Institute of Noetic Sciences, PO Box 540037, Lake Worth, FL, 33454 Fax: 1-561-641-5242, e-mail email@example.com
This paper presents a hypothesis for integrating into the scientific framework phenomena of consciousness which frequently have been considered beyond scientific description. Intuition, telepathy, clairvoyance and many similar information phenomena seem to be easily explained by means of the nonlocal quantum hologram. It is further postulated that from the point of view of evolution, quantum nonlocality is the basis from which self-organizing cosmological processes have produced the common phenomenon of perception in living organisms.
A host of observed, but very basic human phenomena, including consciousness itself, have eluded rigorous scientific description by all disciplines of science. This is true, not because of insufficient evidence for a particular phenomenon's existence, but rather for lack of a theoretical construct which could fit within the prevailing paradigms of science. For millennia philosophers have pondered the nature of mind, consciousness and mind/matter interactions but without sufficient knowledge and technical capability to propose properly testable theories. For the past century eminent men and women of science have accumulated thousands of pages of data on mind/mind and mind/matter interactions. Many of the most telling experiments have been criticized, perfected and repeated numerous times during the past five decades, using increasingly sophisticated technologies. Meta analysis of these experiments produce accumulated probabilities against chance occurrences exceeding trillions to one (Radin, 1997). It has required, however, that quantum science mature for seventy-five years and during that period, test, validate and synthesize a number of seemingly outrageous physical concepts arising from quantum theory, before testable theories could arise which offer hope that anomalous mind and consciousness data can be explained (Mitchell and Williams,1996).
The missing concepts that prevented the earliest investigators of consciousness from succeeding in their quest were 1) a generalized theory of information, and 2) quantum science itself, with the associated phenomena of nonlocality, the zero point energy field and the quantum hologram. These associated phenomena are still not well understood but are sufficiently validated today by both theory and experiment to provide a basis for postulating a necessary condition for the existence of consciousness phenomena, as experienced in the observable four dimensional space/time universe. A third concept, chaos theory, is also necessary to understand the nonlinear evolutionary processes that caused consciousness to evolve toward the anthropic consciousness experienced by humans. In particular, chaos theory maps far from equilibrium systems and demonstrates the irreversibility of nonlinear processes and thus the irreversibility of time in the macro-scale universe.
Another class of phenomena, including normal sensory perception and evolution, to cite but two, have explanatory theories in classical science, but which in view of current developments in late quantum physics and in chaos theory may be incomplete approximations to the correct theory.
Information concepts have been examined by Wiener, von Neuman and Shannon in well known seminal works and by Frieden more recently (1998) to produce theories useful to physics, to computation and to communications technologies. These theories, although accurate and mathematically useful in their domains, fall short of being sufficiently encompassing when considering the problem of consciousness, its evolution and its associated phenomena. Even relatively simple perceptual organisms utilize patterns of energy, that is, information, not completely described by existing mathematical theories.
Theory and experimental evidence for the zero point energy field has been published by many authors, but I shall cite Haisch, Rueda and Puthoff, (1997, 1998), as the most contemporary and relevant work for this paper. Theory and experimental evidence concerning the quantum hologram has been developed by Schempp (1992, 1993) and Marcer (1996, 1997, 1998), separately and jointly, based upon a new understanding of quantum mechanics. (See previous work by Cramer (1986), Berry (1988), Anandan (1992) and Resta (1997)) .
Non-locality, although predicted by the earliest work in quantum theory and decisively demonstrated by Aspect in 1982, has been thought to be a curious property of particle physics but of little relevance to macro-scale reality until discovery of the quantum hologram. Further, it is widely believed that non-local quantum information represented by entanglement of particles could not be recovered locally as useable information (Eberhard, (1977). However recent work both in theory and experiment reported in Nature by Sudbury (1997 and Bouwmeester et al (1997) is in line with the work by Berry, Resta, Schempp and Marcer and makes it clear that this is not the general case for quantum information processing and communication. .
It has been widely accepted in science, until recently, particularly in the field of artificial intelligence, that the brain was likely a Turing Machine, incapable of supporting quantum processes. The work by Hammeroff (1994) and Penrose (1999) in isolating and describing microtubules in brain tissue have caused a re-examination of this dogma, and renewed interest in uncovering the quantum processes involved.
Based upon this earlier work I postulate and examine the evidence in this paper for the following theories:
1) The basis of subjective experience is rooted in the quantum attribute of nature called non-locality. I will use the word "perception" in its most generic sense to denote a basic subjective experience at all levels of complex matter. Thus the non-local quantum correlation between entangled quantum particles is considered the root cause of the phenomenon experienced as perception in more complex matter, but the non-local quantum hologram is the non-local carrier of information for molecular and larger scale matter. Thus, perception is not an object but rather the label for a nonlinear process involving an object, a percipient and information.
