, Lars, Travels with Lizbeth: Three Years on the Road and on the Streets, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. Eighner's personal account of his travels with his dog Lizbeth (predominantly hitchhiking and walking). It provides insight into the aspects of homeless life, temporary living arrangements, unemployment, canine companionship, male homosexuality, dumpster diving, alcohol, drugs, insanity, and writing as a profession.

Eisley, Loren, All the Strange Hours: The Excavation of Life, New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 273 pages: illustrations, 1975.

Elam, Samuel Milton, "Lady Hoboes," New Republic, pp. 164-69, January 1, 1930. In this narrative with dialogue, Elam tells of his personal acquaintance and experiences with five ladies of the road: (1) an unidentified woman on the Southern Pacific, (2-3) Daisy and Moll, two once-were reform school girls turned hobo with the help of Ding Lewis, (4) a woman approximately fifty years of age, with a knack for soliciting and receiving hand-outs named Mary, and (5) Sal Harper, as told by Frisco Pete.

Etulain, Richard, editor, Jack London on the Road: The Tramp Diary and other Hobo Writings, Logan: Utah State University Press, 209 pages, 1977. Includes two leaves of plates, illustrations, and bibliographical references.

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Reference-Bibliography "F"

Facciolo, Jay, The Wobs and the Bos: The IWW and the Hobo, unpublished masters thesis, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 1977.

Farrington, Selwyn Kip, Railroading the Modern Way, New York: Coward-McCann, 395 pages, 1951. Includes illustrations. Fendelman, Helaine. Tramp Art.

Feied, Frederick, No pie in the sky; the hobo as American cultural hero in the works of Jack London, John Dos Passos, and Jack Kerouac. New York the Citadel Press 1964.

Ferguson, Sarah, "Meet the Crusties," Esquire, January, pp. 68-75, 1994. A discussion of the author's travels with members of the "generation-X-hobo-punk" movement.

Flynt, Josiah, How Men Become Tramps, The Century; a popular quarterly, volume 50, issue
6, Oct 1895.

--- The Railroads and the Tramp, The Century; a popular quarterly, volume 58, issue 2, June 1899.

--- Tramping with Tramps, The Century; a popular quarterly, volume 47, issue 1, Nov 1893.

Foner, Phillip, Jack London: American Rebel, New York: Citadel Press, 1947. Reprinted 1964, 155 pages with bibliography.

"For Hoboes: Hobo News," Time, pp. 67-69, May 17, 1937. Short account of Ben Benson's almost-incarceration by the New York City Police department for selling the Hobo News - a magazine the
police thought to be a hoax and a money making scam. Brief description about the Hobo News is provided.

Forbes, James, "The Tramp; or Caste in the Jungle," Outlook, pp. 869-75, August19, 1911. The editors of the Outlook noted that Forbes - as the Secretary of the National Association for the Prevention of Mendicancy - was the leading authority of the country on underworld having studied
those sections of criminal and diligent classes [p.869]. Forbes discussed the distinctions and background of the members of the various hobo strata (classes): tramps, hoboes, gaycats, transient
workmen, jockers, kids, nixey winger (person without arms due to train accident), and mush faks. Specific cases and people are used to illustrate various points (e.g., Ohio Slim, Susquehanna Red,
Spider Kid). Modes of communication (e.g., the water tower bulletin board), hobo fatalities, drinking, terminology, are discussed and lyrics to a few songs are provided.

--- "John the Yeggman," Outlook, pp. 823-828, August 12, 1911. Forbes provides insight into the practices, methods, tools and behavioral characteristics of yeggs (safe-cracking criminals and/or criminals who ride the rails and rob others). John Yegg is a term, not a specific person. However, many real-life yeggs are discussed (e.g., Topeka Joe, Fatty Ghee, Buck Bullard).

--- "Jockers and the Schools They Keep," Charities, pp. 432-36, November 7, 1903.

Foster, William Z., Pages from a Worker's Life, New York: International Publishers Co., 1939.

Fox, Elmer, Tales of an American Hobo, Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 226 pages1989. Reprint (?) at 265 pages. Preface by Albert A. Stone, introduction by Lynne M. Adrian [see Adrian]. Includes bibliographic references. Reefer Charlie rode the rails from 1928-1939 and from 1939 to 1965, he hitchhiked and traveled by foot.

Fox, R.M., "Rolling Stones," Nineteenth Century, pp. 846-54, June 1930.

Fow, Terry, Hobo Signs: A Compilation of Hobo Signs for Those Who May One Day Find Them Useful, Munchen, Germany: Kunstraum Munchen, 112 pages with bibliographical references, 1985. A collection of hobo signs illustrated in freehand with definitions with a brief history.

Fried, Frederick, No Pie in the Sky; The Hobo as American Cultural Hero in the works of Jack London (1876-1916), John Dos Passos (1896-1970), and Jack Kerouac (1922-1969), New York: Citadel Press, 95 pages with a bibliography, 1964.

Freed, Dolly. Possum Living: How to Live with Very Little Money.

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Reference-Bibliography "G"

Garahan, Melbourne, Stiffs, New York: T. Seltzer, 311 pages, 1924.

Garland, Hamlin, A Son of the Middle Border, New York, NY: The Macmillan Company. Reprinted 1927, New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 467 pages, 1917.

--- Trail-Makers of the Middle Border, New York, NY: The Macmillan Company, 426 pages, 1926. Includes illustrations and plates.

--- A Daughter of the Middle Border, New York, NY: Grosset & Dunlap, 405 pages, 1926.

Garrad, G.A., "Boy Tramps and Reform Schools; A Reply to Mr. Flynt," Century, p. 955, April 1896.

"Gentle Art of Hoboing As Practiced by an Artist," Literary Digest, pp. 40-43, July 16, 1921.

Gojack, John, A Long Way From Hungary.

Goldman, Emma, Living My Life, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1931. Reprinted 1970, New York, NY: Da Capo Press, 2 volumes, includes illustrations, portraits; and 1982, Salt Lake City: G.M. Smith, 993 pages with portraits.

--- Anarchism, and Other Essays with Biographic Sketch by Hippolyte Havel, 1910. Reprinted 1969, Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 277 pages with portraits.

Graham Maury Steam Train and Robert J. Hemming, Tales of the Iron Rod, My Life as King of the Hobos, New York: Paragon House, 222 pages, 1990.

--- A History of Hoboes, Tramps, and other Vagabonds, Toledo, OH: Graham, 1985. A discussion of the definitions and distinctions of hoboes, tramps, transients, hitchhikers, bums, boomers, gypsies, winos, and rubber vagabonds. This also contains another of Graham's books, Patches.

Gray, Carl Raymond, Railroading in Eighteen Countries; The Story of American Railroad Men Serving in the Military Railway Service, 1862 to 1953, New York: Scribner, 351 pages, 1955. Includes illustrations, portraits, and maps.

"The Great American Hobo," A video directed and produced for PBS by Bob "Sante Fe Bo" Hopkins, National Hobo Association co-founder, 1994. Contact: NHA, PO BOX 706, Nisswa, MN 56468.

"The Great Historical Bum: An Introduction to Hobo Folklore," Come All Ye, October-December 1975.

