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FDL   History

Also see for more info: DataCine

In this Page:
FDL90A    QuadraFLH100SDC2000
Color Correctors History Links     ( Photo Gallery)

FDL = Film Digital Line.
60 =  The Card rack style used in the FDL 60, Bosch Camera, KCK60 and other Bosch equipment.

In 1979
Bosch Fernseh introduced the worlds first CCD telecine, the FDL-60. FDL 60 Pictures
The first all solid state Telecine.
Designed and made in Darmstadt West Germay. Bosch Fernseh Pictures

Model FDL60 A1   Pal / SECAM
Model FDL60 A2   NTSC / Pal-M

Also that year:
The B format VTR was accepted by SMPTE and ANSI.
The B format portable VTR (BCN 20) with battery power was shown.
The B format VTR, Model BCN 50 and BCN 20 were designed and built in the same Factory in Darmstadt Germany as the FDL60.   BCN 50 and BCN 20 Photos

The milestones in the development of CCD devices for professional applications include the
introduction in 1979 by Bosch of the FDL-60 CCD-based telecine.  Also the full frame CCD:    the NEC SPC-3 CCD camera in 1983, and the RCA CCD-1 camera in 1984.

The CCD was developed in the 1970s by Bell Laboratories. On the face of the CCD, photodiodes build up an electrical charge based on the amount of light falling on them. After a selected period of time, that charge is then transferred or coupled out of the device. Because the photodiodes on the CCDs are very small, many of them can be placed in a large, flat array capable of converting complete images into electronic signals. The FDL-60 uses a single-line array system, whereby three lines, RGB, (1,024 diodes per line) of  photodiodes each independently sensitive to one of the three primary colors are set up to record a single line of the film image.
In order to scan a frame, the CCD telecine moves the film through the single array's line of sight.. "Vertical" frame information is scanned by each of the photodiodes across the array, and the  "horizontal" information is captured from the top of the frame to the bottom as the film moves through the gate. This process results in sequential lines of video that are subsequently converted into a fully interlaced video frame in the frame store. Thus the single-line array CCD  is viewed only by continuous motion of the film. Therefore, color timing and frame-sizing manipulation are accomplished from the digital frame store, and not from an initial, real-time image.

FDL60A uses three FairChild CCD 133 chips for image pickup (RGB). The CCD has 1024 photo elements in one
charge coupled device IC.  The exposure time, like that of a film camera is set by a transfer clock pulse.  The odd number pixel are outputted on the A channel of the CCD and even on the B output of the CCD. The two are combined on the Pre amp.   The CCD's out is an analog video signal "riding" on a RF clock carrier.
Each photo elements is 13 um by 13 um.
The Transfer pulse and Clk frequency change depending on the film format and speeds.
The CCD output video is progressive at a non standard video rate.  The signal is then converted to standard video rates in the Digital Frame Store.  The CCD 133 can overload with too high a light level, but this does not harm the CCD.  In overload the CCD as a short recover time after the light level is return to normal. The FDL60A uses a 115V CBA projection lamp for a light source, avg. life 50 to 100 hours, running at about 112V DC.  In stop the lamp is dropped down to about 90V.  A Neutral Density wheel is used to adjust the over all light level.

Other FDL60A1    Features:
6 Fixed Speeds: 6 12 18 24 30 48
Sizes: Projection and letter box
Primary correction in stop
H&V Contour
Internal Gen Lock and Encoder
Non standard 24fr time code, internal film timer.
Digital cards made from almost all standard TTL ICs.
Belt drive DC reel motors, with electronic braking.
Separate 16/35 mm tension settings.
Blue filter for neg. film.
8 bit video store
115V 500W DC Lamp source

First unit sold serial #100.

In 1982. To improve Video quality and add Features many cards were re designed, the results was the FDL60B:

New Features:
New pre amps with streaking adjustments and better S/N.
New Frame store with Pan Scan and Pan Edit modes.
Negative matching control panel for better Neg. and IP transfers.
30 frame non drop time code card.    New FD234.
SAS,  Select a speed, var. speed 6.00 to 30.00 frame/sec.   New FD267.

Almost all FDL60As in the USA and Canada were updated to FDL60Bs.

In 1983  The FDGR Grain Reduce was introduced by Bosch for the FDL-60.
The first all digital noise reducer (no A/D D/A needed in the unit). FDGR Photo

FRP 60  introduced by Bosch for the FDL-60.  Scene by scene color corrector, Film Reproduction Programer used an Intel 8086 CPU buss system. More info below on this system. FRP60 Photos

At about Ser 271, the light source was changed to a 24V 250 Watt Lamp.  Also with a 50 to 100 hours life.  In stop the lamp is dropped down to about 16.5V.

