Above- grade The portion of a building that is above ground level.

ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) Rigid black plastic pipe used only for drain lines.

Absolute Humidity Amount of moisture in the air, indicated in grains per cu. ft.

A/C An abbreviation for air conditioner or air conditioning.

A/C Circuit Alternating Current The flow of current through a conductor first in one direction then in reverse. It is used exclusively in residential and commercial wiring because it provides greater flexibility in voltage selection and simplicity of equipment design.

A/C Condenser The outside fan unit of the Air Conditioning system. It removes the heat from the Freon gas and "turns" the gas back into a liquid and pumps the liquid back to the coil in the furnace.

A/C Disconnect The main electrical ON-OFF switch near the A/C Condenser.

Accelerator Any material added to stucco, plaster or mortar which speeds up the natural set.

Access Panel An opening in the wall or ceiling near the fixture that allows access for servicing the plumbing/electrical system.

Accessible Can be approached or entered by the inspector safely, without difficulty, fear or danger.

Acre 43,560 square feet.

Acrylic A glassy, thermoplastic material that is vacuum-formed to cast and mold shapes that form the surface of fiberglass bathtubs, whirlpools, shower bases, and shower stalls

Activate To turn on, supply power, or enable systems, equipment, or devices to become active by normal operating controls. Examples include turning on the gas or water supply valves to the fixtures and appliances and activating electrical breakers or fuses.

Actual Dimension (lumber) The exact measurement of lumber after it has been cut, dried and milled.

Adaptor A fitting that unites different types of pipe together, e.g. ABS to cast iron pipe.

Adhesion The property of a coating or sealant to bond to the surface to which it is applied.

Adhesive Failure Loss of bond of a coating or sealant from the surface to which it is applied.

Aerator An apparatus that mixes air into flowing water. It is screwed onto the end of a faucet spout to help reduce splashing.

Adversely Affect Constitute, or potentially constitute, a negative or destructive impact.

Aggregate Crushed stone, slag or water-worn gravel that comes in a wide range of sizes that is used to surface built-up roofs.

Air Chamber A vertical, air filled pipe that prevents water hammer by absorbing pressure when water is shut off at a faucet or valve.

Air-Dried Lumber Lumber that has been piled in yards or sheds for any length of time. For the United States as a whole, the minimum moisture content of thoroughly air dried lumber is 12 to 15 percent and the average is somewhat higher. In the South, air dried lumber may be no lower than 19 percent.

Air Duct Ducts, usually made of sheet metal, that carry cooled or heated air to all rooms.

Air filters Adhesive filters made of metal or various fibers that are coated with adhesive liquid to which the particles of lint and dust adhere. These filters will remove as much as 90% of the dirt if they do not become clogged. The more common filters are of the throwaway or disposable type.

Air Infiltration The amount of air leaking in and out of a building through cracks in walls, windows and doors.

Airway A space between roof insulation and roof boards for movement of air.

Alarm System Warning devices, installed or free-standing, including but not limited to: Carbon monoxide detectors, flue gas and other spillage detectors, security equipment, ejector pumps and smoke alarms.

Algae Microorganisms that may grow to colonies in damp environments, including certain rooftops. They can discolor shingles. Often described as "fungus."

Alligatoring A condition of paint or aged asphalt brought about by the loss of volatile oils and the oxidation caused by solar radiation. Coarse checking pattern characterized by a slipping of the new paint coating over the old coating to the extent that the old coating can be seen through the fissures. "Alligatoring" produces a pattern of cracks resembling an alligator hide and is ultimately the result of the limited tolerance of paint or asphalt to thermal expansion or contraction.

Allowable Span The distance between two supporting points for load bearing lumber such as joist, rafters or a girder.

Allowance(s) A sum of money set aside in the construction contract for items which have not been selected and specified in the construction contract. Best kept to a minimum number and used for items who's choice will not impact earlier stages of the construction. For example, selection of tile as flooring may require an alternative framing or underlayment material. (Also money that your parents give you as a child)

Aluminum Wire Conductors made of aluminum for carrying electricity. Aluminum generally is limited to the larger wire sizes. Due to its lower conductivity, aluminum wire smaller than No. 12 is not made. Aluminum is lighter and less expensive than copper but not as good a conductor. It also breaks easily.

Ampacity Refers to the how much current a wire can safely carry. For example, a 12 gauge electrical copper wire can safely carry up to 20 amps.