Green, Howard, "A Devil With a Lot of Questions: Reverend John McCook and His 1891 Tramp Survey," paper presented at the annual meeting of the Organization of American Historians, New Orleans, LA, April 1979.

Gregory, Ted, "Weekend Hobos Romance of the Rails Lures Some Unlikely Vagabonds," Chicago Tribune, July 3, 1995. An article about the "Loco Motives," a group of hobo enthusiasts who gather to share hobo stories in Chicago. A short trip a father and son take on a "recreational ride." The truths about rail life, its lure, and Chicago are discussed. About hobo history and current trainhopping activities. A hobo glossary is included.

Grienbrier, J.J., Railroadin, Etc, 1977.

Grosfield, Byron, Buckaroos and Boxcars, Big Timber, Montana: Pioneer Publishing Co., 1981.

"Guitar Solo to the Luring Freight Car," Chicago Literary Times, June 15, 1923.

Guthrie, Woody, Bound for Glory, New York, NY: E.P. Dutton, 1943. Reprinted 1983, New York: New American Library, 320 pages with illustrations.

Gutman, Herbert, "Work, Culture, and Society in America, 1815-1919," American Historical Review, June 1973.

Gypsy Moon, Done & Been: Steel Rail Chronicles of American Hobos, Indiana University Press, 216 pages with 22 photos, 1996. Includes recipes and interviews with contemporary riders and erstwhile riders.

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Reference-Bibliography "H"

Haardt, Sara, "Jim Tully," American Mercury, pp. 82-89, May 1928.

Hader, John, J., "Honk Honk Hobo," The Survey, pp. 453-455, August 1, 1928. An early article about rubber-tramping. The context is mostly a comparison between rubber-tramps and freight tramps. Interesting photos.

Hahn, Jessica Erica, Transient ways, HI Passing Through Publications 1997. Collection of stories, journal entries, poems, and photographs of modern hoboism including freight train hopping.

Hall, J. N., "How The Tramp Travels," Harper's Weekly, March 12, pp. 255-56, 1892.

Hallet, Richard M. This Rolling World.

Hallman, Tom Jr., "Rail Police Have Hard Life on Tracks," Oregonian, Monday, April 17, 1995. An article about the trivialities, dangers, and difficulties of railroad police work with excerpts of interviews with Tom Morrison, supervising agent in Portland, OR and special agent Bob Spinks of the Union Pacific Railroad.

Hapgood, Hutchins, Types From City Streets, New York: Garrett Press, 1910. Reprinted 1970, The Social History of Poverty: The Urban Experience Series, 379 pages with illustrations.

Harlow, Alvin Fay, Old Bowery Days: The Chronicles of A Famous Street, New York and London: D. Appleton, 564 pages, 1931. Includes illustrations and bibliography.

Harper, Douglas A., Good Company, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. The dialogue between Harper (a sociologist), his riding partner Carl (a hobo) and the various hoboes encountered during Harper's month-long field work riding the rails. It is presented according to the sequence of events. Harper's concerns were primarily work-related issues and the majority of the dialogue presented is about these topics along with alcohol, drugs, women and law.

--- "Life on the Road," in John Wagner, ed., Images of Information: Still Photography in Social Sciences, Sage Focus Editions, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 311 pages, 1979. Includes preface by Howard S. Becker and bibliography.

--- The Homeless Man: An Ethnography of Work, Trains, and Booze, Ph.D. dissertation, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Microfilms, 1976.

Harring, Sidney, "Class Conflict and the Suppression of Tramps in Buffalo, 1892-1894," Law and Society Review, Summer, 1977.

Harris, Sara, Skid Row, U.S.A., Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 285 pages, 1956. Harris attempted to debunk "common misconceptions" about those who belong to the Skid Row class. Chapter Seven "Hobohemia U.S.A," is a conversation between Harris and hoboes "Schloime the Troime," "Cussin Cassidy," "Rickety Stan," and "Big Belly Bob Johnson." The I.W.W. is a large portion of the discussion.

Haywood, Bill, The Autobiography of Big Bill Haywood, New York: International Publishers, 1974.

--- Bill Haywood's Book: The Autobiography of William D. Haywood, New York: International Publishers, 1929.

--- The I.W.W. Trial: The Case of the United States Versus William D. Haywood and Others, Held at the United States District Court at Chicago, 1918, New York: Arno Press, Mass Violence America Series, 208 pages, 1969..

Healy, T.F., "Hobo Hits the Highroad," American Mercury, pp. 334-38, July 1926.

Hennessy, D. On the Bum; sketches of tramp life, Girard, KS Haldeman-Julius Company 1926. Little blue book no. 1124

Hertoghs, On the Rail Again, from the Belgian magazine Humo, Jan. 1996, in 4 parts, July 23, July 30, Aug. 6, Aug. 13

Hibberd, James, Trainhopping, Austin American-Statesman, Jan. 15, 1998.

Hinkle, Ray, Polk County Vagabond: A Hobo Autobiography, 1991.

Hobo Foundation. The National Hobo Foundation located in Britt, Iowa. Contact: Hobo Foundation, c/o Marian Malek, P.O. Box 143, Britt, Iowa 50423.

"Hobo Hegemony: Convention to Decide Among Rival Kings of Road Knights," Literary Digest, April 10, 1937, pp. 10-12. Originally appeared in Hobo News.

Hobo News, February 1937-April 20,1948, published by Patrick Mulkern, Ben Hobo, "the Coast Kid" Benson - business manager. Featured articles, poems, cartoons, and occasionally songs about
politics, law enforcement, employment, and hobo life that catered to hobo culture (including hobo-sympathizers and hobo-intellectuals). It maintained and promoted a strongly pro-American viewpoint and also served as a political advocate on the behalf of hoboes.

Hobo Times: America's Journal of Wanderlust, published by the National Hobo Association (NHA) and distributed to NHA members approximately five times a year. Articles written by members are featured along with regular columns: Hobo Poetry and Lore, Letter from the NHA Director, Wheels and Whistles (personal tales from editor Buzz Potter), and a Classified section. Some articles are posted on the NHA Internet homepage. The NHA sponsors gatherings throughout the country.

Hoboes from Hell. Published by Lee. Stories from the high-iron written by contemporary riders. Contact: Hoboes from Hell, P.O. Box 2497, Santa Cruz, CA 95063.

"Hoboes' Union," Journal of Swithcman's Union of North America, 1914, pp. 20-22.

Hoch, Charles and Robert A. Slayton New Homeless and old; community and the Skid Row Hotel.
Philadelphia Temple University Press 1989.

Hofer, E.,"The Tramp Problem," Overland Monthly, p. 628, 23, 1893-94.

Hoffman, Victor F., The American Tramp, 1870-1900, Masters thesis, University of Chicago, 1953.

Hofvendahl, Russ, A Land So Fair and Bright, published by the author, 1995. Contact: Russ Hofvendahl, P.O. Box 5458, San Jose, CA 95150-5458.

Holbrook, Stewart, The Story of American Railroads, New York: Crown Publishers, 1947.

--- James Jerome Hill [1838-1916], A Great Life in Brief, New York: Knopf, 205 pages with bibliography, 1955.

--- Little Annie Oakley & Other Rugged People, New York, Macmillan, 238 pages, 1948.

--- The Story of American Railroads, New York, Crown Publishers, 468 pages. Includes illustrations, portraits, maps and bibliography, 1947.