2) The experience of humans is that they sometimes, perhaps often, perceive information from or about physical objects that is not available through normal, local, sensory mechanisms, nor classical space/time information. Objective testing data in overwhelming abundance provides evidence that this is true, though an explanatory mechanism has until contemporary times remained elusive. I shall call this intuitive information or intuitive perception. I postulate that a quantum hologram is the source of this intuitive perception and that the percipient is at that time in phase-conjugate-adaptive-resonance (pcar) with the entity or object associated with the quantum hologram.
3) The phenomenon of "learning" in humans is a subjective process that involves perception, memory, intentionality, evaluation of outcome and behavior change. This may be viewed as a classical nonlinear feedback loop. Although we cannot know precisely the subjective experience of another entity, presumably in the successful training of animals, an analogous subjective process is in effect. Sheldrake (1981) has published a successful theory of morphic resonance related to animal learning based upon non-local information. Marcer has published papers (1996, 1997) theorizing a mechanism by which the quantum hologram causes learning to take place in both DNA molecules and prokaryote cells as an adaptation process of environmental resonance, rather than mutation and adaptation solely by random processes. I postulate that Marcer's concept can be generalized to nature at large and that the quantum hologram is the information structure suitable to explain Sheldrake's morphic resonance. The non-local quantum correlations observed in particles, and the non-local quantum hologram associated with molecular and larger scale objects, serve the purpose of providing information at all scale sizes to guide evolutionary processes. That is to say, that quantum non-locality is the basis of perception, and thus fundamental and necessary to the complex organizations of matter and information in the universe. Further, since learning is an observed property of complex systems such as animals and, via the quantum hologram, is theorized to be a property of simple cells and molecules, one can also postulate the generalization that nature evolves through a learning process rather then because of random mutations.
4) Marcer (1997) has proposed that the condition of phase-conjugate-adaptive-resonance (pcar) is a necessary condition for an object in three dimensional reality to be perceived as it really is. That is, resonance requires a virtual path mathematically equal but opposite to the incoming sensory information about the object. Further, that it is the incoming space/time information (visual, acoustic, etc), which decodes the information of the quantum hologram and establishes the condition of pcar so that accurate three dimensional perception is possible. That is to say, both quantum information and space/time information are used in the act of perception by organisms. I propose that the two equal but opposite paths required by the pcar condition are the mathematical equivalent of perception and attention or intention. I shall distinguish between attention and intention in following pages.
The anecdotal evidence for humans perceiving non-local information dates to prehistory. The data were sufficiently robust that both experiencers and philosophers, from Plato and Aristotle forward, accepted that both physical and non-physical realms of reality must exist. Non-physical was thought to explain the subtle, ephemeral and mystical subjective experiences ubiquitously reported in human culture. After Descartes and Newton, however, classical western science rapidly discarded the non-physical hypothesis and systematically began to ignore all evidence for perception of non-local information. Field theories and point particles were created to preserve the concept of physical contact between particles and to explain obvious examples of "spooky action at a distance" such as gravitation and electromagnetic interactions. Information, broadly defined as patterns of energy, reemerges however, in non-local form in the mysterious quantum spin correlations of double slit experiments, although it has been widely believed that such non-local information could not be recovered and utilized by sensory systems. With validation of theory and experiments concerned with the non-local quantum hologram, information, including non-local information, suddenly acquires a more important status in physical theory, a status as important as energy itself. This is true because information is the basis of the cognition and knowing by which creatures perceive reality, and non-local information can now be seen as a ubiquitous and useful property of the cosmos, rather than a unique attribute of particles (and human animals). It is likely that most, if not all, subtle, ephemeral and unexplained phenomena associated with subjective experience are connected, directly or indirectly, with the phenomenon of non-locality. The brain is clearly a quantum computer (Schempp & Marcer,1996) which utilizes both quantum and space/time information. This discovery alone almost certainly sets a necessary, but not sufficient condition, for intelligent life to have arisen in the cosmos, wherever environmental conditions permit.
Many volumes have been written in this century by scientists experimenting with remote viewing, ESP, telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, etc. Police agencies routinely use "psychics" to assist in criminal cases often with success. Intelligence agencies of governments have clandestinely utilized the findings to successfully gain information about an adversary. Many reports of these activities have been recently declassified and printed in open professional journals, even though no explanatory physical mechanism has yet been reported which is acceptable to mainstream science. The most succinct modern summary of this activity and analysis of results have been published by Radin (1997).
1 Quantum Holography
Non-locality and the non-local quantum hologram provide the only testable mechanism discovered to date which offer a possible solution to the host of enigmatic observations and data associated with consciousness and such consciousness phenomena. Schempp (1992) has successfully validated the concept of recovery and utilization of non-local quantum information in the case of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) using quantum holography. Marcer (1995) has made compelling arguments that a number of other chemical and electromagnetic processes in common use have a deeper quantum explanation that is not revealed by the classical interpretation of these processes. Hammeroff (1994) and Penrose (1991) have presented experimental data on microtubules in the brain supporting quantum processes.