Amperage The rate of flow of electricity through wire - measured in terms of amperes.

Amps (AMPERES) The rate at which electricity flows through a conductor.

Anchor Bolts In residential construction, Bolts to secure a wooden sill plate to concrete, or masonry floor or wall. In commercial construction, bolts which fasten columns, girders or other members to concrete or masonry such as bolts used to anchor sills to masonry foundation.

Angle Iron A piece of iron that forms a right angle and is used to span openings and support masonry at the openings. In brick veneer, they are used to secure the veneer to the foundation. Also known as shelf angle.

Angle stop A shutoff valve in which the inlet connects to the water supply pipe in the wall and the outlet angles 90 degrees upward toward the faucet or toilet.

Anti-scald A valve that restricts water flow to help prevent burn injuries. See pressure balancing valve and thermostatic valve. In some areas, plumbing codes require anti-scald valves. Speak to a professional in your area for more information and help with code requirements.

Anti-siphon A device that prevents waste water from being drawn back into supply lines, possibly contaminating the water supply.

Antiquated No longer in use, useful or functioning as in most home inspection associations. Obsolete.

APA Plywood (APA=American Plywood Association) Plywood that has been rated by the American Plywood Association. For example, number one APA rated exterior plywood, contains no voids between laminate layers.

Aperature The opening in pipes.

Appliance A household device operated by use of electricity or gas. Not included in this definition are components covered under central heating, central cooling or plumbing.

Appraisal An expert valuation of property.

Approach The area between the sidewalk and the street that leads to a driveway or the transition from the street as you approach a driveway.

Apron A trim board that is installed beneath a window sill.

Arbitration Service A service to resolve complaints as in NACHI's Arbitration Service.

Architect A tradesman who designs and produces plans for buildings, often overseeing the building process.

Architectural Service Any practice involving the art and science of building design for construction of any structure or grouping of structures and the use of space within and surrounding the structures or the design, design development, preparation of construction contract documents, and administration of the construction contract.

Area wells Corrugated metal or concrete barrier walls installed around a basement window to hold back the earth.

Areaway An open subsurface space adjacent to a building used to admit light or air or as a means of access to a basement.

Asbestos A common form of magnesium silicate which was used in various construction products due to it's stability and resistance to fire. Asbestos exposure by inhaling loose asbestos fibers is associated with various forms of lung disease. The name given to certain inorganic minerals when they occur in fibrous form. Though fire-resistant, itfs extremely fine fibers are easily inhaled, and exposure to them over a period of years has been linked to cancers of the lung or lung-cavity lining and to asbestosis a severe lung impairment. A naturally occurring mineral fiber sometimes found in older homes. It's hazardous to your health when a possibility exists of exposure to inhalable fibers. Homeowners should be alert for friable (readily crumbled, brittle) asbestos and always seek professional advice in dealing with it.

Asphalt A dark brown to black, highly viscous, hydrocarbon produced from the residue left after the distillation of petroleum. Asphalt is used on roofs and highways as a waterproofing agent.

Asphalt plastic cement An asphalt-based cement used to bond roofing materials.

Associate Member An indentured servant. Beginning level of inspection association membership. Slave. See Candidate.

Astragal A molding, attached to one of a pair of swinging doors, against which the other door strikes.

Attic Ventilators In houses, screened opening) provided to ventilate an attic space. They are located in the soffit area as inlet ventilators and in the gable end or along the ridge as outlet ventilators. They can also consist of power-driven fans used as an exhaust system.

Auger In carpentry, a wood-boring tool used by a carpenter to bore holes.

Awning Window A window with hinges at the top allowing it to open out and up.

Backfill The slope of the ground adjacent to the house. In any previously excavated area, i.e., The replacement of excavated earth into a trench around and against a basement foundation. In carpentry, the process of fastening together two pieces of board by gluing blocks of wood in the interior angle.

Backflow Movement of water (or other liquid) in any direction other than that intended.

Backflow Preventer A device or means to prevent backflow into the potable water supply.

Balancing Damper Baffle or plate used to control the volume of flowing air in a confined area.

BallCock Valve The valve controlling the refilling of the toilet tank. A toilet tank water supply valve which is controlled by a float ball.