--- Lost Men of American History, New York: The Macmillan Company, 1946.

--- The American Lumberjack, New York: Collier Books, 254 pages, 1962. Includes index and bibliography. Originally appeared under the title Holy Old Mackinaw: A Natural History of the American Lumberjack.

Holm, Monte, Once a Hobo . . . with Dennis Clay, Proctor Publications, LLC, 1999. $25. The book can also be purchased from "The House of Poverty Museum" and Moses Lake Iron & Metal, P.O. Box 448, Moses Lake, WA 98837. Located on Broadway Avenue (Business Route I-90) about two miles east of the main Moses Lake freeway exit. Tour hours 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Reservations recommended. (509) 765-6342.

Hoover, Erin, "Police Question Suspect in Boxcar Slayings," The Oregonian,March 7, 1996.
A report on the investigation of Robert Joseph Silveria, suspected of killing two men found in boxcars in Oregon. His involvement in of homicides in Arizona, California, Kansas, Montana, Texas and Utah is also mentioned.

Hopkins, Bobb "Santa Fe 'Bo," Hobo Travel Guide, Los Angeles: National Hobo Association. An introduction to freight hopping and the National Hobo Association, 1988.

Hopkinson Smith, F. A Gentleman Vagabond and Some Others Cambridge: Riverside Press, 1895.

"How Baltimore Banished Tramps," Forum, pp. 497-504. An early article on the tramp problem and the in-vogue remedies of the day.

"How to Tell a Hobo from a Mission Stiff," Survey, p. 781, March, 21, 1914.

Howe, Ken, American Nomads, San Francisco Chronicle, Jan. 14, 1996.

Hubbard, Elbert, "Rights of Tramps," Arena, pp. 593-600, 1893.

Hultkrans, Andrew, Photo Bill's search for Bozo Texino, from the Stim Website, 1998.

Hurt, R. Douglas, The Dust Bowl: An Agricultural and Social History, Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 214 pages. Includes 16 leaves of plates, illustrations, maps, index, and bibliography, 1981.

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Reference-Bibliography "I"

Irwin, Godfrey, The American Tramp and Underworld Slang, New York: Sears Publishing Company Co. Reprinted in 1931 as American Tramp and Underworld Slang; Words and Phrases used by Hoboes, Tramps, Migratory Workers and Those on the Fringes of Society, With Their Uses and Origins, with a Number of Tramp Songs, Edited, with Essays on the Slang and the
Songs, by Godfrey Irwin. With a Terminal Essay on American slang in its Relation to English Thieves' Slang, by Eric Partridge, London: E. Partridge, Ltd. at the Scholartis Press, 263 pages, 1930..

Irwin, Will, "The Floating Laborer," Saturday Evening Post, May 9, 1914.

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Reference-Bibliography "J"

Jackson, Jason, Overland Slim the Maverick; The Seven Ages of the Eventful Life of a Genuine American Hobo, New York: Greenwich Book Publishers, 99 pages, 1957.

Jacobsen, Kurt, "Hail the Noble Movie Savage," The Guardian, p. 9, June 9, 1994. Jacobsen discussed the depiction of homeless people in modern films, with historical emphasis, citing the origins of this phenomenon as Charlie Chaplin's tramp and the vicious hobo in Jean Renoir's film "Boudu Saved from Drowning."

"James Eads How: Portrait," Collier's, p. 16, June 26, 1926. A depiction of the millionaire-hobo.

Jefferson, David J., "Weekend Hobos Try to Recapture a Romantic Past," Wall Street Journal, January 28, 1992. A feature about the "Beverly Hills 'Bos" who live in and around Beverly Hills, CA. Some members ride the rails in their spare time, while others gather to hear and share stories about hobo life. [See Madigan1992; it is a response to this article. Madigan was the safety inspector for the Federal Railroad Administration].

Jones, David, "Let the Hobo Myth Die: Debunking a Popular Image," Trains Magazine 1993. Jones, a college professor and historic railroad hobbyist, discouraged the glorification of hobo life because it serves as an incorrect role model which youths could emulate. Secondly, the poplar image does not consider the harsh reality of the hobo way of life.

Jones, G.C., Growing up Hard in Harlan County, Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky, 1985.

Jury, Mark, "The Last American Romantic," Ambassador, March, pp. 46-52, 1979.

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Reference-Bibliography "K"

Kaplan, Steve,"Hallelujah, I'm a Bum," Travel Holiday, p. 96, November 1988. The events of the National Hobo Convention in Britt, Iowa are discussed: the Hobo King and Queen Elections, parade, art fairs, carnival rides, games, races, music, poetry and story-telling, flea markets, and more. Historical facts about attendance and the hoboes' sleeping accommodations are also mentioned (empty boxcars on the outskirts of town).

Kazarian, John, "The Starvation Army," The Nation, April 12-26, 1933.

Keeley, Steve, ed., Hobo Life in America: Training Manual, Lansing, MI: Lansing Community College, 1986. An instructional text on the tradition of riding freight trains.

Kelly, E. The Elimination of the Tramp.

Kemp, Harry, "The Hobo," New Republic, pp. 365-66, August 22, 1923.

--- Tramping on Life, New York: Boni and Liveright. Reprinted 1927, Garden City, NY: Garden City Publishing Co., 1922.

--- Chanteys and Ballads, New York: Brentano's, 1920.

--- The Cry of Youth, New York: Mitchell, Kennerly, 1914..

--- "The Lure of the Tramp," Independent, pp. 1270-71, June 8, 1911.

Kenny, Raymond, "The Hobo Convention," Survey, pp. 862-864, September, 23, 1911. A report on "The Hobo Convention" (officially "The Convention of the Unemployed") organized by James Eads How held in Washington, D.C. September 1-6, 1911, and the fifty or so hoboes that attended.

Kerouac, Jack, Lonesome Traveler, New York: McGraw-Hill. Reprinted 1989, New Evergreen edition, New York: Grove Press, copyright 1988, 183 pages, 1960.

--- "The Vanishing American Hobo," Holiday, p.60, March, 1960.

--- On the Road, New York: The Viking Press, 1955.

Kerr, James. 1930. Backdoor Guest, Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co.

Klein, Nicholas, "Hobo Lingo," American Speech, pp. 650-53, September 1926, A brief discussion of the origins of the word hobo (advocating the hoe-boy theory) with a listing of over two hundred hobo terms and phrases.

Knibbs, Henry, Songs of the Lost Frontier, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1930.

--- Songs of the Outlands: Ballads of the Hoboes and Other Verses, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1914.

Kornbluh, Joyce L., editor, Rebel Voices: An I. W. W. Anthology, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1964. Reprinted 1968, Ann Arbor Paperback Series, 419 pages. Includes illustrations, cartoons, photographs, lyrics, notes, and a glossary of terms and phrases of the migratory worker, (including hobo, lumberjack and miner terms), and bibliography. Korbluh, the former executive secretary of the AFL-CIO Joint Minimum Wage Committee, has provided a comprehensive "history of the I.W.W. as told by the Wobblies themselves. It is a story of their strikes, free-speech fights, trials, and riots, of militancy and martyrdom, of sacrifices and suppression, of epic struggles for One Big Union and a Cooperative Commonwealth which would be free class and nationality distinctions" ([preface). Kornbluh has accomplished this by presenting a collection of articles, stories, cartoons, lyrics, and photographs from the Labadie Collection at the University of Michigan Library. Chapter Three, "Riding the Rails: I.W.W. Itinerants," devotes particular attention to hoboes (pages 65-93). Kreiger, Michael. Tramp.