In 1987   The FDL 60C was introduced by Bosch.

New Features:

CCD 134, no overload, improved S/N, improved streaking adjustments.
Direct drive reel motors, New spooling amp.
Wide Screen (WS 185) format mode, Gives a 10% zoom in for centered scan of 185 film. New FD241.
New micro computer. Z801
Freeze de - freeze feature add to the film timer.
DSA mode, Direct sprocket access servo mode. New Tacho Wheel.
Support of S8 gate option
Support of Stereo optical 35 mm and Dolby - noise reduction
Print Look for negative film

(Note: Not all new Features in the FDL60B and FDL60C were add and the same time)

Last unit made was about serial # 600 in 1988.


In 1989 the FDL90 was introduced by BTS (the joint company of Bosch and Philips).
The FDL90 was built on the FDL60 frame and used many of the same cards and CPs. The FDL 90 used a new Digital - frame store rack (some cards remained the same as 60) and  new CCD scanning.
New Features added from the FDL60:
CCD 181 , improved S/N and no streaking..
Zoom and H&V sizing and positioning
Adjustable H&V TV blanking gen.
5 Recallable Sizing memories
Fixed format size selection
S16 and S35 gates
3 perf sprocket option
Pal/NTSC switchable option
10 Bit Store with 4:2:2  / 4:4:4 Digital outputs
10 bit  key channel output

Options and Config page

In 1993 the FDL Quadra was introduced by BTS inc. - Broadcast Television Systems Inc   Photo Quadra
New Features added from the FDL90:
Finer Hor positioning, Pan Scan.
New colorimetry
Improve resolution
Off raster H&V positioning
Digital 4:4:4 output only option. (no analog outputs)
Improved vert stability, new capstan servo system.
Basic option available (less CPs and monitoring option)
3/4 perf switchable
New FPN store.
Audio delay unit with digital output
(later Quadra Vision with new optics)

In 1994 FLH 1000 was demonstrated by BTS. This unit was never released for sale.  This was the first HDTV telecine. The FLH 1000 was improved - resigned and released as the SDC 2000. Spirit DataCine.  Very little Quadra components were used in the FHL/SDC. The Scanning system and CCDs are made by Kodak in NY. These telecines are the result of a joint effort between Philips and Eastman Kodak. Producers Color was the US beta site for the FLH1000.

In 1996 SDC 2000 Spirit DataCine was demostrated by BTS - Philips. Picture. In a two years time span took over the number one spot from Rank Cintel.
Spirit DataCine features and history    

The Shadow is a Spirit DataCine with out a Kodak front end.

In 2005 SDC 4K Spirit DataCine  was demostrated by of Thomson's Grass Valley,
The Scanning optic system are made by Kodak in NY. The CCD are made in Canada. The Telecine still made in Germany.
The new Datacine have both a 4k and 2k RGB CCD array for pick up.
  SDC 4k
  SDC 2k

In Dec of 2008. the Film Div. was sold by Thomson. the new company is Digital Film Technology, head Quartered in Weiterstadt, Germany, near the former Bosch Fernseh - BTS factory. Parter Capital Group that now owns DFT continues to have world wide offices to support products from DFT in Weiterstadt, Germany.


DFT revealed a new scanner at the 2009 NAB Show, called Scanity. Scanity uses Time Delay Integration (TDI) line sensors and FPGA image processing with and a RGB LED light source.. Scantiy uses continuous transport using capstan. Transfer speeds: 15 fps @ 4K , 25 fps @ 2K, 44 fps @ 1K , 69 fps @ 0,5K , 96 fps @ 0,25K.

FDL 60s and Color Correctors

The FDL 60 came with a full set of local control panels. Optional "remote" panels could be installed in a console. The remote panels are the same as the local panels, the only difference being software and/or some jumpers. Some removed the local panels and remoted them.  The need for scene by scene correction brought innovation.

The Wiz

The Wiz was the predecessor to the da Vinci Classic and was built in 1982
by VTA Technologies in Ft. Lauderdale.  It was built on an apple computer, the program was stored in eprom, the list could be backed up to mini cassettes.
VTA Technologies later became da Vinci Systems, Inc.
The Wiz was the first VTA system to have a customized external control
panel and was also the first color corrector with internal primary and
secondary processing.  Prior to that, the primaries in the telecine were
used.  The Wiz had 10 vector patented secondary color correction.  The first two systems
were bought by Editel, Chicago, which at the time used the color corrector on Bosch FDL60s.

