**** A ****
Adams, Frank D. - Writings concerning his scientific experiments which may prove that giant cavities exist in granite at depths of more than 11 miles, conclusions supported by Louis V. King, a mathematician who calculated that, at normal temperature, a cavity could exist at depths between 17.2 and 20.9 miles.  The author's findings are also supported by the newly-discovered 16 Rouse Belts, which give planes of fracture completely penetrating the globe. (Also see: Stewart, C. Nelson - SUBTERRANEAN RACES)
Alexander, Hartley B.
--- LATIN AMERICAN MYTHOLOGY., pp.28-29: A tradition learned by Fray Ramon Pane from the Taino Indians of Haiti (Hispaniola) that their ancestors emerged from two caverns called "Cacibugiagua" and "Amaiaura," in a certain mountain of Hispaniola.
--- NORTH AMERICAN MYTHOLOGY., p. 61: Cherokee Indians' belief in a subterranean world much like our own, with mountains, rivers, trees and people, and how - with the guidance of one of the underground people who still remain below - it is possible to enter their underground world.
Allen, George W. - ENIGMA FANTASTIQUE., 1966, Health Research: Giant beings seen in caverns below Malta during a guided tour.
Allsopp, Fred W. - FOLKLORE OF ROMANTIC ARKANSAS., pp. 156-158: The legend of a certain cave in Arkansas, in which a remnant of the human race took refuge during an ancient ice age, eventually emerging from the interior of the mountain after a long space of time.
Amery, Colin - NEW ATLANTIS: THE SECRET OF THE SPHINX., Regency Press, London & NY., 1976.  Chapter: A SUBTERRANEAN ATLANTIS, pp. 89-110.
Ananikikian, Mardiras H. & Alice Werner - ARMENIAN AND AFRICAN MYTHOLOGY., Vol. 7, pp. 34,  147, 184-185, 359: Native American beliefs in ancestral origins from ancient subterranean lands, and the locations of many traditional entrances into the cavern worlds.
ANCIENT CRYSTALLINE RECORDS - Article in the NEW ATLANTEAN JOURNAL., Dec. 1977 & Winter 1979: Ancient records or libraries which remain hidden in undiscovered areas beneath the surface of our planet.
Andrews, Richard R. - THE TRUTH BEHIND THE LEGEND OF MOUNT SHASTA., Carlton Press, NY., 1976., Limited edition: Legends and strange phenomena surrounding one of California's most mysterious mountains.
Anderson, Tim - THE HOLLOW EARTH: DOORWAY TO ANOTHER WORLD.  Article in BEYOND REALITY magazine., No. 44, July-Aug.1980, illus.: Ferdinand Ossendowski's findings concerning the legends and stories of the subterranean world of 'Agharti', during his travels in China, Mongolia, etc. (Also see: Ossendowski, Ferdinand.  BEASTS, MAN AND GODS)
Angebert, Jean-Michael. - THE OCCULT AND THE THIRD REICH., McMillan, NY., 1974., pp. 93-98:  A legend of Hyperborean descendants living in a subterranean world beneath the Himalayas; T. Lobsang Rampa's journey into caverns beneath Tibet; and Ferdinand Ossendowski's description of the subterranean world of Agharti.  pp. 269-270: Unknown subterranean regions beneath the Great Pyramid of Gizeh in Egypt.
Anjard, Dr. Ron. - Article in PURSUIT magazine, Summer 1978: More than 30 vast tunnel complexes, or ancient abandoned underground cities, discovered near Derinkuyu, Turkey - one of which in ancient times contained as many as 10,000 inhabitants.  Also buried cities in France, and 44 underground cities in North America (six on the West Coast) which the writer had learned of from 'anonymous' American Indian sources.
APOCRYPHA. - Non-canonical books of the 'Bible', or books not included in the current text of the Bible because they were considered scripture mixed with 'tradition', and not 'pure scripture'.
--- II Esdras 13:40-48: Describes the one-and-one-half year journey made by the Ten "Lost" Tribes (or 9 ˝ tribes, excluding the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, and half the tribe of Levi which compose the known 'Jewish' race in Israel today) of Israel, to a hidden land in the far north where "never men dwelt" called "Arzareth" - from whence they will return in the last days according to prophecy.
--- II Maccabes, 2:17: Refers to the present location of the Ark of the Covenant, in the INTERIOR of Mt. Sinai, "where Moses climbed up and saw the heritage of God.  And when Jeremy came thither, he found a hollow cave, wherein he laid the tabernacle, and the altar of incense, and so stopped the door.  And some of those that followed him came to mark the way, but they could not find it.  Which when Jeremy (Jeremiah) perceived, he blamed them, saying, 'As for that place, it shall be unknown until the time that God gather(s) his people again together, and receive them unto mercy.'"
Archer, Ray.
--- THE MYSTERIOUS ROMAN MINE.  In SHAVERTRON, Fall 1981, No. 9:  Strange occurrences and noises like those of a subterranean train, within an ancient Roman mine in the Forest of Dean area of Gloucestershire, western England.
--- PROJECTIONS FROM THE CAVERNS?  Article in SHAVERTRON, No. 13: Unusual tunnel related occurrences in England. ( Also see: http://www.shavertron.com )
ARE THERE A PEOPLE IN THE FAR NORTH? - Article in the "Editor's Table" section of THE IMPROVEMENT ERA (LDS church magazine), Jan. 1924, pp. 256-260: Suggests that the Lost Tribes of Israel are hidden near the North Pole. (Also quotes from an article in POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, Dec. 1923)
Argo, Madeline - MY TRIP TO THE LOST TEN TRIBES INSIDE THE EARTH., n.p., n.d., Circa 1967: Traces the Lost Tribes of Israel from the time of their disappearance to the present.
Armitage, Angus - EDMUND HALLEY., Nelson Publishers, pp. 72-74: Refers to Edmund Halley (the discoverer of Halley's comet) and his theory of a hollow earth, illuminated by "peculiar luminaries" and inhabited interior concentric spheres. (Also see: Halley, Edmund)
Arnold, L.W. - THE HISTORY AND ORIGIN OF ALL THINGS., B.F. Carpenter, Roselle, NJ, 1893., Section II, Chapters 12-15, pp. 85-94: References to the Earth's hollow interior and formation.
Austin, Leonard.
   --- THIS IS THE DEVIL'S WORLD CONTROLLED BY LUCIFER DOWN IN THE CAVERNS., Los Angeles (Austin was the "Iowa Strong Man," now deceased).