Kromer, Tom, Waiting for Nothing, New York: Hill & Wang. Reprinted 1968, American Century Series AC89, 187 pages, 1935.

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Reference-Bibliography "L"

"Ladies of the Road," Literary Digest, p. 33, August 13, 1932.

Laubach, Frank Charles Why there are vagrants; a study based on an examination of one hundred men. Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, New York 1916.

Leavitt, Samuel, "The Tramps and the Law," Forum, pp. 190-200, 1886.

Leeflang, Gerard, American Travels of a Dutch Hobo, 1923-1926, Ames: Iowa State University Press, 162 pages, 1984. Leeflang arrived in New York City in August of 1923 and after four
days, abandoned his ship duties and decided to travel America. This is an autobiographical account of his experiences until his deportation on September 30, 1926.

Leen, Daniel, The Freight Hopper's Manual for North America: Hoboing In The 21st Century, Seattle: Ecodesigns Northwest Publishers, 112 pages, 1992. Contact: Daniel Leen, 1928 S. Graham St. Seattle, WA 981081. A revised edition for the 21st Century. Leen stated "Because the
original Freighthopper's Manual deals with concepts, I have left the body of the original text unchanged, merely adding some philosophical musings and technical updates in this "afterward" (p.95).

Lescohier, Don, "Harvesters and Hoboes in the Wheat Fields," Survey, pp. 482-487, August 1, 1923.

--- Harvest Labor Problems in the Wheat Belt, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 1020, Washington D.C., Government Printing Office, 1920.

Lever, Charles (the Tilbury Tramp), Tales of the Trains, 156 pp. W.S. Orr, London, 1845. May be the first book written about Railroad Romance and by a hobo.

Levy, Dan. "Hoboes Meet to Trade Tales of Riding the Rails," San Francisco Chronicle, January 17, 1991. Levy provided an account of a National Hobo Association meeting in San Francisco at Harrington's Pub.

Lewis, Orlando, F., "Railway Vagrancy," Charities, pp. 713-717, January 23, 1909.

--- "Concerning Vagrancy," Charities, pp. 713-17, January 23, 1909.

--- "The American Tramp," Atlantic Monthly, pp. 744-53, June 1908.

--- "Vagrancy in the United States," Conference of Charities and Corrections, National Proceedings, pp. 52-77, 1907.

--- "Vagrants and the Railroad," North American, pp. 603-13, July, 19, 1907. Library of Congress, Music Division, Archive of Folk Song. 1983. A Selected Bibliography on Hoboes and Their Folklore With Library of Congress Call Numbers, Washington, D.C.: The Archive, 3 pages.

Licht, Walter, Working for the Railroad: The Organization of Work in the Nineteenth Century, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 329 pages, 1983. Includes illustrations, photographs, tables, appendixes, index and bibliography.

Lipton, Dean, "Memoirs of a Bindle Stiff," San Francisco Chronicle, August 7, 1991. Lipton commented on his adventures as an unemployed youth and the effects of unemployment on hobo life.

Lindsay, Vachel, N., A Handy Guide for Beggars, Especially Those of The Poetic Fraternity; Being Sundry Explorations, Made While Afoot and Penniless in Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. These Adventures Convey and Illustrate the Rules of Beggary for Poets and Some Others, New York and Boston: The Macmillan Company, 205 pages, 1916.

--- "Rules of the Road," American Magazine, pp.54-59, May, 1912.

Linkletter, Art, I Didn't Do It Alone, Ottawa, Ill.: Caroline House Publishers, 1980.

Littlejohn, Duffy, Hopping Freight Trains in America, Los Osos, CA: Sand River Press, 354 pages, 1993.. Includes 70 photos, index, and bibliography. A how-to manual for the neophyte with historical background of American hoboes and the railroad industry. Topics include what to
wear/bring, where and how to catch, legal aspects, railroad history, how to read railroad signals, and common misconceptions. A revised edition is being prepared [personal communication, March
1996]. Contact: Duffy Littlejohn, 868 Center Street, San Louis Obispo, CA 93405.

Livingston, Leon Ray (a.k.a. A-No.1). From Coast to Coast with Jack London, by A-No 1, The Famous Tramp, Written by Himself from Personal Experiences, fifth edition, Erie, PA: The A-No.1 Publishing Company, 136 pages, 1917. Includes facsimiles, and illustrations. Reprinted 1969, Grand Rapids, MI: BlackLetter Press.

--- Here and There with A-No. 1, Erie, PA: A-No.1 Publishing Company, 1921.

--- How I Won My Wife, Erie, PA: A-No.1 Publishing Company, 1919.

--- The Ways of the Hobo, Erie, PA: A-No.1 Publishing Company, 1919.

--- The Curse of Tramp Life, Erie, PA: A-No.1 Publishing Company, 1919.

--- The Snare of the Road, Erie, PA: A-No.1 Publishing Company, 1916.

--- The Life and Adventures of A-No. 1, Erie, PA: A-No.1 Publishing Company, 1910.

--- Hobo Camp Fire Tales, Erie, PA: A-No.1 Publishing Company, 1916.

--- The Adventures of a Female Tramp, Erie, PA: A-No.1 Publishing Company, 1916.

--- The Mother of the Hobos, Erie, PA: A-No.1 Publishing Company, 1916.

--- The Trail of the Tramp, Erie, PA: A-No.1 Publishing Company, 1913.

--- Traveling with Tramps, Erie, PA: A-No.1 Publishing Company, 1920.

Note: The above date for the books are not the first editions. For example The Ways of the Hobo was publised in its 23 edition in 1910. Each book was published in so many editions that it is impossble to keep up with it. A-No.1 Publishing Company first published his books in Cambridge Springs, and then in Erie, Pennsylvania.

Loane, M., "A Woman Supertramp," Living Age, pp. 253-255, January, 28, 1991.

Logan, Bob, "More Hungry Boys," Commonwealth, p. 31, February 25, 1994. Logan recalled his leaving home at the age of 16 in 1933 and leading the life of a hobo for 8 months before deciding to return home.

Lomax, Alan, The Folk Songs of North America In the English Language, Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company Incorporated, 623 pages with illustrations, 1960. Reprinted in 1975 by Dolphin Books. Includes many hobo and railroad songs.

London, Jack, "Rods and Gunnels," Bookman, , pp. 176-79, October 1916.

--- "Adventures With the Police," The Cosmopolitan, pp. 417-23, March 1908.

--- The Road, New York: The MacMillan Company, 1907.

--- "Hoboes That Pass in the Nights," The Cosmopolitan, pp. 190-97, December 1907.

--- War of the Classes, New York: Macmillan, 1905. Reprinted 1970, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Literature House, 278 pages.

--- Jack London on the Road: The Tramp Diary and Other Hobo Writings, edited by Richard W. Etulain, Utah State University Press, 1979.

Lovald, Keith Arthur, From Hobohemia to Skid Row: The Changing Community of the Homeless Man, Ph.D dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1963.

