Directions: Place the letter of the correct answer in the space provided on the answer sheet


Directions: Place the letter of the correct answer in the space provided on the answer sheet. Use CAPITAL LETTERS if you wish to receive credit.


1. An environmental sciences club studies factors that might affect

pollution in a local creek. Fertilizer, sewage, and trash from a garbage

dump are possible polluting factors. Chemicals in the creek are not a

problem because there are no chemical plants in the area. Which of the

following is a hypothesis they could test?

a. The more fertilizer in a stream, the more crops will grow along

the stream.

b. The more chemical plants there are, the more chemical pollution

that results.

c. The more trash sent to the garbage dump, the higher the income

of the family.

d. The more sewage in a stream, the more pollution in the stream.


2. Marie wondered if the earth and oceans are heated equally by

sunlight. She decided to conduct an investigation. She filled a bucket

with dirt and another bucket of the same size with water. She placed

them so that each bucket received the same amount of sunlight. The

temperature in each bucket was measured every hour from 8:00 a.m.

to 6:00 p.m. Which hypothesis was being tested?

a. The greater the amount of sunlight, the warmer the soil and water


b. The longer the soil and water are in the sun, the warmer they


c. Different types of materials are warmed differently by the sun.

d. Different amounts of sunlight are received at different times of

the day.


3. Most of the environmental problems we face are:

a. increasing linearly c. increasing exponentially

b. decreasing linearly d. decreasing exponentially


4. A sustainable society:

a. manages its economy and population size without doing

irreparable environmental harm

b. satisfies the needs of its people without depleting Earth capital

c. protects the prospects of future generations of humans and other


d. all of these answers

e. none of these answers


5. An example of a resource would be:

a. fresh air c. fertile soil

b. fresh water d. all of the above



6. Exponential growth:

a. remains constant

b. starts out slowly and remains slow

c. starts out slowly and becomes very rapid

d. starts out rapidly and remains rapid

e. starts rapidly and then slows


7. Resources that are considered nonrenewable:

a. are also called perpetual resources

b. are only resources that are alive

c. are capable of economic depletion

d. none of the above


8. For something to be classified as a natural resource, it must

a. satisfy a human need

b. be steadily renewed or replenished

c. be a form of matter

d. exist in great abundance

e. be used at sustainable-yield levels


9. Which of the following is NOT a renewable resource?

a. groundwater d. air

b. trees in a forest e. oil

c. fertile soil


10. The market value in current dollars of all goods and services produced

within a country for final use during a year is the:

a. gross national product d. per capita GDP

b. gross world product e. gross domestic product

c. per capita GNP


11. Which of the following statements about developing countries is true?

a. they are highly industrialized

b. they have high average GDP per person

c. they include the United States, Germany and Japan

d. they have about 15% of the world’s wealth and income

e. they have about 85% of the world’s wealth and income


12. A very simple model of environmental degradation and pollution

would include all of the following except:

a. number of people

b. the climate in which people live

c. average number of units of resources each person uses

d. amount of environmental degradation/pollution generated when

each unit of resource is produced




13. All of the following are potentially renewable resources except:

a. groundwater d. oil

b. trees in a forest e. animals

c. fertile soil


14. Studies done at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest indicated all of

the following except:

a. the tight linkage between terrestrial ecosystems and downstream

aquatic ecosystems

b. excessive nutrient loss resulted from decomposition and


c. hydrologic flows, erosion, and biogeochemical cycles were

altered for several years due to this action

d. these practices provide no practical information regarding

maintenance of water quality or wildlife habitats


15. Nonrenewable resources include:

a. energy resources d. water

b. wildlife resources e. soil

c. animal resources


16. What does a hypothesis represent?

a. the equivalent of a theory

b. a potential solution or tentative explanation

c. a scientific fact

d. a reasonable doubt


17. In science a theory is (a):

a. verified hypotheses which can be used to explain many related


b. provisional explanation of the facts, in essence, an educated


c. synonym for the word hypothesis

d. highly tentative statement


18. Nine groups of students were given different concentrations of an

experimental drug designed to overcome depression related to taking

environmental biology exams. A tenth group was given a placebo

(sugar pill). The placebo group can be referred to as the:

a. background group c. sacrificial group

b. control group d. experimental group


19. Scientific methodology is most like which of the following problem-

solving techniques.

a. guessing c. computer simulation

b. visualization d. trial-and-error




20. A reasonable guess at the answer to a relevant, testable question is

called a(n):

a. theory c. hypothesis

b. observation d. problem


21. Which of the following positions is most likely to be helpful in

responding to environmental problems?

a. Humans are the root of all evil and can never make up for the

harm they have done the planet.

b. Most of the human population is composed of victims of a few

powerful industries who are causing severe environmental


c. Life is as good as it has ever been in the course of human history,

and there really isn’t much of a problem.