Balloon Framing In carpentry, the lightest and most economical form of construction, in which the studding and corner plates are set up in continuous lengths from the first floor line or sill to the roof plate to which all floor joists are fastened.

Balusters Usually small vertical members in a railing used between a top rail and the stair treads or a bottom rail.

Balustrade A railing made up of balusters, top rail, and sometimes bottom rail, used on the edge of stairs, teal conies, and porches.

Baseboard Usually wood or vinyl installed around the perimeter of a room to cover the space where the wall and floor meet. A board placed against the wall around a room next to the floor to finish properly between floor and plaster.

Baseboard Heat A heating system with the heating unit located along the perimeter of the wall where the baseboard would be. It can be either an electric or hot water system.

Batten Narrow strips of wood used to cover joints or as decorative vertical members over plywood or wide boards.

Batt Insulation Strips of insulation, usually fiberglass that fit between studs or other framing.

Bay Window Any window space projecting outward from the walls of a building, either square or polygonal in plan.

Beam A supporting member either of wood or steel. Structural support member (steel, concrete, lumber) transversely supporting a load that transfers weight from one location to another.

Bearing Wall A wall that supports any vertical load in addition to its own weight.

Bifold door Doors that are hinged in the middle for opening in a smaller area than standard swing doors. Often used for closet doors.

Bitumen Any of various mixtures of hydrocarbons occurring naturally or obtained through the distillation of coal or petroleum. (See Coat Tar Pitch and Asphalt)

Blow insulation Fiber insulation in loose form and used to insulate attics and existing walls where framing members are not exposed.

Bow A curve, bend, warping or other deviation from flatness in glass or wood.

Breaker panel The electrical box that distributes electric power entering the home to each branch circuit (each plug and switch) and composed of circuit breakers.

Brick lintel The metal angle iron that brick rests on, especially above a window, door, or other opening.

Brick Veneer A facing of brick laid against and fastened to sheathing of a frame wall or tile wall construction.

Bridging Small wood or metal members that are inserted in a diagonal position between the floor joists at midspan to act both as tension and compression members for the purpose of bracing the joists a spreading the action of loads.

Buckling The bending of a building material as a result of wear and tear or contact with a substance such as water.

Building Code Minimum local or state regulations established to protect health and safety. They apply to building design, construction, rehabilitation, repair, materials, occupancy and use. Community ordinances governing the manner in which a home may be constructed or modified.

Branch Circuit (Electrical) Wiring that runs from a service panel or sub-panel to outlets. Branch circuits are protected by fuses or breakers at the panel.

Breaker Box A metal box that contains circuit breakers or fuses that control the electrical current in a home.

Bridging Short, structural members criss crossed between beams to provide reinforcement and distribution of stress.

BTU A measure of the capacity of a heating or cooling system. Abbreviation of British Thermal Unit. The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water through a change of one degree F.

Building Permit Written authorization from the city, county or other governing regulatory body giving permission to construct or renovate a building. A building permit is specific to the building project described in the application.

Built-Up Roof A roofing composed of three to five layers of asphalt felt laminated with coal tar, pitch, or asphalt. The top is finished with crushed slag or gravel. Generally used on flat or low-pitched roofs.

Butterfly Roof A roof assembly, which pitches sharply from either side toward the center.

BX Cable Armored electrical cable wrapped in galvanized steel outer covering. A factory assembly of insulated conductors inside a flexible metallic covering. It can be run except where exposed to excessive moisture and should not be run below grade. It must always be grounded and uses its armor as an equipment ground. It is difficult to pull out old wires or insert new ones

Candidate An indentured servant. Beginning level of inspection association membership. Slave. See Associate Member.

Carbon Monoxide CO. A colorless, odorless, highly poisonous gas formed by the incomplete combustion of carbon.

Caulking Material used to seal exterior cracks and openings such as windows or foundations.

Casement Window A sidehinged window that opens on hinges secured to the side of the window frame.

Certified Having a formal document testifying to qualification or completion of requirements.

Chapter A local group of members of a larger association as in a local NACHI Chapter. A local branch.

Circuit Breakers A protective device which automatically opens an electrical circuit when it is overloaded.

Class B Door A fire resistant rating applied by the Underwriters Laboratories Classification for a door having a 1 to 1 1/2 hour rating.

Code of Ethics Ethical standards of conduct for home inspectors.

Component A permanently installed or attached fixture, element or part of a system.