**** B ****
Bailey, Alice - A TREATISE ON COSMIC FIRE., Lucis Pub. Co., NY., 1925., p. 91:  One chapter refers to human-like entities which exist in "the central caves several miles below the crust of the earth".
Baker, Bill - THE MYSTERIOUS 'SPACE SPHERE'., Article in UFO REPORT, Spring 1974., p. 28:  Describes a mysterious sphere allegedly left by flying saucer entities and now in the possession of the Antoine Betz family of Jacksonville, FL.  Some believe it to be a model representing the earth and its hollow interior.
Baker, Dr. Douglas - PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES OF ASTRAL PROJECTION., The Aquarian Press, Wellingboro, Northamptonshire, England.  1977., p. 52:  The author makes an astral journey to the Inner Earth, where he observes a subterranean civilization which survived from the sunken continent of Atlantis.
Ballard, Guy. (or Godfre Ray King - pseud.)
   --- UNVEILED MYSTERIES., St. Germain Press, Chicago, 1934:  The author's journeys through great caverns, tunnels and ancient mines filled with strange treasures and ancient 'Atlantean' machines.
   --- THE MAGIC PRESENCE., St. Germain Press, Chicago, 1935:  The continuing story of the author's adventures with 'ascended masters' in the caverns, including his visits to an ancient city within the heart of the Teton Mountains, and to a subterranean city beneath "Table Mountain" in Wyoming, during which he/they were able to speak through an 'Atlantean radio' with a being called 'Pelleur' from the inner surface of the geo-concavitic (hollow) sphere of the earth, or the "land of the Eternal Sun of Even Pressure" at the 'center' of the hollow sphere of the Earth. (Also see: Stark, Martha G.)
Benner, Box.  CRITIQUE: A news-magazine that occasionally includes Inner Earth material.
Baran, Michael.
   --- ATLANTIS RECONSIDERED (A NEW LOOK AT THE ANCIENT DELUGE LEGENDS AND AN ANALYSIS OF MYSTERIOUS MODERN PHENOMENA)., Exposition Press: Ancient Atlantean’s reside in the interior of the Earth and are responsible for some of the UFO phenomena.
   --- INSIGHT INTO PREHISTORY., Exposition Press: Atlantean survivors living deep underground and keeping watch over mankind on the surface.
Barbarossa, Frederick - Writings of his, concerning his visit to the interior of the Earth, and his explanations of what the 'Hollow Earth' is all about.
Barbeau, C.M. - HURON AND WYANDOT MYTHOLOGY., pp. 310-311.  The story of the underground city of Yooh-wah-tahyoe, built in ancient times by to (so-called) 'god' Tseh-stah, beneath the surface of Canada.
Baring-Gould, Rev. Sabine.
   --- CLIFF CASTLES AND CAVE DWELLERS IN EUROPE., Seeley & Co., London, 1911; Reprint 1968 by Singing Tree Press, Detroit, MI:  Accounts of extensive cave and tunnel structures beneath France and other countries.
   --- CURIOUS MYTHS OF THE MIDDLE AGES., Oxford Univ. Press, NY., 1978:  The belief by some that the mountain of Venus, in the Hurselbert Mountains between Eisenach and Gotha in SW East Germany, holds a portal to the Inner Earth.
Barton, Michael X (or, Michael X - pseud.) - RAINBOW CITY AND THE INNER EARTH PEOPLE., Futura Press, 1935.  Reprint, Gray Barker Books, 1969.  Revelations on the nature of the Inner Earth and Rainbow City, hidden in the ice and snow of Antarctica. (Also see: Hefferlin, W.C. & Gladys)
Bascom, Willard - A HOLE AT THE BOTTOM OF THE SEA: THE STORY OF THE MOHOLE PROJECT., Doubleday, NY., 1961:  Plans of American scientists to drill a shaft through the bottom of the ocean where the crust is thinnest, in an attempt to penetrate the 'Mohorovicic Discontinuity' or 'Mho'; Chapter 3:  SCIENCE FICTION AND PSEUDO SCIENCE INSIDE THE EARTH:  Science fictions's depiction of the earth's interior, and early promoters of Hollow Earth theories, such as sir Edmund Halley., Capt. John Clevises Sambas., and Karl Newport. (Also see: Malakov, A., THE NEW YORK TIME., McWhirter, Norris)
Bayley, Harold - ARCHAIC ENGLAND., London, 1919:  References to tunnels in County Down, southeastern section of northern Ireland, presumed by some to lead to the habitation of the subterranean 'Tuatha de Danaan' (Children of Donn) who are believed to have introduced Druidism into Ireland, then transformed into subterranean dwelling 'fairies' who now dwell in 'palaces underground'.  Also reports from early travelers of great tunnels stretching under Africa, including one beneath a river called Kaoma, Tanganyika, Zambia, "so lengthy that it took the caravan from sunrise to noon to pass through..."
Baysworth, Pipa - UNDERGROUND MAN., Chapter in 'THE SUBTERRANEAN WORLD' (Beckley, Timothy Green., Ed. by)., Gray Barker Books., 1971:  Referring to legends and stories supporting a Hollow Earth and a Subterranean World & subterranean cities, etc.
Beaver, Harold. (See: Poe, Edgar Allan)
Beauchamp, William M., - IROQUOIS FOLKLORE., pp. 152-153:  The belief held by the five IROQUOIS Amerindian Nations that their ancient ancestors emerged from a subterranean world.
Beckley, Timothy Green.
   --- SHAVER MYSTERY AND THE INNER EARTH, THE., ed by., Gray Barker Books., 1967:  Several reports about encounters with the strange physical inhabitants of the interior of the earth.
   --- STRANGE ENCOUNTERS., Global Communications., 1980.  Chapter 10: "Mt. Shasta - Space Base":  Describes a race of "little people" who live in caverns beneath the Mt. Shasta area, and a cave in northern California which leads to a race of technically  advanced humans, descended from an ancient Lemurian/Naga-Mayan race which abandoned the surface of the planet long ago.
   --- SUBTERRANEAN WORLD, THE., Gray Barker Books., 1971:  Several essays on the Shaver Mystery, and the earth's interior inhabitants, both benevolent and malevolent., from some of the top researchers in the field.
   --- UFO REVIEW NEWSPAPER., ed by., Global Communications:  Occasionally includes articles on the 'Inner Earth' mystery.