Love, Edmund, Subways Are for Sleeping, New York: Harcourt, Brace, 186 pages, 1957.

Lummis, Charles Fletcher, A Tramp Across the Continent, New York: C. Scribner. Reprinted 1906, C. Scribner's Sons, 270 pages, 1892.

Lynn, Ethel, The Adventures of a Woman Hobo, New York: George H. Doran Company, 296 pages. An autobiographical account of the experience of the author and her husband in traveling by bicycle from Chicago to California, 1917.

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Reference-Bibliography "M"

Madigan, Susan, "Throw the Bums Out. Don't Romanticize 'Em," Wall Street Journal, February 24, 1992. As the railroad safety inspector for the Federal Railroad Administration, Madigan responded to the January 28, 1992 article written by David Jefferson [Jefferson 1992] wherein the life and exploits of hoboes were glorified. She condemned the article for complicating efforts to promote and maintain railroad safety.

Maharidge, Dale, Journey to Nowhere: the Saga of the New Underclass, Garden City, N.Y.: Dial Press, 192 pages, 1985.. Includes illustrations, and photographs by Michael Williamson.1993.

--- "The Last of the Old-Time Hoboes," The Nation, pp. 165-168, August.

--- (essay) "The Last Great American Hobo," Prima Rocklin, Ca 1993. The views of seventy-six year old Depression-era hobo "Montana Blackie" on hobo culture, steam vs. diesel locomotion, and mainstream society are provided.

--- The Last Great American Hobo, Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 278 pages, 1993. Includes illustrations, photographs by Michael Williamson, and index.

Mansfield, Drummond, "Memories of the Road," American History Illustrated, p. 34-41, February 1987. Mansfield described his experiences as a hobo during the Great Depression. Information is given about how hoboes traveled (riding on the tops of boxcars or inside empty ones) and where and how they camped (in "jungles" at the edges of railroad town). Distinctions of different types of hoboes are provided: some were migrant workers and were sometimes preyed upon by "yeggs" (hobo criminals who typically raided migrant camps around payroll time), and the hoboes that spent most of their lives on the rails and book to walking when they got too old to catch trains ("old
airedales"). Mansfiled discussed the dangers and hardships of hobo life and the reasons why many paid this price for the freedom to roam.

Marsh, Benjamin, "Causes of Vagrancy and Methods of Eradication," Annals of the American Academy of Political Science, pp. 445-46, 1903-4.

Martinez, Al, "King of the Road," Los Angeles Times, March 14, 1991. Martinez commented on his experience at the monthly meeting of the Los Angeles-based National Hobo Association at the Roadhouse Restaurant in Beverly Hills CA.

Mathers, Michael, Riding the Rails, Boston: Gambit, 136 pages with illustrations, 1973. The works of Kerouac and London inspired Mathers to take to riding the rails and ultimately the publication of this photographic essay about contemporary hobo life. Mathers presents the words ofvarious hoboes with brief contextualization. The photographs were all taken in the field when the respective dialogue took place.

Maxwell, Cliff, "Daughters of the Road," Railroad Magazine, pp. 49-51, September 1939.

--- "Lady Vagabonds," Scribner's Magazine, pp. 88-92, March 1929.

Mayer, Cynthia, "New Breed of Hobo Rides for Sheer Joy and Excitement," St. Paul Pioneer Press, Thursday, May 13, 1993. also published as "Today's Hobos Ride in Style," Chicago Tribune, Monday May 17, p.8; and "Yuppies Hitch Ride as Weekend Hobos with Credit Cards Aboard," Atlanta Constitution, Sunday, May 23, An account of a rail trip made by the "Sacramanto Kid," "Capt. Cook," "Itchy Foot" with commentary on hoboing by "Guitar Whitey," "Santa Fe 'Bo," and Ernest Hanson. "Minnesota Jewel, (Minneapolis Jewel)" "Adman," the NHA, and Depot Inn are also mentioned. Although this article appears is based on one experience, there are some slight differences in content.

McMurry, Donald, Coxey's Army, Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1929, reprinted in 1968.

McPherson, James and Miller Williams editors, Railroad: Trains and Train People in American Culture, New York: Random House, 1976.

McWilliams, Carey, Farmers in the Field, Hamden, CT: Archon, 1969.

Melone, J. Nature: Human and Real, Chicago, IL: privately published.

Meredith, Mamie, "Waddies and Hoboes of the Old West," American Speech, April, pp. 257-60, 1932. A discussion of phrases and terms.

Meriwether, Lee, The Tramp at Home, New York: Harper & Brothers, 296 pages, 1889. Metzger, Wendell. 1994. Hobo Story, Manhattan Beach, CA: Softspin Press, 108 pages. Contact: Softspin Press, Box 277, Manhattan Beach, CA 90267-0277.

Milburn, George, The Hobo's Hornbook: A Repertory for a Gutter Jongleur, New York: Ives Washburn, 1930.

--- "Poesy in the Jungles," American Mercury, , pp.80-86, May 1930. The Hobo's Handbook, New York: Iven, Wrinkling. Same as "Hornbook". Probably an incorrect citation?

Miles, Dione, Something in Common - An IWW Bibliography, Wayne State University Press: Detroit, 1986. The definitive bibliography about the I.W.W.

Miller, Ellen, "Ax Attack in Freight Car Kills Hobo, Injures Two, Police Say," Denver Post, April 19, 1994. A report about how a hobo was killed and two others were injured when they were attacked with an ax by their traveling companions and thrown off the freight train near Parachute, Colorado on April 16.

Miller, Henry, On the fringe; the dispossessed in America. Lexington, Massachusetts Lexington Books 1991.

"Millionaire Hobo is Dead," Christian Century, p. 1020, August 20, 1930. An obituary-like account of James Eads How, his life and accomplishments, with particular focus on his work for the
betterment of hoboes and their condition.

Minehan, Thomas, Lonesome Road: The Way of Life of a Hobo, Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson & Co., 1941.

--- Boy and Girl Tramps of America, New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1934. The author traveled the country, mainly by rail, documenting the plight of teenage runaways and hobos that were so prevalent during the Depression. An early and careful study of this problem as it relates to children.
Monkkonen, Eric H. ed. 1984. Walking to Work: Tramps in America 1790-1935, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Moon, Gypsy, Done and Been; Steel Rail Chronicles of American Hobos, Bloomington Indiana University Press 1996.

"The Most Arrested American," Literary Digest, pp. 50-55, July 11, 1925.

Mullin, Glen Hawthorne, Adventures of a Scholar-Tramp, New York and London: The Century Co., 1925.

--- "Adventures of a Scholar-Tramp," Century, , pp. 507-15; 735-59, February / March 1923.

Munro, George Ferguson (George The Tramp), A Tramp's Miscellany, 64 pp. The reminiscences of a West of Scotland tramp. It includes memories of Largs and Glasgow. Paper covers with a picture of George the Tramp on front cover.

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Reference-Bibliography "N"

National Hobo Convention The, held annually in Britt, Iowa. The National Hobo Convention of Tourist Union No. 63, has been held since 1900, usually on the first Saturday in August. The Hobo
Cemetery is also located in Britt and memorial services are held during the convention. Details are available with a self-addressed stamped envelope from the Britt Chamber of Commerce, Britt, IA

Noble, C. W., "The Borderland of Trampdom," Popular Science Monthly, pp. 252-58, 1896-7.