Condensation Water condensing on walls, ceiling and pipes. Normal in areas of high humidity, usually controlled be ventilation or a dehumidifier.

Condition The visible and conspicuous state of being of an object.

Conduit A hollow pipe casing through which electric lines run

Continuing Education Ongoing education, often required. As in NACHI's Continuing Education Policy

Crawlspace The area within the confines of the foundation and between the ground and the underside of the lowest floor structural component.

Cricket Peaked saddle construction at the back of a chimney to prevent accumulation of snow and ice and to deflect water around the chimney.

Cutoff Valves Valves used to shut water off, generally located under sinks or behind bathtub and shower access panels. They cutoff hot and/or cold water at the source without cutting all water off throughout the house.

CPVC Plastic water piping

Damper An air valve that regulates the flow of air inside the flue of a furnace or fireplace.

Decorative Ornamental; not required for the operation of essential systems and components of a home.

Describe Report in writing a system or component by its type, or other observed characteristics, to distinguish it from other components used for the same purpose.

Determine To arrive at an opinion or conclusion pursuant to examination.

Direct gain system Passive solar heating system in which sunlight penetrates and warms the house interior directly.

Dismantle To open, take apart or remove any component, device or piece that would not typically be opened, taken apart or removed by an ordinary occupant.

Disposer A device that grinds food sufficiently to enter the drains for disposal without clogging.

Dormer A converted attic with windows projecting through a sloping roof.

Double Hung Window A window with sashes that slide vertically and allow opening from the top and bottom.

Downspout The pipe that carries water down from the gutter or scupper. Also called a leader.

Drywall A gypsum board material used for walls or ceilings.

Ductwork A system of distribution channels used to transmit heated or cooled air from a central system (HVAC) throughout a home.

E&O Insurance Error and Omissions Insurance.

Eave The part of the roof which extends beyond the side wall.

Efflorescence A white powder on the surface of wails due to evaporation of water. It forms on the surface of bricks.

Energy Efficiency Ratio An air conditioning efficiency rating system which indicates the number of BTU's delivered per watt of power consumed.

Engineering Service Any professional service or creative work requiring engineering education, training, and experience and the application of special knowledge of the mathematical, physical and engineering sciences to such professional service or creative work as consultation, investigation, evaluation, planning, design and supervision of construction for the purpose of assuring compliance with the specifications and design, in conjunction with structures, buildings, machines, equipment, works or processes.

Enter To go into an area to observe all visible components.

Evaluate To assess the systems, structures or components of a dwelling.

Exhaust Fan Extracts air or excess heat from the interior of a home.

Examine To visually look. See Inspect.

Fascia A flat, horizontal board enclosing the overhang under the eave.

FindAnInspector.US Foremost home inspector search engine.

Flashing Material used around any angle in a roof or wall to prevent leakage.

Flue A pipe used to exhaust smoke, gas or air.

Flush Valve The valve separating the water in the tank from the bowl.

Footing The underground support for a foundation or support post.

Forced Air Furnace A unit that transfers heat from fuel and circulates heat throughout the ductwork of the house.

Foundation The lowest part of a wall or series of piers on which a structure is built. The base upon which the structure or wall rests; usually masonry, concrete, or stone, and generally partially underground.

Function The action for which an item, component, or system is specially fitted or used or for which an item, component or system exists; to be in action or perform a task.

Functional Performing, or able to perform, a function.

Fuse Box A metal box that contains the fuses that regulate electric current in a house.

Galvanized Pipe Iron pipe with a zinc coating. Formerly used for water lines.

GFI Abbreviation for Ground Fault Interrupter. A type of circuit breaker now required in areas containing water lines.

Girder A main supporting beam of the house.

Grade Ground level.

Grouting Material used around ceramic tile as filler.

Gussett a bracket or brace used to strengthen a structure

Gutter A trough used at the edge of a roof to collect rain.

Header Wood member above door or window opening.

Heat Exchanger A device used to transfer heat in a furnace.

Heat Pump A reverse cycle refrigeration unit that both heats and cools.

Hearth The bottom of a fireplace.

Home Inspection A limited time, non - technical visual evaluation of the readily accessible areas, for the sole purpose of identifying major deficiencies. The process by which an inspector visually examines the readily accessible systems and components of a home and operates those systems and components utilizing a Standards of Practice as a guideline.