Beekwith, Martha - HAWAIIAN MYTHOLOGY., p. 224:  The belief by natives on the island of Mangai that their ancestors emerged from the darkness of an underworld.
Behren, H., M.D. - THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE HARZ FOREST., 1730:  References to a race of friendly dwarfs who live in subterranean caverns beneath the Walkenreid, in the Harz region of Germany, and who to this day are said to secretly engage in trade with some of the local villagers.
BELVA MINE DISASTER - Interviews with survivors of a mine explosion on Dec. 26 1945., which appeared in the Dec. 1981 - Jan. 1982 issues of the Pineville, KY, and other local newspapers, telling how the trapped men saw a "door" in the wall of the mine open, and a man dressed like a "lumberjack" who emerged from a well-lighted room.  After assuring the men that they would be rescued, the strange visitor returned to the 'room' and closed the door.
Bender, Albert K. - FLYING SAUCERS AND THE THREE MEN., Gray Barker Books., 1962., pp. 106-107 & 152-158:  The author reports how he was 'teleported' to an enormous cavern beneath the ice of the South Pole, which is the base for a race of 'extra-terrestrial' beings from the planet "Kazik', and who once lived on planet earth in ancient times.
Bender, Peter - Writings on the Hollow Earth during the 1930's:  The author, a German aviator, synthesized the theories of Cyrus R. Teed and Marshal B. Gardner, and founded the movement, "Hohl Welt Lehre," which had among its membership several ranking Nazi leaders. (Also see: Derry, Francois)
Bennett, Robert A. - THYRA: A ROMANCE OF THE POLAR PIT., 1901., 258 pp., Reprinted by 'Health Research'.
Benton, Floria (pseud.)
   --- HOLLOW EARTH MYSTERIES AND THE POLAR SHIFT., illus., Future Press, 1981
   --- SERPENTS OF FIRE: THE HITLER - HOLLOW EARTH CONNECTION., Gray Barker Books, 1983:  How Adolph Hitler's beliefs that a race of powerful occult-technologists would one day emerge from the inner earth (based on E. Bulwer Lytton's book 'THE COMING RACE') influenced his desire to create a 'Master Race' of blond Nordic/Aryan peoples.  Hitler also created the VRIL SOCIETY within his Nazi ranks, based on Lytton's description of the underground race, the "Vril-ya".  Also, Hitler's alleged escape from Berlin to a secret German colony in South America - and then to the underground "New Berlin" base in Neu Schwabenland, Antarctica. (Also see: Leedy, Ruth)
Bergenson, Benjamine E. - THE EARTH IS A BUBBLE., St. Clair Press, Chicago, IL.  1922.  12 pp.
Bergier, Jacques & the editors of INFO - EXTRATERRESTRIAL INTERVENTION: THE EVIDENCE., Henry Regency Co., Chicago, IL., 1974., Chapter 4: The mysterious ancient, manmade "Moonshaft" discovered is a cave in Czechoslovakia in 1944. (originally appeared in the N.S.S. News of the National Speleological Society... Also see: Horak, Antonin T.)
Bergier, Jaques & Louis Pauwells.
   --- MORNING OF THE MAGICIANS, THE., Stein & Day, New York, NY., 1964., first published in France as "LE MATIN DES MAGICIANS", by Editions Gallimard., 1960; Published in England as "THE DAWN OF MAGIC"., Anthony Gibbs & Phillips Ltd., London  1963; Part VII, pp. 185-190: Hitler's and the 'Thule Society's' interest in the Hollow Earth, and plans for a scientific expedition to investigate it's  reality.
   --- SECRET DOORS OF THE EARTH., Henry Regenery Co., Chicago, IL., 1975: Unknown worlds within the earth, the home of great beings who possess extraordinary knowledge.
Bernard, Dr. Raymond W. (pseudonym for Dr. Walter Seigmeister).
   --- AGHARTA, THE SUBTERRANEAN WORLD., Health Research: Evidence supporting the Hollow Earth theory and the existence of subterranean human life.
   --- ESCAPE FROM DESTRUCTION., Health Research.
   --- ESCAPE TO THE INNER EARTH., Gray Barker Books., 1974., 35 pp.: Mankind must seek refuge within the interior of the Earth in order to survive an imminent nuclear holocaust, according to the author.
   --- FLYING SAUCER'S FROM THE EARTH'S INTERIOR., Fieldcrest Publishers, New York, NY., n.d.; Reprinted by Health Research,98 pp.: Several reports on discoveries of entrances to subterranean cities in the southern Brazilian states of Matto Grosso, Parana, and Santa Catarina, especially near the Joinville area. Further discussions and theories on the Hollow Earth mystery.  Also the underground mysteries of Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa.
   --- THE HOLLOW EARTH., 1968., Various editions, including Lyle Stuart, Secaucus, N.J.; Bell Publishing Co.; Gray Barker Books; Health Research; 191 pp. Much evidence supporting the possibility of a Hollow sphere put forth by early theorists such as Gardner, Reed, and other pioneers in the Hollow Earth field; legends from around the world which support the belief in a subterranean world.
   --- Letter in SEARCH magazine, October 1959, p. 48: Three tunnels discovered by Brazilian explorers, who followed one of the tunnels downward for three days, eventually emerging into an underground city inhabited by a race of dwarfs, or "Niebelungs".
   --- A TRIP BY SAUCER TO THE CENTER OF THE EARTH., Chapter in THE SUBTERRANEAN WORLD (Ed. by Timothy Green Beckley., Gray Barker Books)., Reporting on a Brazilian man's journey to the Earth's hollow interior via subterranean craft, where he observed a fantastic underworld city and the "Central Sun".
Bernbaum, Edwin - THE WAY TO SHAMBHALLA., Weisers, 1980.
Bishop, Jason (aka 'TAL' LeVesque)
   --- AN ABANDONED UNDERGROUND CITY FOR 60,000 PEOPLE DISCOVERED! Article in THE HOLLOW HASSLE newsletter, Feb. 1983: Discoveries of ancient subterranean cities beneath Turkey, including those beneath Kaymakli, Oskonak and the Cappadocian Plateau.
   --- MYSTERIOUS PYRAMIDS., Article in THE HOLLOW HASSLE newsletter., May 1982: Subterranean passages and caverns beneath the pyramids of the earth.