Norris, Lowell, "America's Homeless Army," Scribner's Magazine, pp. 316-18, 1933.

Nylander, Towne, "Tramps and Hoboes," Forum, August, pp. 227-37, 1925.

--- "The Migratory Population of the United States," American Journal of Sociology, September, pp. 129-53, 1924.

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Reference-Bibliography "O"

O'Connell, Pamela LiCalzi, A Different Breed of Freighthoppers, New York Times, Aug. 20, 1998.

O'Donnell, John, Hobo Lore, New York: WPA, unpublished document in Library of Congress, Washington D.C., 1938. Archive of Folk Song.

Ogburn, Charlton. Railroads: The Great American Adventure.Washington: National Geographic Society, 1977.

Otten, Allen, "End of the Line," Wall Street Journal, December 26, 1976.

Outland, George, Boy Transiency in America, California: Santa Barbara State College Press, 1939. A collection of articles about boy transients of the 1930s.

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Reference-Bibliography "P"

Pager, George, "The Hobo News," New York Folkore Quarterly, , pp. 228-230, Autumn 1949.

Paine, Samuel, "Ditching the Hobo," Railroad Man's Magazine, , pp. 529-45, April 1917.

Parker, Carlton H., The Casual Laborer and Other Essays, New York: Harcourt, Brace & Howe, 199 pages, 1920.

--- "The California Casual and His Revolt," Quarterly Journal of Economics, pp. 110-26, November 1915.

Paul, Rodman, W., The Far West and Great Plains in Transition, 1859-1900, New York: Harper and Row, 1988.

Payne, Roger, Why Work? or, The Coming "Age of Leisure and Plenty": Why Work Six Days a Week, When You Can Make Your Living by Working One?, Boston: Meador Publishing Company, 404 pages, 1939. Includes portraits and references. Written in response to requests for fuller facts and figures supporting the authors earlier pamphlet "The Hobo Philosopher".

--- The Hobo Philosopher or The Philosophy of the Natural Life, Fellowship Farm, Puente, CA: published by the author, 1918.

Peele, John R., From North Carolina to southern California Without a Ticket, and How I Did It, Giving My Exciting Experiences as a "Hobo," Tarboro?, NC: Edwards & Broughton Printing Company, 134 pages, 1907. Includes illustrations and portraits.

Phelan, Jim, We Follow the Roads, London: Phoenix House, 1949.

Phelps, Richard, "Songs of the American Hobo," Journal of Popular Culture, , pp. 1-21, Fall 1983.
A well-informed article on the subject - hobo and I.W.W. songs.

"The Philadelphia Tramp Conference," Charities, pp. 514-15, November 28, 1903.

Phillips, Rudy "Ramblin," Hobo King Ramblin Rudy, 265 pages, 1994. True stories of Rudy's experiences of hoboing in from 1925 to 1932. He was elected NHA Hobo King in 1986. Contact: Rudy Phillips, P.O. Box 315, Shawneetown, IL 62984.

Pindell, Terry Making Tracks: An American Rail Odyssey, Grove Weidenfeld, New York, 1990.

Pinkerton, Allan, Strikers, Communists, Tramps and Detectives, New York: Trows; G. W. Carlton & Co., 1878, Arno Press; and The New York Times,

Pool, Bob, "It's a Jungle Out There," Los Angeles Times, January 24, 1990. A report on a developer's plans to erect on office building on the restaurant site where The National Hobo Association held its meetings. The effects of this and some member profiles were given.

Powers, William F., "The Crusty Life," The Washington Post, January 2, 1994 Powers discussed the articles in the January 1994 issues of Esquire [Ferguson 1994] and Texas Monthly, which discussed modern hobo life and life in Mexico City respectively.

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Reference-Bibliography "R"

Rahimian, Afsaneh, Migration and Mobility of the Urban Homeless, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California, 1990.

Rankin, Bill, "A Lasting Legal Legacy," Atlanta Journal Constitution, January 1, 1993. A profile of former Gwinnett County, GA Superior Court Judge Bryant Huff, who after serving thirteen years as a lawyer, spent two months riding the rails.

Reckless, Walter, "Why Women Become Hoboes," American Mercury, pp. 175-80, February 1934.

Reed, Christopher, "Racist Killers Ride U.S. Freight Trains," Guardian, p. 9, December 19, 1991.
Reed discussed the [faction of the] F.T.R.A.(Freight Train Riders of America), that appear to be a neo-nazist group of hoboes who ride and kill predominantly across the western states of the U.S.
Reed cited that the recent attention given to this group was due to the arrest of Jeremy "Low Road" Abshire, a member of the white supremacist group, charged with murdering two people in Utah.

Reitman, Ben L. (as told to), Sister of the Road: The Autobiography of Box-Car Bertha as Told to Dr. Ben L. Reitman, New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1937.

Renshaw, Patrick, Wobblies: The Story of Syndicalism in the United States, New York: Doubleday, 1967. Reprinted 1968, New York: Anchor.

Rice, Clyde, Night Freight, Portland, OR: Breitenbush Books, 141 pages, 1987.

Richards, Stan, et al. Hobo Signs.

Ringenbach, Paul T., Tramps and Reformers, 1873-1916: The Discovery of Unemployment in New York, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1973. Originally a Ph.D. dissertation, University of Connecticut, 1970.

Risen, James, "American Album," Los Angeles Times, June 12, 1989. A profile of Maury "Steamtrain" Graham.

Romines, Delma K., "Hobo Nickels," American Heritage, August/September, pp. 81-3, 1983. A brief discussion of George Washington "Bo" Hughes' work with thirteen photographed examples.

Romines, Joyce and "Slickrock," The Hobo Nickel Book, 135 pages, 1996. Includes over 400 photos and hobo glossary. Contact: Joyce Ann Romines, P.O. Box 1585, Tucker, Georgia 30085-1586.

Rood, H. E., "The Tramp Problem: A Remedy," Forum, pp. 90-94, March 1898.

Rose, Lionel, 'Rogues and Vagabonds': Vagrant Underwold in Britain 1815-1985, New York and London: Routledge, 254 pages, 1988. Includes a tramp glossary, abbreviations, notes references, index and a select bibliography. A socio-historical account of the germane aspects of tramp life in
Great Britain, e.g., tramp subtypes, legislation, relief, lodging houses, and casual wards.

Roy, Donald Francis, Hooverville: A Study of a Community of Homeless Men in Seattle, unpublished Masters thesis, University of Washington, 98 pages, 1935.

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Reference-Bibliography "S"

Samolar, Charlie, "The Argot of the Vagabond,' American Speech, pp. 385-92, 1927. The definitions, distinctions, development and theories of origin of various hobo words and phrases are given.

Sandburg, Carl, Always the Young Strangers, New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1953.

Saroyan, William, "Portrait of a Bum," Overland Monthly, , pp. 421 and 424, December 1928.

Saul, Vernon alias "K.C. Slim," "The Vocabulary of Bums," American Speech, pp. 337-46, June 1929. A record of over three hundred fifty words and phrases commonly used by the "knights of the road."