The absorption/re-emission phenomena associated with all matter is well recognized. That such re-emissions are sufficiently coherent to be considered a source of information about the object is due to the theoretical and experimental work of Schempp and Marcer, based upon the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics of Cramer (1986), the Berry geometric phase analysis of information (Berry, 1988; Anandan, 1992) and the ability of quantum phase information to be recovered and utilized (Resta, 1997). The mathematical formalism appropriate to these analyses is consistent with standard quantum mechanical formalism, and is defined by means of the harmonic analysis on the Heisenberg nilpotent Lie group G, algebra g and nilmanifold (see Schempp (1986) for a full mathematical treatment). The information carried by a quantum hologram encodes the complete event history of the object with respect to its three dimensional environment. It evolves over time to provide an encoded non-local record of the "experience" of the object in the four dimensional space/time of the object as to its journey in space/time and the quantum states visited. The question of the brain's ability, as a massively parallel quantum processor, to decode this information is addressed by Marcer and Schempp in "Model of the Neuron Working by Quantum Holography" (1997) and "The Brain as a Conscious System" (1998). They argue that an organism's ability to perceive objects as they are and where they actually are in three dimensional reality requires the phase conjugate relationship provided by quantum holography. It is not sufficient for the incoming electromagnetic illumination (or acoustic signal) carrying object information to present to the brain a wave front in the manner presented to a flat photographic plate. Rather, a virtual signal as mapped by the phase conjugation of quantum holographic formalism is required to decode the information in order for perception and cognition to exist as we experience it in three dimensional reality. The percipient and the source of information are in a resonant relationship for the information to be accurately perceived. Many investigators have proposed a holography mechanism as a basis for brain functioning, beginning with Pribram, and indeed, others have proposed holography as a construct for the universe itself, but discovery of the non-local quantum hologram created by the absorption/ remission phenomenon and characteristic of all physical objects provides the first quantum physical mechanism compatible with macro-scale three dimensional world as we experience it.
The existence of a quantum hologram associated with each physical object provides each physical object with the non-local wave form predicted by quantum theory's wave/particle duality and extends quantum theory to all physical matter. It allows, for the first time, a possible approach for understanding the mysterious world of consciousness. Postulating that this is globally true, we inhabit a quantum world where non-local effects should be expected at all levels of functioning, not just as a curious artifact of the subatomic level of reality. The thousands of pages of data recording non-local phenomena of mind/mind and mind/matter interactions suddenly no longer require agonized and embarrassed apologists, nor need accept the scorn of classical scientists. Existence of the non-local quantum hologram suggests that nature has utilized non-local information from the big bang forward, throughout its evolutionary history; and long before planetary environments self organized to permit living matter and complex space/time sensory systems to evolve. The papers of Marcer and Schempp on learning inherent in DNA and prokaryote cells using quantum holography, when generalized, helps explain the ubiquitous appearance in nature across distances, scale sizes and species, of similar processes, organs and sensory systems. This certainly conforms with the fractal geometry of chaos theory. Certainly the similarities of DNA, cell structure, organs and brains across species are easier to reconcile with a non-local learning process than with a theory of localized random mutation and natural adaptation.
It is important to observe that in standard particle physics experiments the object is to discover the quantum characteristics of the individual types of particles, and the conditions under which they split and recombine. In quantum holography the object is to treat the entire group of re-emitted quanta as a whole, and as in laser holography, to examine the information carried in the interference pattern and phase relationships. These represent two quite different levels of approach to quantum information. In particle experiments, it is considered that the eigenvalues of the applicable matrix represent measurable values; and that information is lost during measurement due to decoherence of the particles and energy exchange. But in the quantum holographic formalism, the information is carried in the phase relationships, which are represented by off-diagonal terms in the matrix, and the information is recoverable under the proper conditions as Berry and Resta have predicted, and as Schempp has demonstrated with fMRI. The quantum mathematics is consistent with standard quantum theory in both cases.
In decoding the quantum holographic information, however, the energy exchange is insignificant.
The similarity of the mathematical treatment in these various experiments is important to the thesis of this paper. In examining the quantum non-locality of particles it is spin numbers and/or polarization that are the parameters of interest. A standard technique of analysis is to use the Fourier transform to map the state of the particles into the frequency domain. In the formalism of the quantum hologram, mapping into the frequency domain is also fundamental, however, the requirement for pcar assures that the phase relationships are matched so that the percipient (sensory system) is able to decode the information carried in the phase relationships. It is precisely the pcar requirement that permits the encoded holographic information to be decoded by the percipient. Mathematically, decoding is simply reversing the rotation of the phase vector in phase space. Physically, it is matching the frequencies and phase of the information such that resonance results. Frequency, phase matching and resonance are an operational characteristic of every type receiver technology. Pribram's earliest proposal that the brain stored information encoded as in a hologram and mapped by the Fourier transform is in complete agreement with the evidence presented by quantum holographic mathematical formalism.