Blain-Sanders, R.L. - TUNNELS AND CAVERNS UNDER NEW YORK CITY. Article in SHAVERTRON magazine ( Also see: http://www.shavertron.com ), Fall 1981: Strange 'Masonic' tunnels beneath New York city.
Blaan, Tommy R. - THE HOLLOW THEORY. Article in THE HEFLEY REPORT (date uncertain): Discussions on the Hollow Earth theory as set forward by Dr. Raymond Bernard and others.
Blavatsky, Helena P. - THE SECRET DOCTRINE. Various editions, including the 'Theosophical Society of America', Wheaton, IL: Madame Blavatsky allegedly meets 'Brahtma,' the so-called 'King of the World', who resides in the subterranean world of Agharta; underground cities and tunnels in India and central Asia. Vol. 2 discusses 'Vara', the Persian story of an underground fortress said to have been made of clay and to have served as their 'ark' of survival during an ancient cataclysm. Constructed by 'Yima,' it was three stories deep with wide avenues. Its lord and ruler was 'Zarathustra.'
Blessing, William L.
   --- OUTER SPACE PEOPLE AND INNER EARTH PEOPLE., House of Prayer for all People., Denver, CO  1965: Evidence from the Bible supporting the theory that benevolent subterranean beings exist within a 'paradise' beneath the surface of the earth.
   --- SHOWERS OF BLESSING., House of Prayer for all People... Issues, Oct. 1957; Sept. 1970; ...and other issues give references to the Hollow Earth.
   --- SURVIVAL., House of Prayer for all People., circa 1953: some inner earth material.
   --- THE SUPREME ARCHITECT OF THE UNIVERSE., Chapter 8 - "The Garden of Eden and the Earth's Interior'., House of Prayer for all People. 1956.
Blomquist, Hakan - THE INNER EARTH THEORY: A SOURCE STUDY., Article in AFU newsletter., Aug.-Dec., 1981 (No. 22), pp. 2-3.
Bolton, H.C. - ARAB LEGENDS OF A BURIED MONASTERY., "Journal of American Folklore", Vol. 2: The  story of a man who was conducted into the bowels of the mountain "Febel Nagous" (Mountain of the Bell) in the desert near Mt. Sinai, where he sees an underground city or "monastery", and: "subterranean gardens, date palms [trees] bearing fruit, and good water..."
Bond, Raymond - SUBTERRANEAN SAUCERS: GLOBAL NETWORK OF UFO BASES., Article in SAGA'S UFO ANNUAL., Brooklyn, NY., 1980: Caves within Mt. Sombrero in the Tampico region of Mexico, from which sounds resembling those made by "hydroelectric generating equipment" can be heard.  Also tunnels beneath Turkey, and the "inhabitants" if the interior of Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa.
Bordsen, John P. - THE SKY'S NOT THE LIMIT IN K.C.: KANSAS CITY OFFERS ACTION UNDERGROUND., Article in THE MILWAUKEE JOURNAL., Oct. 27 1982: Reports on the extensive subtropolis beneath the Kansas City, including a large underground complex of tunnels and 'underground buildings' approximately the size of West Milwaukee.
Borino, Bob
   --- UFO BASE FOUND UNDER ANTARCTICA., Article in THE GLOBE., Jam. 18 1983: The belief by some scientists of a subterranean UFO base beneath the strange "Polynye Sea" in Antarctica's Weddell Sea region.
   --- UFONAUTS' BURIAL SITES FOUND. - Article in THE GLOBE, May 15 1982., p. 3: 'Ancients Astronauts' expert Eric Van Daniken's investigations of reports of underground cities beneath the Andes mountains, the entrances to which are guarded by the Mongulalas, an 'Indian' or native tribe in southwest Brazil.  Ancient 'gods' which lie in a state of suspended animation beneath a subterranean temple near their lost city, Akakor, described. Tunnels stretching beneath Ecuador and Peru are also mentioned. (Also see: Brugger, Karl., &  Van Buren, Elizabeth)
   --- YES, THE EARTH'S REALLY HOLLOW., Article in the GLOBE., April 20 1982: The findings of 'Hollow Earth' researchers' Michaels & Prof. William Jameson., author of the book 'HOLLOW WORLDS'.
Boschke, F.L. - THE UNEXPLAINED., pp. 103-105: The exploration of giant 'ice caverns' and tunnels within Mt. Ranier in Washington state.
Boyes, Ivan
   --- (Ed. by) - NEW WORLDS (formerly: NEW WORLDS AZAG AUSRALIM)., International Search, Inner Earth - Psionics Organization: Information of extraterrestrial and subterranean life.
   --- THE HOLLOW EARTH., Article in NEW WORLDS, Vol. 1, No. 4: Concerning interesting facts and theories on the Hollow Earth and its' inhabitants.
   --- ATLANTIS REAWAKENED., Article in THE HOLLOW HASSLE newsletter, Feb. 1981 (Reprinted in NEW WORLDS, Vol. 1, No. 2): Remarkable discovery in caverns beneath a mountain in the Amazon basin of Brazil of several 'Atlantean' beings who were awakened by the explorers from a state of suspended animation.
   --- NEW WORLDS, Vol. 1, No. 2, p. 18: Maps of major tunnel systems and UFO bases beneath North America.
   --- THE HOLLOW EARTH REVEALED., article in NEW WORLDS, special 60-page report (photocopy - unpublished).
   --- THE HOLLOW EARTH., article in NEW WORLDS, Vol. 1, No. 4: Alleged maps of the polar regions and the Hollow Earth continents.
   --- BEING A HOLLOW-EARTHIST., article in NEW WORLDS, Vol. 1, No. 4: What being a 'Hollow Earthist' is all about.
Bradshaw, William A. - THE GODDESS OF ATVATABAR., J.F. Douthitt Co., NY., 1851., illus., 318 pp: An occult novel relating the history of the discovery of the 'interior world', along with some new and interesting theories concerning the Hollow Earth.
Brakefield, Stoney - UNDERGROUND MONSTERS ATE 15 MINERS ALIVE! Article in NEWS EXTRA, a Pennsylvania newspaper, July 14 1974. Reprinted in THE HOLLOW HASSLE newsletter, Vol. 2, No. 1: The disappearance of several coal miners in a mine near Dixonville, PA, in 1944, and the sighting of a frightening of an unearthly being by the rescue party in a previously unknown side tunnel shortly after the disappearance.