Home Inspector An individual who has a broad general background and understanding relating to basic house construction, common house problems and methods for their correction. One who performs a real estate inspection.

Hot Water Heating System This system heats water to boiling in a water heater, and a circulator pumps it through a system of pipes.

Household Appliances Kitchen and laundry appliances, room air conditioners, and similar appliances.

HVAC Heating, ventilation and air conditioning

Inspect To visually look at readily accessible systems and components safely, using normal operating controls and accessing readily accessible panels and areas.

Inspected Property The readily accessible areas of the buildings, site, items, components, and systems included in the inspection.

Installed Attached or connected such that the installed item requires tool for removal. Fixture, not personal property.

Insulation Material used to resist the loss of heat energy. Materials such as fiberglass, mineral wool, cellulose and foam are placed in the walls, ceilings, basements and crawlspaces. Insulation may be blown or installed in batt sections.

InterNACHI International Association of Certified Home Inspectors, a sister association to NACHI

Jamb The side of the door frame facing the opening.

Joists Parallel, horizontal beams laid edgewise from wall to wall to support the boards of a floor or ceiling.

Knob and Tube An old form of wiring.

Lally Column A round steel cylinder usually filled with concrete to support overhead beams.

Lathing Strips of wood or other material used as a base for the installation of plaster.

Lead A material used in pipes and paint of many older homes. We now know that lead is hazardous to your health. The local Environmental Protection Agency should be consulted for guidelines on handling, removing and applicable laws.

Major Deficiency A deficiency is considered major if it severely affects the habitability of the dwelling, or in the opinion of the inspector, may cost more than $21,000 to repair.

Material Defect A defect which adversely affects or could affect the habitability or value of the home.

Masonry Construction using materials such as tile, brick, cement, stone or similar materials.

Member Wood or steel elements that make up the framing and foundation of a structure such as 2X4 strips of lumber cut to various lengths.

Moulding Strips of wood or the material used to cover joints between floors and walls, and walls and ceilings.

Mortar A bonding material used in the construction of brick or stone structures.

NACHI National Association of Certified Home Inspectors. The world's largest, foremost home inspection association.

NACHI Foundation A Maryland based charitable organization funded by members of the National Association of Certified Home Insepctors.

National Association of Certified Home Inspectors The world's largest, foremost home inspection association. NACHI

Normal Operating Controls Devices such as thermostats that would be operated by ordinary occupants which require no specialized skill or knowledge.

Observe To see through visually directed attention.

Obsolete No longer in use, useful or functioning as in most home inspection associations. Antiquated.

Octopus Receptacle An overcrowded outlet.

Old Termite Activity Evidence of former activity but none present.

Open Splice An unboxed electrical connection.

Operate To cause systems to function or turn on with normal operating controls.

Parging A coat of cement over block foundation wails.

Parapet Wall A low wall or railing along the edge of a roof, balcony, bridge or terrace constructed for protection, to control water resulting from rain or artificial flooding or to insulate against the sun's rays.

Point Up To fill the mortar joints between bricks or blocks.

Polybutylene Water piping used for interior piping and the main waterline to the street. Problems with this pipe have curtailed its use.

R-Value A measurement of the ability of insulation to show the transfer of heat or cold. The higher the R-Value, the greater the insulation power.

Radon A natural forming, colorless, odorless, radioctive gas found in homes which causes lung cancer.

Rafter A sloping rib member of a roof. The structural member or beam that supports the roof. It spans from the exterior wall to the ridge board of the peak of the roof.

Rafter Spread Deflection results when horizontal loads (such as snow and ice buildup) cause wood fibers to bend. Eventually, deflection causes rafters to rupture in the center third of the span or at such weak points, as notches or knots on the top or bottom edge of the rafter. Rafter spread results from the failure of mechanical ties, such as nails, to hold ceiling joists, top plates, and studs together or, occasionally, failure in the ceiling joist itself.

Readily Accessible An item or component is readily accessible if, in the judgment of the inspector, it is capable of being safely observed without movement of obstacles, detachment or disengagement of connecting or securing devices, or other unsafe or difficult procedures to gain access.

REALTOR A real estate professional who is also a member of the National Association of REALTORs. Not all real estate agents are REALTORs.

Recall To call back, ask or order to return. Usually by a manufacturer.

Recaulk Fill in the cracks.

Receptacle An electrical outlet for a plug.