It is the spin and polarization attributes of particles (both are mapped by wave mathematics) that represent the puzzling non-local property of subatomic matter. It is the phase relationships that carry the information in holography (again mapped by wave form mathematics). And it appears that the brain stores and manages information not as a classical digital machine, but rather as an analog device using non-local properties of the quantum hologram, which can be analyzed by wave form mathematics (harmonic analysis on the Heisenberg Lie group). In the cosmological evolutionary scheme of things this similarity of appropriate mapping techniques is too bizarre a coincidence to be ignored as a cosmic accident. Thus there is ample evidence that the non-local attribute of nature is much more than just a curious artifact of subatomic particle interactions, but rather is a more fundamental phenomenon that appears at all scale sizes and is, in particular, associated with the utilization of information in nature, and associated with the fact that information has a causal effect independent of distance. It is precisely information, however, that is the basis of the phenomena of perception, cognition, memory, learning, etc, that is to say, consciousness and the subjective experience. Though the evidence is quite ample to postulate that non-locality is the unique, universal basis for perception and the subjective experience, the evidence though compelling is not sufficient to be conclusive that such is indeed the case. The next steps are to validate more completely with experimental evidence that non-locality plays a major role at all scale sizes and that all physical objects are quantum objects and thus interconnected by information in this strange way.
2 Non-Locality in Nature
There is experimental evidence to strongly suggest that simple organisms perceive and respond to information non-locally as well. Cleve Backster was perhaps the earliest to experiment with plants and simple life forms in electromagnetic isolation in late 1960's and early 1970's. His work was not confirmed through replication by others at that time. Other investigators have had mixed results replicating non-local information perception by simple organisms and living tissues. In the area of human experimentation, results likewise have been mixed and controversial for three quarters of a century. However group analysis across a large and appropriate spectrum of experiments including hundreds of trials (meta analysis) by Radin (1997) and independently by Utts (1991) demonstrates compelling statistics that the perception of non-local information exists and is real. Perhaps were there a larger body of experimental evidence for simple life forms, similar meta patterns would emerge. Failure to replicate results in well constructed experiments does not, in the case of subtle consciousness phenomena, prove that the phenomenon is missing, but rather that a mechanism below the threshold of classical measurement is operating. For example, the most telling experimental evidence to explain the sometimes inconsistent results relates to direct non-local observer and/or experimenter effects. Gertrude Schmiedler isolated the "sheep/goat" effect in human experimentation decades ago (1972). Experimenters and/or participants in a human telepathy (or similar non-local) experiments exhibited results statistically above or below chance results depending upon their subjective bias toward the experiment. (In other words, 100% wrong answers would be as statistically significant as 100% correct answers in such tests, and in addition betrays the mind set or intention of the subject; whereas only chance results would be statistically inconclusive.) More recently, a series of experiments by Marilyn Schlitz and Wiserman (1997) investigating "intentionality" clearly demonstrated that experimenter bias (intentionality) affected the outcome even of double blind experiments. Thus, in the subtle realms of mind and consciousness studies, bias, belief and intention clearly have an effect. The lack of an existing theoretical structure in classical science to support any type perception of non-local information, much less to support bias, belief or intention as having a non-local effect, when in fact it does have a non-local effect, is quite sufficient to account for anomalous results in many scientific experiments. Further validation and acceptance of the non-local thesis will have strong positive repercussions for the prevailing scientific paradigm and particularly the theory of measurement. The prevailing dogma of the 20th century against any type of non-local action at macro-scale reality has not prevented experiments from being successfully conducted, but has caused positive results to be dismissed as anomalous, of faulty design or outright fraud, when in most cases the results were defensible had a proper non-local theory been available.
3 Attention and Intention
A powerful and telling series of experiments conducted by Dean Radin (1997) at University of Nevada at Las Vegas following a decade long set of equally significant experiments by Brenda Dunne, R. Nelson and Robert Jahn at Princeton University (1988) provide insight as to the subtleties involved in this level of mind/brain functioning. Jahn, Nelson and Dunn provided overwhelming evidence that subjects could intentionally produce statistically skewed results in mechanical processes normally thought to be driven by random processes. Radin went further; he discovered that audiences watching a stage performance would skew the output of nearby random number generators during periods of high emotional content in the stage performance. Further, in a wide ranging audience participation experiment, he recorded the output of computer random number generators during the television broadcasts of the O.J. Simpson murder trial. Most television media reported this event for weeks on end and tens of millions of humans were watching the results. Again, the results of the random number generators were skewed corresponding to emotional peaks during the trial drama and corresponding to the number of people watching television. The thesis in the Princeton experiments was that participant intentionality created a non-random effect to bias the skewed distribution. In the Radin experiments the results were not intentional, as the participants were unaware of the experiment, but the hypothesis was that attention (in particular, rapt attention) drove the system away from chaos (randomness) and toward greater order (reduced entropy). These results suggest that attention and intention provide closely correlated outcomes, further, that randomness may not be a general property of nature, but that what is perceived as random noise in a system may be information (a pattern of energy) that is not in resonance at that moment with the particular perceptual system. William Tiller, emeritus professor at Stanford also has performed experiments (1997) that are consistent with these results, though his interpretation of the operating mechanism is somewhat different.