d. Individual knowledge, attitudes, and action can make a



22. Science offers hypotheses about nature that can be:

a. proven c. shown to be absolutely false

b. tested d. shown to be absolutely true


23. Which of the following is a correct statement of the 1st Law

of Thermodynamics?

a. matter can neither be created or destroyed

b. matter may be transformed into different types

c. all are correct statements of the 1st Law

d. none are correct statements of the 1st Law


24. Something is useful as a resource only if it can be:

a. recycled or reused

b. classified as a perpetual resource

c. made available at a reasonable cost

d. replaced by a suitable substitute


25. Environmental science integrates knowledge from the

disciplines of:

a. chemistry and physics

b. ecology and demography

c. resource technology and engineering

d. economics and politics

e. all of the above


26. Resource scarcity:

a. means there is not an unlimited supply of a resource

b. may be absolute or relative

c. leads to an increase in the cost of a resource

d. all of the above



27. Which of the following is not important in determining the damage

produced by a pollutant?

a. concentration

b. persistence

c. origin

d. chemical nature

e. interaction with other chemicals


28. Which of the following best describes pollution?

a. something producing undesirable change in the physical


b. substances released into the environment in very large


c. substances that cannot be decomposed by natural processes

d. anything that physically injures or kills living things


29. In the process of nuclear fission:

a. nuclei of light elements are fused together

b. nuclei of heavy elements are split apart

c. neutrons are split apart

d. fission fragments are fused together


30. Fusion power:

a. is another form of nuclear power

b. would fuse hydrogen atoms into helium with a release

of energy

c. can be obtained easily and cheaply

d. choices a and b

e. choices a, b, and c


31. Commercial nuclear reactors use as a source of fuel.

a. coal c. uranium 235

b. uranium 238 d. plutonium 239


32. Which of the following is an example of low-quality energy?

a. electricity

b. heat in the ocean

c. nuclei of uranium-235

d. coal

e. oil


33. The atomic number of an atom is the:

a. number of neutrons in its nucleus

b.     number of protons in its nucleus

c.     total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

d.     number of electrons in the nucleus




34. Point sources of pollution:

a. enter ecosystems from dispersed and often hard-to-identify


b. include runoff of fertilizers and pesticides from farmlands and

suburban lawns

c. are cheaper and easier to identify than nonpoint sources

d. are more difficult to control than nonpoint sources

e. are always found in rural areas


35. Isotopes of the same element

a. have the same number of protons, but a different number of


b.     have the same number of electrons, but a different number of


c.     have the same number of protons and neutrons

d. have the same number of protons, but a different number of



36. Patient A receives thyroid treatment using radioactive iodine. This is

an example of a medical application using:

a. neutrons c. carbon

b. isotopes d. hydrogen ions


37. Effects of pollution might include:

a. less diversity of stream life because of road salt runoff

b. acid rain induced destruction of a statue in the city park

c. spread of disease from an open dump

d. all of these answers


38. Pollution prevention and cleanup can be encouraged by:

a. regulations

b. taxes d. education

c. subsidies e. all of these answers


39. One consequence of the _____ is that everything we throw away is

actually still here, in one form or another.

a.     second law of thermodynamics c. law of conservation of matter

b.     first law of thermodynamics d. atomic theory of matter


40. Still (unmoving) water stored behind a dam has a large amount of:

a. potential energy c. heat energy

b. kinetic energy d. chemical energy


41. A community of plants and animals in balance with the physical

environment is called:

a. an ecosystem c. a habitat

b. a landscape d. a population



42. The harmful effects of a chemical pollutant will be determined by the


a.     concentration, origin, and chemical nature

b.     concentration, origin, and persistence

c.     origin, chemical nature, and concentration

d.     chemical nature, concentration, and persistence


43. To decay to what is considered to be a safe level, a sample of

radioactive material should be stored in a safe enclosure for

approximately ______ half-lives.

a. 2 d. 20

b. 5 e. 30

c. 10


44. Which of the following things is the most important thing to keep in

mind about economics and the environment?

a.     benefit-cost analyses will answer our questions about options to


b.     businesses will voluntarily produce less pollution

c.     we need to achieve a balance between the costs of cleaning up pollution and the costs of a polluted environment

d.     it’s important not to hold up new chemical products by requiring them to be tested for environmental safety before release


45. Which of the following statement(s) is false?

a.     Six important environmental issues are population growth,

increasing and wasteful resource use, local climate change,

premature extinction of plants and animals and construction of

wildlife habitats (biodiversity crisis), pollution, and poverty.

b.     Environmental science is an interdisciplinary study of how the

earth works, how we are affecting the earth’s life-support

systems (environment), and how to deal with the environmental

problems we face.

c.     An environmentally sustainable society tries to achieve two goals: First, it satisfies the basic needs of its people for food,

clean water, and shelter into the indefinite future. Second, it

does this without depleting or degrading the earth’s natural


d.     A resource is anything obtained from the environment to meet

human needs and wants.