Schockman, Carl, We Turned Hobo, Columbus, OH: F.J. Heer Printing Co., 1937.

Schwantes, Carlos, Coxey's Army: An American Odyssey, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1985.

Seeger, Pete, The Incompleat Folksinger, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1972.

Seelye John, "The American Tramp: A Version of the Picaresque," American Quarterly, Winter, pp. 535-53, 1963.

Service, Robert, The Collected Poems of Robert Service, New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1921.

Shaw, Clifford, The Jack Roller: A Delinquent Boy's Own Story, Sociological Case History.

Sherburne, James, Poor boy and a long way from home. Boston Houghton Mifflin Company 1984. A novel about con men, Wobblies, Tong wars and hopping freights.

Sibley, Celestine, "Ex-Hobo Shares His Lifelong Loves," Atlanta Constitution, June 26, 1989. A feature about John "Smally" Smolka a seventy-eight year-old former hobo (for about ten years) and baseball aficionado.

--- "Life in the '30s: Hobo at the Door, Possum in the Pot," Atlanta Constitution, March 20, 1995. Sibley shared a letter from an old friend who lived during the Great Depression.

Sinclair, Andrew, The Hallelujah Bum, London: Faber and Faber, 1963.

Smith, Jack, "Hobo Is King on Social Scale of Itinerants," Los Angeles Times, September 6, 1989. Smith discussed the hobo lifestyle and the differences between a hobo, bum and vagabond.

--- "Bum Rap," Los Angeles Times, July 16, 1989. Smith accounted his adventures of the summer he spent as a hobo riding the rails.

Solenberger, Alice W., One Thousand Homeless Men, Charities Publication Committee, 1911.

"The South Calling A Halt on Tramps," Survey, , p.534, February 5, 1916.

Speek, Peter A., "The Psychology of Floating Workers," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, pp. 72-78, January 1917.,

Spence, Clark, "Knights of the Fast Freight," American Heritage, , pp.50-57, August 1976.

--- "Knights of the Tie and Rail - Tramps and Hoboes in the West," Western Historical Quarterly, , pp. 5-16, January 1971.

Spielmann, Peter, "Hobos," Penthouse, , pp. 138-45, May 1979.

Spradley, James, You Owe Yourself a Drunk: An Ethnography of Urban Nomads, Boston, MA: Little Brown and Company. A study of a Seattle "home guard."

Starke, Barbara, Born in Captivity, The Story of a Gitl's Escape Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1931. Adventures of a girl "hobo" who left home in New England and made her way to California and back to New York.

St. John, Vincent, The I.W.W., Chicago, IL: I.W.W. 1919.

Stegner, Wallace, "Depression Pop," Esquire, pp. 79-83, September 1975.

Stein, Walter, J., California and the Dust Bowl Migration, Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1973.

Stessin, Lawrence, "That Vanishing American: The Hobo," New York Times Magazine, August 18, 1940.

Stevens, Irving, L. "Fishbones," Fishbones, Hoboing in the 1930's, 1982.. An amusing and interesting account of personal experiences. Contact: Irv Stevens, Route 1, Box 4710, Corrina, Maine 04928.

Stevens, James, "The Hobos Apology," Century Magazine, , pp. 464-72, February 1925.

Stewig, John W., Sending Messages, Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 64 pages with illustrations, 1978. The many possible ways to send messages, including language, music, mime, dance, Morse code, cattle brands, deaf hand language, hobo signs, and referee signals are described [juvenile literature].

"Stranger on A Train - Ted Conover Spent Rootless Months Studying A Furtive Breed: America's Hoboes," People Magazine, 1984.

Stoner, Jacob H., "Tramps Along the Falling Spring In The 1870's," read April 27, 1944, The Kittochtinny Historical Society, October 1939 to March 1949, Volume XII, pp. 271-283, Craft Press, Inc., Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.

Stiff, Dean, The Milk & Honey Route: A Handbook for Hobos, NY Vanguard 1931. Includes such valuable knowledge as what the well-dressed hobo wears, & what to do should you meet a hobo with a naked lady tattooed on his arm .

Stroup, Sheila, "Hobnobber Once a Hobo," The Times-Picayune, February 6, 1994. Stroup talked about New Orleans entrepreneur, philanthropist and civic activist Bryan Bell, who rode freight trains and hitchhiked across the country as a child hobo during the Great Depression.

Sutherland, Edwin H. and Harvey J. Locke, Twenty Thousand Homeless Men, Chicago and Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1936.

Symmank, Margaret, "The Hobo and the Lucky Piece," Houston Chronicle, March 13, 1994. Symmank reminisced about her childhood and the stories she was told about her grandmother feeding the hobos who came to the door during the Great Depression.

Swift, Morrison, "Tramps as Human Beings," Outlook, pp. 342-43, August 31, 1895.

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Reference-Bibliography "T"

Taft, Philip, "The I.W.W. in the Grain Belt," Labor History, Winter, pp. 342-343, 1960.

Tascheraud, Henri, "The Art of Bumming a Meal," American Mercury, pp. 183-87, June 1925.

Terkel, Studs, Hard Times: An Oral History of the Great Depression, New York: Pantheon Books, 1970. Reprinted 1971, New York: Avon Books. Terkel interviewed over one hundred-sixty people from various backgrounds and orientations about their experiences during the Great Depression (1929). The chapter "Hard Travelin'" includes interviews of fourteen people who hoboed or had experiences with hoboes.

Thanet, Octave,"The Tramp in Four Centuries," Lippincott's Magazine, pp. 565-74, 1878-9.

--- "This is a Primer for Hobo 'Gaycats'" Life, pp. 14-17, October 4, 1937.

Thomas, Will, Tramp, New York Vantage Press, 1987. This is the story of a young man who lived and observed life on the "road" in its crudest form during the 1930s. Will Thomas takes the reader by the hand and leads him on an adventure throughout the West on the nation's railroads. (all characters are fictitious in this story).

Tugwell, Rexford, "The Casual Laborer," Survey, pp. 472-74, July 3, 1920.

--- "The Casual of the Woods," Survey, pp. 472-74, July 3, 1920.

Tully, Jim, "Thieves and Vagabonds," American Mercury, pp. 18-24, May, 1928.

--- "Bull Horrors," American Mercury, pp. 144-50, October 1927.

--- "The Lion-Tamer," American Mercury, pp. 142-46, October 1925.

--- Beggars of Life: A Hobo Autobiography, New York: Albert & Charles Boni, and Random House, 336 pages, 1924. Also published by Garden City Publishing Co., Garden City, NJ.

Tyler, Robert L., Rebels of the Woods: The I.W.W. in the Pacific Northwest, Eugene: University of Oregon Books, 1967.

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Reference-Bibliography "U"

Uys, Errol Lincoln, Riding the Rails, Teenagers on the Move During the Great Depression, New York,N.Y.: TV Books, 1999.

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Reference-Bibliography "V"

Vandertie, Adolph & Patrick Spielman. Hobo & Tramp Art: Carving An Authentic American Folk Tradition, Sterling Publishing Co., 128 pp, 1995. Color glossy trade paperback, good photos, some do it yourself projects, and a very brief commentary on the tramps and hobos who made the original art.