These different types of mind/mind, mind/matter experiments have been rigorously and routinely conducted for decades with statistically compelling results but just as routinely dismissed or ignored by main stream science because the implications of non-local action are so foreign to the classical paradigm. However, if we consider that the condition of phase-conjugate-adaptive-resonance is necessary to completely specify the act of perception as described in the mathematical formalism of the non-local quantum hologram by Marcer, then we may also consider the perceived object and the percipient's perceptual system as locked in a resonant feed back loop. The incoming wave front carrying information may be labeled as "perception" from the point of view of the percipient, and the return path required by the resonant relationship may be labeled "attention" (or for subsequent discussion, "intention"). It is a well established principle in the meditative practices of esoteric disciplines that prolonged focused attention on a object of meditation causes the percipient and the object to appear to merge so that a deeper level of information about the object is obtained; information such as history or internal functioning, that would not be available through classical space/time information. The concept of the quantum hologram adequately and completely describes how this phenomenon might take place. Further, it is accepted that the mind/brain is a massively parallel processor, capable of performing many tasks simultaneously and subconsciously (in the right, intuitive part of the brain). Attention (meaning conscious, focused attention) is a unique and singular task that must take place sequentially, mostly in the left cognitive part of the brain. The condition of attention deficit disorder (ADD) is precisely the problem of a percipient being unable to maintain a singular focus for sufficient time to complete a desired task or observation. Thus, the action of focusing attention by a percipient may be construed as a necessary condition for pcar to be established with the perceived object..
4 Non-Locality, Near and Far
Marcer has presented the case for the pcar requirement in normal sensory perception (visual and acoustic). A frequent modality used by psychic sensitive individuals to gain information is to physically touch an object. Touching a object satisfies the pcar requirement and presumably allows the percipient access to information about the object not available from space/time information. Police agencies frequently use this modality with psychic sensitives to gain information about a crime scene, much as they utilize a blood hound to track the scent of an individual, often with considerable success. If, as in the theory of the quantum hologram, the object has been in the presence of the individual about whom information is desired, the event history of the object and that of the individual intersect. The Berry phase information of the object contains its journey in three dimensional space and time, as well as the quantum states through which it has passed on this journey. The sensitive individual, with a honed talent, seems often able to decode useful Berry phase information from the object about the individual sought. It may also be the case with the blood hound, that additional non-local information has been gained about the subject, even though the classical explanation is that the animal is operating only with heightened olfactory sensing.
Although perception in the three dimensional world requires and utilizes pcar, most humans, however, do not bring to conscious awareness non-local information when we are routinely operating in three dimensional reality. We perceive objects as presented by space/time information, that is, shape, color, function ( tree, chair, table, etc) but are not usually aware of the additional non-local information. It takes training as provided by many of the esoteric traditions and/or certain naturally sensitive individuals to routinely perceive the non-local holographic information associated with a particular object. There is massive evidence to suggest, however, that the brain has these latter capabilities at birth. Suppression by cultural conditioning in childhood and subsequent lack of practice cause the natural ability for conscious, intuitive perceptions to atrophy. Particularly in western tradition, educational interest has been on the left brain, rational functions rather than right brain, intuitive functions. However, mystic adepts and natural psychics routinely demonstrate that non-local information is perceptible from physical objects by focusing attention, quieting the left brain and allowing intuitive perceptions to appear. It is the left brain cognitive ability in humans that provides canonical labeling of the intuitive and artistic processes taking place in the right brain. The fact that with training and practice, individuals can recover, deepen and label their individual cognitive access to intuitive, non-local information demonstrates that learning is taking place within the whole brain itself and involves enhanced coherence and coordination between the hemispheres. This process is different and distinct from the left brain function of extending and extrapolating factual data and logical deduction to leap to an "intuitive" conclusion, while omitting the intermediate steps leading to that conclusion.
5 Remote Viewing
The case is somewhat different when the object of interest is not in the immediate vicinity of the percipient so that space/time information is unavailable for decoding non-local information. The phenomenon of remote viewing has been researched extensively by Puthoff and Targ (1976) of Stanford Research Institute and successfully utilized by intelligence agencies in the United States (Puthoff, 1996), and likely elsewhere, ever since. For the purpose of this paper, the questions of interest in this case are: "What is the reference signal used to decode the quantum holographic information in the absence of classical space/time signals; and how is pcar established by the percipient?" Experimental protocols for remote viewing normally provide clues to the location of the object such as a description, a picture, or location by latitude and longitude, that is to say, an icon representing the object. These clues seem to be sufficient for the percipient to establish a resonance with the object. Normal space/time information (visual, acoustic, tactile) about the object is not being directly perceived by the percipient, nor does the object usually appear at its physical location in space/time like a photograph or map in the mind. Rather, the information is perceived and presented as internal information and the percipient must associate the perceptions with his/her internal data base of experience in order to cognize and to describe the object's perceived attributes.