Brandon, Jim - WEIRD AMERICA., E.P. Dutton, NY., 1978.  p. 58: Tunnels discovered by Dr. John Thornton under Washington D.C. which some believe to have been built by the Ancient Atlantean’s of the Atlantic ocean which Washington lies adjacent to; pp. 54-55: A strange tunnel discovered in Devon, CT; Con-Edison's discovery of an enormous cavern deep beneath Manhattan's East River Park while drilling to a depth of over 200 ft. (Also see: Hudson, L. Frank; & Bukatman, Scott)
Braun, Kurt - UNDERGROUND CIVILIZATION ATTACKS GERMAN ARCHEOLOGIST., Article in BEYOND REALITY magazine, Dec. 1958, 6 p.: Other issues of this magazine also refer to the Inner Earth hypothesis.
Brinton, Daniel G.
   --- AMERICAN HERO MYTHS., pp. 91-93: An Aztec tradition that their ancient ancestors once lived in a "White and Bright Land" called "Aztlan" - and that they emerged from this land from seven caverns known as "Chicomoztoc" from a small mountain or large hill located at some indefinite distance to the north or northwest of their habitat, called "Colhuacan" (Bent or Curved Hill); pp. 134-135: Describes a cavern south of Chupultepec, known as "Cincalo" (To the Abode of Abundance), which is said to lead to the subterranean land of "Tlillapa" or "Mictlan" - a "happy and" governed by Quetzalcoatl and his lieutenant Totec, the same land from which he and the Toltecs had emerged in ancient times. (Also see: Folsom, F., & Marcoux, C.)
   --- MYTHS OF THE NEW WORLD., pp. 265-266: The belief of the Caribs, Arawacks, Warraus, Carayas and other South American native tribes that long ago man lived within the Earth "...in a joyous realm, where death and disease were unknown, and even the trees never rotted but lived on forever".
Britten, Emma H. - GHOSTLAND: OR RESEARCHES INTO THE MYSTERIES OF OCCULTISM., Progressive Thinking Publishing House, 1897; Chapter, "SUBTERRANEAN MARVELS": A huge subterranean cavern-temple and tunnels deep beneath the surface of India, near the ancient city of Ellore.
Brotherhood of Faithists (Canada)
   --- THE FIRST INNER EARTH EXPLORATION., Circa 1970, 5 pp.
   --- INNER EARTH EXPLORATION REPORT - FIRST PHASE., Circa 1970-71., 5  pp.
Brough, R. Clayton - THE LOST  TRIBES., Horizon Publishers & Distributors., Bountiful, UT. 1979: Several theories explaining the present whereabout of the Lost Ten Tribes (or actually 9 ˝ tribes - excluding the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, and half the tribe of Levi) of Israel, including the theory that they  now exist in a warm, hidden polar country, or beyond the rim of the alleged hidden Arctic polar "opening" - within the Geo-concavitic or "Hollow" Earth itself.
Brown, Dr. (?) - ACCOUNT OF MUNNIPORE., 1968., p. 113: An Angamis legend that their ancestors emerged in ancient times from a subterranean land.
Brown, E. Stanton - Letter in AMAZING STORIES magazine., Oct. 1847., pp. 171-172: The discovery of an ancient smooth man-made "bottomless shaft" in the Big Bend region of Texas, about 90 miles SW of Marathon.
Brown, F. - SPACE AND THE UNIVERSE., Geocosmic Research Division: Material relating to the 'Hollow' Earth.
Brown, Malcolm W. - UNDERGROUND TUNNELS THREATEN TOWN IN HUNGARY'S WINE COUNTRY., New York Times, Nov. 8 1976, p. 2: More than 60 miles of ancient tunnel systems beneath the town of Eger, Hungary, the origin and purpose of which remain a mystery.
Brugger, Karl - THE CHRONICLES OF AKAKOR., Boohi Tree Books, Delacorte Press, NY., 1977, 230 pp: The history of the  Ugha Mongulala Indian nation from ancient times to the present.  A race of 'white Indians' who claim to be descended from ancient 'space gods', and who once ruled over a vast empire which covered South America in pre-Incan times. In the year 1971, due to the constant encroachment of the white settlers and the 'invasion' of their territory, 30,000 survivors of the Ugha Mongulala escaped into 13 ancient subterranean cities in the Andes mountains, built long ago by and ancient ones, to await there the promised return of their forefathers from the stars - a race of extraterrestrial beings with ancient ties to earth, from a planet called "Schwerta". (Also see: Van Buren, Elizabeth; & Borino, Bob)
Buckland, Dr. - RELIQUIAE DILUVIANAE: Describes the author's explorations of Kirkdale Cave in England, where he found remains "pertaining to men who were swept away by Noah's Flood".
Bugliosi, Vincent. - HELTER SKELTER., W.W. Norton & Co., NY., pp. 232-233 & 246: Charles Manson's belief in the existence of a subterranean paradise entered through a cave in Death Valley, which he called the "bottomless pit".  He claimed that he and his "family" would take refuge there during a great Negro uprising (which he called "Helter Skelter") in America, which he believed would be triggered by himself through the "Manson Murders".
Bukatman, Scott & Michael Moore. - SUBTERRANEAN ALIENS - MINERAL WATERS OF THE DAMNED? Article  in OFFICIAL UFO., Oct. 1979: The authors claim to have been taken into inhabited caverns after investigating seismic interruptions at a cavern beneath Manhattan's East River Park while drilling to a depth of 200 ft. (Also see: Hudson, L. Frank)
Burke, Michael. - 'GREEN THING' SPARKS RUMORS. Article in THE VALLEY NEWS DISPATCH., New Kensington, Tarentum & Vandergrift, PA. March 5 1981: Reports of a creature, describes as half man - half dinosaur, seen emerging from a sewer drain tunnel in New Kensington, PA (Also reported in UFO NEWS SERVICE., April 1981., No. 141., and THE NEW ATLANTEAN JOURNAL., Summer 1981., p. 7).
Burton, Eve - A NATURAL BRIDGE TO CROSS., G.P. Putnam's Sons, NY., 1935., pp. 269-270: Two types of subterranean dwellers - a degenerate race and an advanced race or peaceful, intelligent beings "who are trustworthy and lead very clean lives".