The Corporate Communications,   System 60XL

Made in Fairfield New Jersey & New York was also very popular on the FDL 60.
Had customized external control panels with with internal primary and 6 vector  secondary processing.  The unit used an unique talking interface. Thus the  color corrector second name " Not a silent partner". The unit had a CPU rack and a FDL 60 interface rack. Used the FDL60 film deck CP for control.  An optional tape to tape rack was also available. Stan Chayka was the principal designer of System 60XL.   It was built on an Intel buss computer, the program was stored in eprom, the list could be backed up to a 5.25" floppy. Corporate later changed into Colorvision - A.F.Associates. Which later made the Copernicus and Sunburst.

The Bosch, FRP  picture

Used the FDL60's internal primary color corrector and the optional FDL60 internal secondary processing, model FDSC66A. The FDSC66A has a 6 vector secondary color correction. The FRP was built on a Intel 8086 CPU Multi Bus 1 system. It used std OEM control cards with Bosch two D/A cards.  It used a standard video output interface, 800 events, 32 std. base mem and 7 recall mems. It as a customized external control
panel. The program was stored in eprom, the list could be backed up to a 8" floppy.
Had option VTR control rack for BCN and VPR tape decks

doc 1977

da Vinci    Pictures

da Vinci Classic analog system was the most popular color corrector on the FDL 60.
Has customized external control panel with internal primary, secondary processing and an internal NTSC encoder.  It ran on a 68000 Intel Multi Bus 1 system. The program and list are stored on a 20M MMF Hard Disk, with backup to a 5.25" floppy disk.

da Vinci Renaissance was the analog system that followed the Classic analog system. Was similar to the above system, but ran on 68020 Multi Bus 1 system with a 3.5" Floppy.
Options like Kilo vectors were later available for the analog Renaissance.

da Vinci Renaissance 888 was similar to the above system, but had 888 digital video processing, in place of the analog video processing, thus not many were installed on FDL60s.

da Vinci also made the da Vinci Light. This was not marketed, so not many were sold. It is a da Vinci DUI 888 without the digital 888 cards. The telecine interface card controlled the FDL60's internal color corrector. ( da Vinci's 888 color corrector is 601 digital and would not work on a FDL 60 with out extra interfacing), This came in two configurations, the first was the DUI with an Indy CPU. The second DUI system used an O2 computer.  These systems supported da Vinci's new Control Panels.  The newest system supports HDTV, the 2K.

All da Vinci CC had tape to tape options available.  All da Vinci CC used an internal FDL telecine interface card to control the FDL. All had limited VTR control, thus the need for the TLC.

TLC    TLC Pictures

The TLC is a edit controller for the FDL60. It give accurate 2/3 editing.  TLC 1 was originally made in Moorpark, California, later TLC was acquired by da Vinci and the TLC 2 was released.    The da Vinci  DUI 888 had an option to have a TLC built into it.  If the TLC is not built in an external A/B switch box is needed to switch control between the TLC and other Color Controllers.  Some versions had a separate CPU and FDL telecine interface rack.

TLC History

 Museum of Early Video Editing
TLC page

Pandora Int.,  Pogle picture

Pandora Int. in England makes the "Pogle" color corrector controller. The Pogle can control a FDL60. It has customized external control panels, a CPU rack and a FDL interface rack.   It controls the FDL60's internal color corrector.  The Pogle also has a very good edit controller, that give accurate 2/3 editing to tape (like the TLC).   Original System "ANDIX" runs on PDOS, the program and list are stored on a SCSI Hard Disk, with backup to a 3.5" floppy disk. Video Display is to a Multi Sync monitor.
The Platinum system added an Indy computer and later an O2 computer, these replaced the internal CPU and video card in the pogle controller rack. The Indy computer and O2 computer's backup is usually to a ext. Zip Drive or ext. floppy. The O2 has an int. CDROM.  Pandora's DCP external color corrector is a 601 digital box the would not work on a FDL 60 without extra interfacing.
The  PiXi   Pandora's newest Color Processor, has replace the DCP . The newest system is HDTV, the MegaDEF for the Philips Spirit DataCine with a Pogle Platinum controller.


A few customized Dubner color corrector controllers were made. They used the FDL60's internal primary processing.  These were famous for their all wire wrap design.

CCD Telecine History from

RCA History

Have any additions or corrections send it to:  email

To FDL Home

History Links

Darmstadt News The Home Town of the FDL 60

Hotels in town

City Web Site
City site 2 Translate  German to English   TIG

Hotel by Train station

Map of Darmstadt,  Bosch Plant was across the tracks from the Rail Station

The FDL factory was moved from the site by the Rail Station to Weiterstadt

CCD History from Kodak

FDL 60 in the History books:

TV History Time line FDL  1st CCD


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