In the case of complex objects being remotely viewed, the perceived information is seldom so unambiguous as to be instantly recognizable as correct. Sketches, metaphors and analogies are usually employed to cognize and communicate the non-local information. A considerable amount of training, team work and experience are necessary to reliably and correctly extract complex non-local information from a distant location. The information appears to the percipient as sketchy, often dream-like, and wispy, subtle impressions of the remote reality. Very skilled individuals may report the internal information as frequently vivid, clear and unambiguous. The remote viewing information, being strictly non-local, and in this hypothesis, the information perceived by quantum holography, is missing the normal space/time components of information necessary to completely specify the object. It has been demonstrated that this intuitive mode of perception can be trained in most individuals. Perhaps additional training and greater acceptance of this capability will allow percipients to develop greater detail, accuracy and reliability in their skill. In principle, training will not only increase the skill and accuracy, but should cause the appropriate neural circuitry to become more robust as well.
In the absence of space/time (electromagnetic) signals to establish the pcar condition and to provide a basis for decoding the quantum hologram, an icon representing an object seems to be sufficient to allow the brain to focus on the object and to establish the pcar condition. However, a reference signal is also required to provide decoding of the encoded holographic phase dependent information. Marcer (1998) has established, using Huygen's principle of waves and secondary sources, that any waves reverberating through the universe remain coherent with the waves at the source, and are thus sufficient to serve as the reference to decode the holographic information of any quantum hologram emanating from remote locations.
6 The Zero Point Field
The results of the Michelson/Morley experiment banished the concept of an aether from early twentieth century physics. However, it left a void as the nature of interstellar space and nothing for propagating waves to wave in. Quantum physics reincarnated the aether as the zero point field, a seething cauldron of quantum potential and unmanifest energy where particles and antiparticles spontaneously arise and then disappear. The very fabric and structure of space/time itself is again in question; it's structure and its metric under intense investigation with far more questions than answers having emerged to date. For the purposes of this paper the relevant issues are two: 1) the emission/absorption phenomenon, and 2) the structure and mechanics of non-locality. Zero point (zero degrees Kelvin) emission and absorption of quanta from all physical objects is a well established phenomenon. It is our view that the zero point field is the plenum (or cauldron) which supports this absorption and re-emission, and makes the phenomenon of the quantum hologram possible at all temperatures. Although particle experiments are carried out under rigid conditions of temperature and pressure, Schempp's experimental work with the fMRI requires no such constraints.
There are deep and difficult questions yet to be answered about how the information of the quantum hologram maintains its integrity and is propagated; about how resonance takes place at extremely large distances. There is considerable evidence that intuitively perceived information is truly non-local. It does not obey the inverse square law for space/time energy propagation, it is time independent and cannot be shielded by electromagnetic shielding. Such characteristics are the mark of non-locality. But understanding the mechanics of non-locality (or a visual picture) is missing from standard models. Some physicists turn to super-luminal speed of propagation, others to the zero point as a zero dimension which is resonant with all parts of the universe simultaneously. The issue of instantaneous communication (or at least super-luminal communication) of non-local effects on a cosmic scale remains a problem, even though the phenomenon itself is well validated. Perhaps it is a problem of topology. What shape can the universe have such that one point can be in simultaneous contact with all other points? In this regard it is clear that certain problems between quantum mechanics, special and general relativity remain in existence. Haisch, Puthoff and Rueda continue to investigate the metrics of the zero point field with regard to better defining the unanswered questions about, mass, gravitation and inertia. Perhaps these investigations will also bring answers for how phase related information is propagated non-locally, likely within the zero point field, and thereby unveil the mechanics of the resonance phenomenon. Further, new investigations reported by Van Flandern (1998) on measurements from orbiting Global Positioning System (GPS) clocks indicate the predictions from Lorenzian relativity to be approximately four times more accurate (.7% opposed to 3%) than predictions of special relativity. If these measurements are further validated, it implies that Lorenzian relativity with a Hubble absolute rest reference frame, an aether (zero point field), and instantaneous propagation of non-local effects may be the preferred one. If this is the case, then many questions about non-locality would be resolved.
I have argued that by establishing pcar between a percipient and an object, the phase conjugate (equal but opposite) paths connecting the two can be labeled "perception" and "attention". In the case where the object is a simple physical object (rock, flower, etc.), our interest is on the non-local information perceived by the percipient about the object. However, from the point of view of the object, information about the percipient is also available to the object. The pcar condition is a reciprocal relationship, mathematically. Quantum holographic formalism predicts that the history of events of quantum objects is carried in the quantum hologram, thus we must conclude that the "attention" focused upon the object causes that event to be recorded in that object=s quantum hologram. Although we cannot query the object about its experience perhaps an experiment such as one utilizing the Bohm-Aharonov effect would detect a phase shift in the object's holographic field. (In this discussion I use anthropic labeling as we are discussing human perception. The phenomena however, are rooted in natural (and primitive) non-local physical processes which are fundamental. The evolved complexities of perception, cognition, etc, associated with a brain obviously, as yet, have no analogous label to describe the experience of simple objects.
Once the pcar condition is established, the percipient can change its mind state with regard to the object. The perceived information can be operated upon by the brain=s function so that cognition occurs with respect to the perceived information and meaning assigned. Cognition and meaning require finding a relationship between the perceived information and the information residing in the percipient's memory. The percipient can then form an intent with respect to the object. In such case the path I have labeled "attention" could suddenly be changed to "intention"; that is, from a passive state to an pro-active state.