Butler, George - THE WOMAN WHO "SEES" TOMORROW., Chapter in BEYOND THE STRANGE., by the Editors of FATE magazine., Paperback Library, NY., 1966. p. 47: Mrs. Jane Savage of Lakeland FL., who claims to have taken notes on seven 'astral' excursions to underground cities one-and-one-half miles beneath the surfaces of Arizona and New Mexico (from where the Navaho, Hopi, and other native American tribes claim to have 'emerged' in the distant past), where the remains of the greatest as well as the oldest civilization known to man could be found. A similar account appeared in THE HOLLOW HASSLE Newsletter., Vol. 1, No. 12.
Byrd, Admiral Richard E. - A FLIGHT TO THE LAND BEYOND THE NORTH POLE, OR IS THIS THE MISSING DIARY OF ADMIRAL RICHARD EVELYN BYRD. Forward by William Bernard (aka Capt. Tawani 'W.B.' Shoush)., International Society for a Complete Earth (Hollow Earth Society), Houston, MO; Also: International Search - Inner Earth - Psionics Organization: Describes Admiral Byrd's ALLEGED encounter with the so-called 'Arianni' (Shoush is of German or 'Aryan'
descent), a 'Hollow Earth'  civilization with whom Byrd supposedly came in contact with during his Arctic flight.
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Calais, Ronald A. - NEWSLETTER FOR THE COMMITTEE FOR THE SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION OF PSI., Vol. 1, No. 6: An account of a laborer in Staffordshire, England, who discovered a cave with a stone staircase leading into a vast cavern filled with strange machinery of an alien civilization. Also records the experience of David Fellin and Henry Thorne, two miners who, after their escape from a mine cave-in in Sheppton, PA., told of seeing a large door in the rock wall that was illuminated by a blue light. The two miners claim to have watched the door open and seen a group of strange men dressed in "weird outfits" standing on a beautiful marble stairway. (Also appears in THE UNDER-PEOPLE, by Eric Norman. For the full account of the case see: Schimeer, Bill)
CALIFORNIA MYSTERY HOLES - Article in FATE magazine, Sept. 1957, pp. 12-14: Mysterious holes which appeared in San Gabriel, and in the backyard of Manny Bluemenfield of Los Angeles, CA.
Cambrensis, Giraldus - ITINERARY THROUGH WALES (See: Lewis, Mary L.)
Canty, Jerome - HOLLOW EARTH HARMONICS. Article in SAGA'S UFO REPORT (issue uncertain), p. 10: The Hollow Earth and theories concerning its formation and evolution.
Caroll, Rick A. - A HOLE IS EATING SAN JOSE (name or newspaper uncertain)., Jan. 12 1979: A strange hole which appeared in the yard of Yvonne Crosby of San Jose, CA. Reprinted in INNER EARTH ENTRANCES (self-published/printed), Vol. 1-B, By Bruce Walton, p. 85.
Carson, Will & Jeannie Joy - PRYING INTO THE UNKNOWN. Article in SEARCH magazine, April 1963: The discovery of two tunnels in California, leading into ancient caverns containing golden artifacts and skeletons of giants, nicknamed “Lemurians”. Also the discovery by Mr. & Mrs. P. Ellmen of an entrance to a subterranean civilization near the Casa Diablo monument, in the desert floor in Inyo County, north of Bishop, CA., from where they heard emerging "music like from some other world".
Carter, Lin
   --- JOURNEY TO THE UNDERGROUND WORLD. DAW Books, Inc., 1979: Allegedly based on an actual account of a visit by an explorer to the lost underground 'world' of "Zanthodon".
   --- ZANTHODON. DAW Books, Ind., The 2nd volume in a series describing an explorer's alleged adventures in the underground 'world' of "Zanthodon".
Castillo, Francisco - RETURN FROM THE UNKNOWN. Article in FATE magazine, Nov. 1957: Discovery of a secret Mayan cave near the rivers Jetja and El Santa Cruz, in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, in which the writer witnessed a strange ceremony and the appearance of a supernatural being claiming to be 'Quetzalcoatl'.
Carter, Joseph H.
   --- AWESOME FORCE., Cadaka Industries, 1982, 400 pp: Contains most of the author’s unorthodox theories on physics. Chapter 6, "THE HOLLOW CONDITION OF THE EARTH," pp. 72-79, contains various proofs that the earth is a hollow sphere, including the falls of red pollen at the poles, ocean  currents flowing in wrong directions, and satellite findings. Admiral Peary's alleged trek to the pole is reviewed, and the reader is taken on a hypothetical trip into the earth's interior. The author  theorizes that our moon and the other planets are also hollow.
   --- HOLE AT THE POLE, THE., Article in SEARCH magazine, March 1969. illus., pp. 17-25: Presents scientific evidence to support the theory of a Hollow Earth, and identifies alleged entrances to its interior at the poles.
   --- SUPPRESSED FACTS CONCERNING THE EARTH., Cosmic Science Research Center., Portland, OR: Six-page report on the Hollow Earth, mentioning several theories, scientific findings, and evidence supporting the belief that the earth is hollow and inhabited within.
CAVE MARTIANS., Report in SAGA'S UFO ANNUAL., 1980., p. 4: Reprinted in SHAVERTRON ( http://www.shavertron.com )., Winter 1980, No. 6: A tunnel near the town of Xucurus, Argentina, some 90 miles from Buenos Aires, which had been discovered by agriculturalist Geraldo Cordeire, and found to contain nine connecting passages and strange inscriptions on the walls. From its entrance, so-called "men" nine feet tall... "green, with antennas on their heads, and square legs" have been seen to emerge, and which, according to hundreds of witnesses from the town and nearby locals, resemble enormous "portable radios".
CAVERS FIND LINK - DISCOVERIES PUSH MAMMOTH CAVE LENGTH TO 212 MILES., News article printed in SHAVERTRON ( http://www.shavertron.com )., circa 1980., No. 4: Amazing discoveries in the world's longest known cave system, created by the joining of the Mammoth cave and Flint Ridge cave systems, in Kentucky.
CAVES OF THE STATES., Article in FATE magazine., Oct. 1958., pp. 18-19: Discovery by Italian fishermen of a cave near the Tyrrhenian Sea "which has proved to contain (one of) the most amazing collection of ancient art objects ever found", and identified as a treasure grotto of the Roman emperor Tiberius Claudius Nero.
Chaney, Dr. Earlyne
   --- REVELATIONS OF THINGS TO COME., Astara., 1982: "Inner Earth People" who are awaiting the return of their ancient ancestors who left for the stars long ago.