Recreational Facilities Spas, saunas, steam baths, swimming pools, tennis courts, playground equipment, and other exercise, entertainment or athletic facilities.

Register An opening through which air travels from the ducts into a room.

Repointing To fill the mortar joints between bricks or blocks.

Report A written communication (possibly including digital images) of any material defects seen during the inspection.

Representative Number A sufficient number to serve as a typical or characteristic example of the item(s) inspected.

Retaining Wall A vertical structure used to restrict the movement of soil or water.

Ridge Board The horizontal structural member at the top of a roof where the rafters meet.

Roof Pitch The degree of a roof's slope.

Safety Glazing Tempered glass, laminated glass, or rigid plastic.

Sash Framework that holds the glass in a window or a door.

Scuttle opening to attic.

Settling The lowering of elevation of a house or pavement due to weight or shrinkage.

Sheathing The covering on roofs or wails below the exterior roof

Sheetrock Also called plasterboard or dry wall.

Shut Down Turned off, unplugged, inactive, not in service, not operational, etc.

Siding A finish material such as wood, vinyl and aluminum used on outside walls.

Sill The lowest piece upon which a window or exterior door rests, usually slanted downward slightly to provide for rain water runoff.

Sill Plate Framing lumber placed on and around the foundation to support the exterior wall studs.

Sill Cock Exterior water hose pipe connection.

Slab A concrete foundation or floor of a home. Houses built on slab usually do not have basements.

Slag The gravel sometimes found on a built-up roof.

Soffit The underside of a cornice at the eaves.

Solar Heat Heat created from the gathering of solar energy from the sun. It can be passive or active. A passive system takes advantage of winter sunlight through windows on the south side of a home. An active system heats through the collection of solar energy through solar collectors.

Standards of Practice Standard guidelines for performing an inspection.

Structural Component A component which supports non-variable forces or weights (dead loads) and variable forces or weights (live loads).

Stucco An exterior plaster wall surface.

Stud A vertical, framing member in a wall or partition.

Sump A pit in the basement floor into which water drains to be pumped out with a sump pump.

Sump Pump An electric pump, usually installed in the basement to prevent water from accumulating in the basement area. It empties water from a "sump or pit" where it is collected and pumps it to the outside of a home.

Swale A wide, depression in the ground.

System An assembly of various components to function as a whole.

Technically Exhaustive A comprehensive and detailed examination beyond the scope if a real estate home inspection which would involve or include, but would not be limited to: dismantling, specialized knowledge or training, special equipment, measurements, calculations, testing, research, analysis or other means. An inspection is technically exhaustive when it involves the extensive use of measurements, instruments, testing, calculations, and other means to develop scientific or engineering findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

Thermostat This mechanical device controls the temperature within the home. Thermostats automatically turn heating or air conditioning on or off as necessary to maintain a desired temperature.

Threshold A strip of metal, wood, marble or other material placed at the base of a door.

Trap A bend in a water pipe to hold water and prevent gases from escaping into the house.

Tuckpointing The process of refilling old masonry joints with new mortar.

Unsafe A condition in a readily accessible, installed system or component which is judged to be a significant risk of personal injury during normal, day-to-day use. The risk may be due to damage, deterioration, improper installation or a change in accepted residential construction standards.

Urea Formaldehyde Foam Insulation A type of foamed in place insulation that releases formaldehyde gas. It was banned by Consumer Public Safety Commission in 1982 from use in residences and schools. Holding that the risks had not been proven, a Federal Court lifted the ban in 1983. The local consumer and/or Envoronmemtal Protection Agency should be consulted for additional information on this type of insulation.

Vent Pipe A pipe allowing gas to escape from plumbing stacks.

Verge The edges of tiles, slate or shingles which project over the gable end of the roof.

Verify To confirm or substantiate.

Voltage The pressure behind the flow of electricity, measured in terms of volts.

Wattage The amount of electricity flowing through a line, measured in terms of wafts. (Voltage times amperage equals watts.)

Weatherstripping Material used around door and window openings to prevent rain, wind, and cold from entering the house.

Weep Hole Drain hole to allow moisture to escape.

Window Well The open subsurface space that provides light through a basement window. These are usually added in when grading is at or above window level.

Zones A system that allows you to control temperatures in each room or floor level. Motorized dampers will self-adjust to individual thermostat settings.