In self aware animals (those with a brain) cognition, meaning and intent with respect to an object can often be described in simple terms, for example: enemy, fight or flight; food, eat; friend, greet, etc. The non-local component of information, although present and creating effect, is operating below the level of conscious perception in humans and results in "instinctual" behaviors in all animals. The brain as a massive parallel computer, is simultaneously performing numerous tasks to accomplish the desired intention. Classical modeling of this autonomous activity describe it only in terms of classical information and energy flow in the central nervous system and the brain. However, if non-locality is operating at all levels of activity, as this theory suggests, certainly there are resonances involving non-local information operating throughout the body of an organism in parallel with classical space/time functions. Subsequent experimental work will surely uncover these quantum processes where non-local resonance is involved in the functioning of an animal's internal processes.
In the case of non-local effects at a distance, outside the body, simple spin correlations of entangled particles is the most basic. The spin coherence is reciprocal. Action on one particle creates an effect on other entangled particles. The non-local information is causal of effects at large distances. It is no less important for macro-scale objects. Sheldrake (1995) proposed and others conducted experiments with dogs whereby the animals correctly anticipated their owners' departure from work to return home. He proposed other successful experiments where rats learning a new maze benefited non-locally from the experience of others who had previously learned the maze, in the total absence of classical space/time information.
It is not surprising then, that humans exhibit an even wider range of reactions to non-local information. The evidence suggests that humans can perceive, cognize and give meaning to non-local information across a range of complexity, from inanimate objects, simple organisms, animals and other humans. The existence of quantum holography provides an adequate informational structure to permit a theory for the observed results. The case is a classic case in phenomenology, where results are repeatedly observed over time that fall outside the prevailing paradigm, and must await new developments in science before an explanation is forthcoming.
The results for intentional effects of non-locality should be no more difficult to accept than the results for perception. The pcar relationship implies a symmetry, that is, information flows in both directions between object and percipient such that each is object and each is percipient. Only the complexity of the more ordered perceiving system suggests a non-symmetrical relationship. We humans have great difficulty in accepting that thoughts, specifically intentionality, can cause action at a distance. Yet, it has been observed for centuries and in recent decades subjected to scientific scrutiny. Were not prayer to have produced some positive results, religion would have been abandoned centuries ago. That cause was ascribed to supernatural agency rather than non-locality is simply, again, phenomenology needing to wait while science caught up. Modern studies by Dossey (1993), Byrd (1988) plus many others have attempted to document the efficacy of prayer, particularly healing prayer. The results in most cases are very suggestive of non-local effects, and some claim they establish the case for healing prayer. However, the difficulties of controlling all variables in such clinical studies leave many avenues for valid criticism. The fact that Radin's several studies (1997) demonstrated that attention alone produced non-local results in machines, i.e., reduced randomness (increases order) does confirm that information has non-local effect and may be correctly formulated as neg-entropy. These results apply directly to healing prayer as well.
The case for pcar conditions to create remote effects by transfer of non-local information between equally complex percipients, humans for example, is not difficult to understand. Indeed, hundreds of successful experiments establish the case. In these cases no energy transfer is required, only non-local information, as each percipient/object has access to its own energy source. The case for intentionally creating remote physical effects in inanimate objects is more puzzling. Even though teleportation of quantum states has been successfully accomplished for particles, and numerous studies (Radin, 1997; Dunne, Nelson and Jahn, 1988) show that macro-scale objects can also be changed or moved, the energy transfer mechanism by which the classical states of a remote object are affected remains elusive.
The case for mind/mind and mind/matter interactions is impressively well documented over many decades as studies in phenomenology, with staggering probabilities against chance having produced the results. The discovery of the non-local quantum hologram, which is theoretically sound and experimentally validated in at least one application, the fMRI, is sufficient to postulate that the quantum hologram is a solution to the foregoing enigma. Further, recognition that the quantum hologram is a macro-scale, non-local, information structure described by the standard formalism of quantum mechanics extends quantum mechanics to all physical objects including DNA molecules, organic cells, organs, brains and bodies. The discovery of a solution which seems to resolve so many phenomena, and also that points to the fact that in many instances classical theory is incomplete without including the subtle non-local components involved, suggests a major paradigm change must be forthcoming.
The papers already published by Marcer and Schempp proposing a learning model both for DNA and prokaryote cells, which uses quantum holography, suggests that evolution in general is driven by a learning feedback loop with the environment, rather than by random mutations. This solution to biological evolution was proposed by Lamarck in 1809 but discarded for the mechanistic solution of random mutations by the colleagues of Darwin.
The fact that non-local correlations and non-local quantum information can now be seen as ubiquitous in nature leads to the conclusions that the quantum hologram can properly be labeled as "nature's mind" and that the intuitive function we label in humans as the "sixth sense" should properly be called the "first sense". The perception of non-local information certainly preceded and helped to shape, through learning feedback, the sensory systems that evolved in planetary environments, and which we currently label as the five normal senses.