46. Examples of producers in ecosystems are:

a. carnivores c. herbivores

b. green plants d. animals






47. Children fly kites in the:

a. stratosphere c. biosphere

b. troposphere d. hydrosphere


48. Which of these statements are false?

a.     The per capita ecological footprint is the amount of biologically

productive area per person required to produce the nonrenewable

resources (such as food and wood), supply space for infra-

structure, and absorb the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide

emitted from burning fossil fuels.

b.     We never completely exhaust a nonrenewable resource. But such

a resource becomes economically depleted when the cost of

extracting and using what is left exceeds its economic value.

c.     Pollution is any addition to air, water, soil, or food that threatens

the health, survival, or activities of humans or other living


d.     all are false

e.     none are false


49. Which of these field studies was the first to document acid rain in

North America?

a.     Schindler’s lake studies

b.     Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest

c.     Reagan’s Mono Lake study

d.     Nisrey’s Ohio Valley coal usage study


50. A group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area at a

given time is called a:

a. species c. community

b. population d. ecosystem


51. Which of the following is a self-sustaining ecosystem?

a. an aquarium that contains only tropical fish, plants and is exposed to light

b. an aquarium that contains plants, small and large fish

and is exposed to light

c.     a terrarium that contains only bacteria and fungi and is

exposed to light

d.     none are self-sustaining ecosystems


52. The only independent organisms are green plants. Which

statement best explains this fact?

a.     independent organisms live on a variety of foods

b.     independent organisms use less food than other organisms

c.     photosynthesis is a food making process

d.     green plants grow wherever they find suitable soil



53. Loss of plant life on the Aleutian islands was due to :

a.     foxes eating the plants

b.     Fur traders killing the Aleutian geese

c.     Radiation damage from early underground nuclear testing

d.     Reduction in the amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil


54. The Toyota Prius electric motor and battery use rare earth metals

that are in short supply. One particular rare earth metal is also a key

component of an alloy used in Honda and Ford cars as well as in wind

turbine generators. This element is:

a. neodymium c. lanthanum

b. terbium d. dysprosium


55. Stanley Bing’s comments in Fortune magazine suggest that:

a. reducing his carbon footprint might diminish his image

b. a carbon credit system for individuals should be established

c. tap water is safe to drink in Europe and North America

d. all of the above are correct answers

e. none of the above are correct answers


56. The article entitled “Welcome to the Red Planet” talked about

conditions on:

a. Mars c. Saudi Arabia

b. Australia d. northern Georgia


57. Paul Krugman suggests that climate scientists have become gifted

with the ability to prophesy future disasters, but cursed with the

inability to get anyone to believe them. This characteristic is ascribed

to the Greek mythological prophet known as:

a. Cassandra c. Priam

b. Apollo d. Agamemnon


58. The new rules being issued by the EPA regarding greenhouse gas

emissions are set to go into effect on January 2, 2011. This is the

same date as:

a.     reauthorization of the Clean Air Act

b.     new limits on release of greenhouse gases from tailpipes of new cars and light duty trucks

c.     the anniversary of the start of the National Association of Manufacturers

d.     subjecting small farms and large apartment buildings to the same rules








59. Fish and crustaceans in places such as the gulf of Mexico, Chesapeake

Bay and the Baltic Sea are being wiped out due to seasonally low

oxygen levels, leaving only microbes on the seafloor. The main culprit


a. throwing back of dead fish parts in the water

b. nitrogen-rich nutrients from crop fertilizers that spill into coastal

waters by way of rivers and streams

c. increases in the levels of bacteria in the sediments

d. increases in the levels of annelid worms


60. The diet of the Yellowstone grizzlies changes radically from season to

season. Winter feed for the bears is being threatened by:

a. Loggers cutting down trees for lumber.

b. Increases in the numbers of red squirrels

c. decreases in the numbers of cutthroat trout

d. increases in the number of mountain pine beetles


61. Penguins on Ipanema Beach:

a. often die when helped by onlookers who don’t know what they are


b. had probably gotten lost looking for anchovies

c. were place in the local zoo if they survived

d. all of the above


62. A farmer wants to improve crop yield in his fields by testing the

effectiveness of a new pesticide available on the market. Which of the

following is the best control for this experiment?

a.     a higher concentration of new pesticide used on the control field

than the experimental field

b.     more shade on the control field than the experimental field

c.     less new pesticide used on the control field than the experimental field

d.     no new pesticide used on the control field; new pesticide used only on the experimental field.


63. In the United States, several routes are available for water that falls

on the land. Of these routes, which one represents the largest


a. ground water c. evapotranspiration

b. surface runoff d. all percentages are equal