Van Swol, Erwin, "The Hoboes' Secret Code," Coronet, , pp. 35-38, August 1960. After a friend pointed out to Van Swol that his house was marked by hoboes due to his wife's generosity, he began to research hobo signs. Twenty signs are pictured in this article with respective descriptions. Hobo history, the supposed causes of the hobo condition, and the dissemination of hobo symbols and code are discussed briefly.

Vaughn, J. B., The Wandering Years, Hancock House, Saanichton, British Columbia, 1975. "An
Odyssey of the 'Dirty Thirties' - the Hobo Jungles - the logging camps - and the trapper's wilderness." Author's memoirs of hard times and various means of getting by.

Vose, John D., Diary of a Tramp, St. Ives, Cornwall, U.K.: United Writers, 199 pages, 1981.

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Reference-Bibliography "W"

Waitley, Douglas, The Age Of The Mad Dragons: Steam Locomotives In North America, 1981.

Wallace, Samuel E., Skid Row As A Way of Life, Totowa, NJ: Bedminster Press, 1965.

Walljasper, Jay, "The World of the Hobo," Utne Reader, , p.45, January/February 1988.

Warner, Jack, "Kings of the Road," Atlanta Journal Constitution, November 19, 1995. An article about the life and experiences of Russell Stephens, age 77, a Great Depression-era hobo. Stephens was a teacher of English and journalism at Cherokee County, GA High School, having retired in 1977.

Webb, John N., The Migratory-Casual Worker, Washington D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, United States Works Progress Administration, Division of Social Research, Research Monograph VII., 1937. Reprinted, 1971, New York: Da Capo Press. This report is a byproduct of the studies of the transient unemployed conducted by the research section of the division of Research, Statistics, and Finance, during 1934 and 1935 [p. IX]. It offers profiles of the personal characteristics of the migratory-casual worker, and explains the types and characteristics of migratory casual employment (industrial/agricultural). Ten text tables, twenty-six figures and ten supplementary figures illustrate statistical information and map migratory routes, patterns and types of work.

--- The Transient Unemployed; a description and analysis of the transient relief population., Washington, WPA, 1935.

Welsh, Herbert, The New Gentleman of the Road, Philadelphia William F. Fell, 1921.

Welty, Gus., "Review of Daniel Leen's The Freighthopper's Manual," Railway Age, p.195, March 1994. Welty's unfavorable review condemns the book (and hoboes) for safety reasons and setting a bad example for youngsters and adolescents [see, Leen 1992].

The Western Historical Quarterly, January 1971, Logan, Utah, Western History Assocciation softcover periodical, Featuring articles, "Knights of the Tie and Rail - Tramps and Hoboes in the West."

Weybright, Victor, "Rolling Stones Gather No Sympathy," Survey Graphic, January 1939..

Whitaker, Percy, "Fruit Tramps," Century Magazine, , pp. 599-606, March 1929.

White, Richard, Its Your Misfortune and None of My Own, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.

Whitten, George, Outlaw Trails, New York: Minton, Balch and Co., 1929.

--- The Open Road, Century Magazine, , pp. 351-66, January 1928.

Whiting, F.V., "Trespassers Killed on Railways - Who Are They?" Scientific America, pp.303-4, May 11, 1912..

Willard, Josiah Flynt, The Little Brother; A Story of Tramp Life, by Josiah Flynt, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Gregg Press 254 pages, 1968.

--- My Life, New York: The Outing Publishing Co., 1908.

--- Tramping With Tramps: Studies and Sketches of Vagabond Life, New York: Century Company, 1899. Reprinted 1972, Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith Publishing Corp.

--- "Tramps and the Railroads," Century Magazine, pp. 258-66, June1899.

--- "Children of the Road," Atlantic Monthly, pp. 599-606, March 1896.

--- "How Men Become Tramps," Century Magazine, pp. 941-45, October 1895.

--- "Old Boston Mary," Atlantic, pp. 318-25, September 1894.

--- "The Tramp at Home," Century Magazine, pp. 517-26, February 1894.

Wilcox, Finn, Here Among the Sacrificed, Port Townsend, WA: Empty Bowl, 1984. A literary and photographic depiction of Wilcox's journey by freight train from Seattle,WA to Los Angeles, CA.

Willeford, Charles Ray, I Was Looking for a Street.

Williams, Vinnie, The Fruit Tramp, New York: Harper, 247, pages, 1957.

Williams, Cliff "Oats," editor, Around the Jungle Fire: A Collection of Original Hobo Poetry, Deerfield, IL: Hobo Press, 44 pages, 1995. "Oats" has collected and edited this fine collection of poems written by hoboes and traveling folk including Liberty Justice, Guitar Whitey, Oklahoma Slim, Reefer Charlie, Luther the Jet, and others. Proceeds are given to the National Hobo Foundation. Contact: Cliff Williams, 1044 Linden Avenue, Deerfield, IL 60015.

Willmans, Karl., Psychoses Among Tramps, Centralblatt fur Nervenheilkunde, December 1902.

Willwerth, James, "Hoboes from High-Rent Districts," Time, p.8, July 11, 1988.Willwerth looked at hoboing from the viewpoint of The National Hobo Association, co-founded by California actor Bobb Hopkins, and the vehemently opposing Association of American Railroads which declared these hobo-hobbyists part of a "dangerous trend."

Wilson, Robert S. and Dorothy B. de la Pole Group treatment for transients. New York National Association for Travelers and Transient Service 1934.

Wise, Ken C. Depression Bums Fowlerville, Michigan, Wilderness Adventure Books, 1992. book chronicling the adventures of two young bums travelling across Depression-era America.

Wise, William H. The American Scrap Book. The Year's Golden Harvest of Thought and Achievement.Wm. H. Wise & Co., NY: 1928. One article on hoboes.

Woehlke, Walter, "The Porterhouse Heaven and the Hobo," Technical World Magazine, pp. 808-13, 938, August 1914.

Woirol, Gregory R., In the Floating Army, F.C. Mills on Itinerant Life in California, 1914, Univ. of Illinois Press, 1992.

Worby, John, The Other Half: The Autobiography of a Tramp, New York: Arden Book Company, 307 pages with illustrations, 1942. The author bummed his way around the United Staes and England during the 1930's.

Worth, Cedric, "The Brotherhood of Man," North American Review, pp. 487-92, April 1929.

Wormser, Richard, Hoboes: Wandering in America 1870-1940, Walker Publishing Company, 1994. Includes hobo dictionary, index, and bibliography. A socio-historical survey of the American hobo. Wormser discussed the early pioneers, the distinctions between a hobo, tramp, and a bum, the tragedies, hardships, and glories of the road, the I.W.W., Chicago, and road kids. A comparison of the hobo to the contemporary homeless is made in chapter ten.

Wren, Daniel A., White Collar Hobo: The Travels of Whiting Williams, Ames: Iowa State University Press, 165 pages, 1987. Includes portraits, index, and bibliography.

Wyckoff, Walter Augustus, A Day with a Tramp and Other Days, New York: C. Scribner, 1901. Reprinted 1971, New York: B. Blom, 191 pages. An experiment by the author of living as a day laborer for 18 months, walking from Connecticut to California.

Wyman, Mark, Hard Rock Epic: Western Miners and Industrial Revolution 1860-1910, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.

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"A-No.1 At Rest At Last"
Copyright by Grahamqckr 2001