   --- ODYSSEY INTO EGYPT., Article in VOICE OF ASTARA., May 1982: Tells of the authors' and Bill Cox's discovery of two tunnels which lead into the earth in Egypt, one in the Temple of Edfu between Luxor and Cairo in the ruins of El Tuna Gabel, and another near Zozer's Step Pyramid at Cairo near Memphis-Saqqarah, within the tomb of the Sacred Bull, called "Serapium". The Egyptian government sealed both tunnels because of fears of archeologists that they "lead too deeply down into the depths of the earth", and because they found the earth to be "honeycombed with passages leading off into other depths", and the possibility of explorers becoming lost.
   --- SECRETS FROM MT. SHASTA., The Roth Agency Pub. Co.: The story of the actual initiation experienced by Earlyne and Robert Chaney within the "Inner Temple" in the interior of Mt. Shasta.
Charroux, Robert
   --- THE MYSTERIOUS UNKNOWN., British Edition., Robert Laffont Co., 1969: also Neville Spearmen Ltd., Suffolk, England., 1972; Corgi Books, 1973; Contains material on the 'Inner Earth'.
   --- MYSTERIES OF THE ANDES: Discovery by scientists of two extinct Venezuelan volcanic craters, a mile apart, which were found to contain prehistoric plant and animal life forms at the bottom of each crater, both of which are connected by tunnels. Also describes native legends of the region, concerning a race of strange beings who live beneath the area in great underground chambers, as well as UFO's which have been sighted entering and leaving the craters (Also see: Weaver, John).
   --- AGARTHA  AND SHAMBHALA: Underground cities and the Inner Earth.
   --- GODS UNKNOWN, THE., p. 206: The subterranean civilizations of Agharta.
   --- TREASURES OF AGHARTA., Article in POINT DE VUE - IMAGES DU MONDE., Oct. 28 1947
   --- TREASURES OF THE WORLD., Paul S. Eriksson Inc., NY., 1962. Chapter 5: THE TREASURES OF THE INCAS: Secret Inca treasures hidden in tunnels and caverns throughout the Andes mountains; pp. 168-176: The subterranean kingdom of Agharta and its wonderful treasures; A fantastic subterranean Celtic city near Coulonges, Damville, & Eure., France - discovered by Marcel Bruegghe in 1951.
Chase, Frank Martin - DOCUMENT 96: A RATIONALE FOR FLYING SAUCERS., Gray Barker Books., 1968., pp. 100-103: A mysterious informant, Rex Ball, tells the author of sleeping outside his car in Illinois, and being awakened by small, oriental-like men and taken to a vast underground complex manned by U.S. military personnel. After witnessing the "orientals" preparing for a UFO flight, as well as strange weaponry and uniforms stored along the walls, the commanding U.S. general ordered that Ball be hypnotized and made to forget the experience. However in spite of this Bell retained the majority of his memories of the experience. (Also see: Keel, John A.)
Cherio - CHERIO'S WORLD PREDICTIONS., pp. 143-145: Cherio's alleged divinely-inspired visions, including one of a "treasure temple" beneath the Great Pyramid at Gizeh, containing priceless 'Atlantean' treasures and ancient scientific knowledge, which will be discovered and used by the LOST TRIBES OF ISRAEL upon their return.
CHINESE TUNNELS TO PROVIDE SHELTER IN CASE OF ATTACK., Article in THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN NEWS (issue uncertain); Reprinted in SHOWERS OF BLESSING., and THE HOLLOW HASSLE newsletter, May 1981: A massive network of underground tunnels beneath Peking, China, for the purpose of sheltering government officials and some of the population in the event of a nuclear attack.
Churchward, James - THE CHILDREN OF MU., Ives Washburn Publishers, NY., 1931: Mentions the complete Naacal Library, consisting of many thousands of tablets from an ancient race, hidden in vast chambers, along with subterranean temples and monasteries in the heart of a mountain near the headwaters of the Brahmaputra River south of Bhutan, India.
Clark, Harold D. - TREASURE CAVERN OF KOKOWEEF MOUNTAIN., Article in TREASURE TRAILS OF THE OLD WEST., Spring 1973, True Treasure Publications, Conroe, TX., pp. 47-54: The discovery of an enormous series of caverns and a huge subterranean river with shores of gold-bearing sand beneath this desert mountain in southern California, the entrance to which had been closed by dynamite by Earl Dorr, its, discoverer. (Also see: Gesner, Charles H., & Stringer, Sparks)
Clark, P - THE SAMBAS THEORY OF THE EARTH., Article in THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY., April, 1873, pp. 471-480.
Clarm, Sydney A. - GOLDEN TAPESTRY OF CALIFORNIA: The legends of the “Lemurians” who are believed to inhabit the interior of Mt. Shasta in  California.
Cleveland, Stanford M. - QUEST FOR THE LOST CITY., Article in AMAZING STORIES magazine., July 1947, pp.165-166: An underground city beneath Los Angeles, one of 13 similar cities constructed by an ancient race of cunning 'Lizard People'. (Also see:  Stoppel, Florence E.)
CLIPS, QUOTES & COMMENTS., B.S.R.F. (Discontinued to become part of ROUND ROBIN., same publisher): Occasionally included Inner Earth material.
Cluff, Rodney M.
   --- THE SUN INSIDE OUR HOLLOW EARTH., Article in SEARCH magazine., Winter 1982-83., pp. 10-13: Information of the Van-Allen radiation belts and their relationships with the Hollow Earth theory.
   --- WORLD TOP SECRET: OUR EARTH IS HOLLOW. Scientific evidence suggesting that the earth is hollow, and an 'Edenic' paradise within, and that the Lost Tribes of Israel and flying saucers exist inside the earth concavitic sphere.
Cohen, Daniel - IS THE EARTH FLAT OR HOLLOW? Article in SCIENCE DIGEST., Nov. 1872, pp. 62-66: Refers to the writings of Edmund Halley, John Clevises Sambas, Jules Verne, Marshall B. Gardner, Cyrus R. Teed, Peter Bender, Richard Shaver and Ray Palmer., most of whom believed in an inhabited Inner World.
Cohen, Michael
   --- Letter in FATE magazine., Aug. 1972: Explains why the writer believes that many flying saucers originate from the interior of the earth.
   --- THE LEGENDS OF MOUNT SHASTA., Chapter in JIM MOSELEY'S BOOK OF SAUCER NEWS., by James W. Moseley., Gray Barker Books., 1967., pp. 29-30: the legends of 'Lemurian' survivors within Mt. Shasta and an within an extinct volcano in Mexico.