We must conclude that evolved, complex organisms which can form an intent can produce and often do produce non-local causal effects associated with that intent. Further, that attention alone produces coherence in nature that in some measure reduces randomness.
Finally, I conclude that the cited experiments and current understanding of non-locality in nature is sufficient to postulate that non-locality is the antecedent attribute of energy and matter which permits perception and is the root of the consciousness which manifests in the evolved organisms existing in three dimensional reality.
"The Geometric Phase"; Nature, 360,26, 307-313 (1992)
Berry, M. V.
"The Geometric Phase" Scientific American, December, 26-32 (1988)
et al, "Nature", vol 390, pp 575-579, 11 December (1997)
Byrd, R. C.
"Positive therapeutic effect of intercessory prayer in a coronary care population" Southern Medical Journal 81 (7):826-829 (1988)
, "Physics Review", D 22, 362 (1980)
"Healing Words" Harper San Francisco, (1993)
Dunne, B. J., Nelson, R. D., and Jahn, R. G.
"AOperator-related anomalies in a random mechanical cascade" JSE 2:155-80 (1988)
, "Bell's Theorem without Hidden Variables", Il Nuovo Cimento, V38 B 1, p 75, March (1977)
Roy, "Physics from Fisher Information", Cambridge University Press (1998)
Haisch, B., Rueda, A., Puthoff, H.E., "Physics of the Zero-Point Field: Implications for Inertia, Gravity and Mass".
Speculations in Science and Technology 20 99-114 (1997)
Haisch, B., Rueda, A., Puthoff, H.E. "Advances in the Proposed Zero-Point Field Theory of Inertia", 34th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, paper AIAA 98 3143.
"Quantum coherence in microtubules: A neural basis for emergent consciousness?" Journal of Consciousness Studies 1:91-118 (1994)
Marcer, P. J. "Getting Quantum Theory off the Rocks: Nature as we consciously perceive it, is quantum reality!" Proc.
14 International Congress of Cybernetics, Namur, Aug 21-25 (1995)
Marcer, P. J. & Schempp, W. "A mathematically specified template for DNA and the genetic code in terms of the physically realisable processes of quantum holography", Proc.
The Greenwich symposium on Living Computers, eds Fedorec, AM, Marcer, PJ, pp45-62 (1996)
Marcer, P. J. & Schempp, W.
"Model of the Neuron Working by Quantum Holography" Informatica 21:519-534 (1997)
Marcer, P. J. & Schempp W. "The model of the prokaryote cell as an anticipatory system working by quantum holography", International Journal of Computing Anticipatory Systems (1998), CHAOS Vol. 2, pp.
Marcer, P. J. "The Jigsaw, the Elephant and the Lighthouse", Proceedings of ANPA 20, (1998) in press.
Marcer P. J. & Schempp, W. "The brain as a conscious system", Int.
Journal of General Systems, (1998)
Mitchell, E. D. & Williams D.
"The Way of the Explorer" Putnam, NY (1996)
, "Emperor=s New Mind", Oxford University Press (1999)
, "Quantum holography: Is it relevant to brain function?", Information Sciences 115 (1999) 97-102
Puthoff, H. E. & Targ, R. "A perceptual channel for information transfer over kilometer distances: Historical perspective and recent research.
" Proceedings of the IEEE 64: 329-354 (1976)
Puthoff, H. E.. "CIA initiated remote viewing program at Stanford Research Institute" JSE 10:63-76 (1996)
Radin, Dean; "The Conscious Universe", Harper, San Francisco (1997)
"The Berry Phase", Europhysics News, 28, 19 (1997)
"A New Science of Life: the Hypothesis of Formative Causation", Tarcher, Los Angeles, (1981)
"Seven Experiments That Could Change the World, Riverhead Books, NY (1995)
Schempp, W. "Harmonic analysis on the Heisenberg group with application in signal theory.
" Pitman Research Notes in Mathematics, Series 14, Longman Scientific and Technica, London (1986)
"Quantum Holography and Neurocomputer Architectures", Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision 2: 109-164 (1992)
Schlitz, M. & Wiserman, R.
"Experimenter Effects and the Remote Detection of Staring", Journal of Parapsychology Vol 61, September, (1997)
Schmeidler, G. R., Craig, J. G. "Moods and Esp Scores in Group Testing" Journal of ASPR vol66 no.
3, pp280-287 (1972)
, "Nature", vol 390, pp 551-552, 11 December (1997)
Tiller, A. W.
"Science and Human Transformation" Pavoir Publishing, California, (1997)
Utts, J. M. "Replication and meta-analysis in parapsychology" Statistical Science 6: 363.
Van Flandern, T. "What the Global Positioning System tells us about Relativity", Open Questions in Relativistic Physics, ed by F.
Selleri, Apeiton, Montreal (1998)
International Journal of Computing Anticipatory Science, Volume 7, 2000 Edited by D. M.
Dubois, CHAOS, Liege, Belgium, ISSN 1373-5411 ISBN 2-9600179-9-4