Cole, Ira A. - THE GOLDEN ANTELOPE., pp. 11-12: A cave of which the author learned from a Cheyenne chief, 'Stone Calf', located in the Stakes Plains of NW Texas or SW New Mexico, the exact location of which was known only to Stone Calf and a few other 'Indian' braves, and which was believed by the Indians to lead to a subterranean land called 'Shipapu' (Note: The Hopi Indians of Arizona call their emergence place near the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado rivers, 'Sipapu').
Coleridge, Samual - (See: Vassos, John).
Coleville, W.J. - VRIL: THE ENERGY OF THE COMING RACE., Article in OCCULT REVIEW., Nov. 1912., pp. 278-286: The power of VRIL, as it is referred to in Eduard Bulwer Lytton's book THE COMING RACE. (Also see: Lytton, Bulwer).
Collett, Johanna - Letter in THE HOLLOW HASSLE newsletter., May 1983: The writers abduction by a UFO and her 'astral' trip to a cavern inhabited by somber-looking women "dressed in black, with a sort of hood to keep their head warm." She learned that these people eat only fish, and therefore must continually take what they call "Vitamin K".
Collier, Gordon - WHERE WILL YOU BE IN THE COMING AGE? Tarry-town, NY., 1966., "Book of Destiny", pp. 141-143: Secret chambers beneath the Great Pyramid and Sphinx at Cairo, Egypt., which will one day be found to hold ancient 'Atlantean' records, treasures and machines. pp. 211-213: Human-like creatures living at the bottom of the sea; a scientifically advanced race living at the South Pole; and strange people who live in caverns of the Andes Mts. in South America and who can see in total darkness - all of which is to be discovered by explorers within the next century.
Corcoran, Thomas  H. -  SENECA., Vo. 2 or 10., Harvard University Press., 1972., Cambridge, MA., pp. 97-105; 151-159; 171-175; 191-201: Refers to Seneca's descriptions of vast caverns within the earth through which flow vast rivers and currents of  wind. (Also see: Lucius A., SENECA)
Courlander, Harold - THE FOURTH WORLD OF THE HOPI’S: The tradition of the Hopi 'Indians' of NE Arizona, that their ancient ancestors at one time in the ancient past migrated through four different cavern worlds, eventually emerging from a small 'cave' in the Grand Canyon, near the confluences of the Colorado and Little Colorado rivers, an opening that they called "Sipapu" or "Shipapu". (Also see: James, Harry C.)
Cox, Bill
   --- PYRAMID GUIDE., Bi-Monthly newsletter, Santa Barbara, CA. No longer published. Some back issues contain Inner/Hollow Earth material.
   --- AGHARTA, LEGENDARY SUBTERRANEAN KINGDOM. Article in PYRAMID GUIDE, No. 40: Refers to this legendary land of paradise beneath the Gobi desert.
   --- HOLLOW EARTH CIVILIZATIONS: DO THEY EXIST? Article in PYRAMID GUIDE, No. 32. Illustrations by TAL LeVesque and Charles M. White.
   --- MOUNT SHASTA, REAL AND UNREAL. Article in PYRAMID GUIDE, No. 10: Mysterious legends surrounding this unusual mountain in northern California.
   --- SHAMBHALA, DREAM OR REALITY? - 4-part article in PYRAMID GUIDE., Nos. 41, 42, 43 & 44: Refers to the Inner Earth.
   --- Letter in THE HOLLOW HASSLE newsletter, Vol. 2 - No. 4: Ruins of El Tuna Gabel near the Nile River in Egypt, in which a tunnel was discovered and followed for several days by an expeditionary force which eventually turned back without reaching its end. (Also see: Channey, Dr. Earlyne - ODYSSEY INTO EGYPT)
Cox, Norma - Ed.  SECRETS., Periodical. Marshall, AR. Occasion included material on the inner earth and underground cities.
Crabb, Riley  H.
   --- THE REALITY OF THE CAVERN WORLD., Borderland Sciences Research Foundation (BSRF): Also distributed under the title "UNDERGROUND RACES" by Gray Barker Books: Mentions several accounts of subterranean dwellers, including a report on a race of subterranean giants seen in a closed-off section deep within the Hal Saflienti catacombs beneath the island of Malta, in the Mediterranean Sea.
   --- THE REALITY OF THE UNDERGROUND., Chapter in the book THE SUBTERRANEAN WORLD, edited by Timothy Green Beckley (Gray Barker Books); Several reports concerning the existence of subterranean beings.
CROFTON TUNNELS, THE., Article in THE WASHINGTON STAR-NEWS., July 25 1973 & Aug. 15 1973: Refers to ancient tunnels, an unexplored network discovered during the construction of a parking lot in Crofton, MD. Subsequent construction covered and blocked the tunnels before they could be fully investigated.
Cross, Charles - HOLLOW EARTH., Article in SAGA magazine, June 1973 (Brooklyn, NY): Concerning the 'Hollow Earth' theory.
Culmer, Frederick - THE INNER WORLD, A NEW THEORY. Published in Salt Lake City, UT 1886. 18 pp: States that the earth is a hollow sphere containing an internal inhabited region.
Curtiss, Harriette A.
   --- COMING WORLD CHANGES. 1929. Curtiss Philosophic Book Co., Washington D.C., Chapter 4: Refers to the so-called 'King of the World', who lives in the subterranean world of Agharti, and relays some of his prophecies concerning the future of planet earth.
   --- THE MESSAGE OF AQUARIA., Bantom Books., New York, NY., 1972. pp. 411-412: 'Wonderful tunnels', constructed by 'the masters', which run under the continents and the oceans of Earth. (Also see: Ossendowski, Ferdinand - BEASTS, MEN & GODS)
Cutcliffe-Hyne, Charles J.
   --- BENEATH YOUR VERY BOOTS., 1889: A novel based on the author's research into underworld kingdoms, and in the novel this kingdom is inhabited by the "Nradas" - a fair-skinned, blond-haired people who have lived in a state of harmony and peace since prehistoric times. The entrance (based on actual research!?) lies in the valley of Wharfe, near Kettlewell, England.
   --- MY JOYFUL LIFE., 1935: The author's adventures in cavern explorations, and stories and legends of subterranean kingdoms which he learned of during his travels around the world.