Scientific Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories

Study the human pedigree below showing individuals affected by a genetic disorder, and answer the questions.













1. Does the pedigree show the phenotypes or genotypes of individuals?


2. Is the abnormal condition above dominant or recessive? Explain.




Geneticists are often called upon to solve mysteries. Using genetic clues, give a possible solution for each of the problems below.


Problem: Four newborn babies in the delivery room of the local hospital were mixed up by the person who typed the wristbands. The blood types of the four babies were known to be AB, O, A, and B. How did the doctors eventually find out which baby belongs to which set of parents?


Parents #1 had blood types O and AB.

Parents #2 had blood types AB and B.

Parents #3 both had blood type O.

Parents #4 had blood types A and O.

Match the babies with the correct parents

3. Baby with type AB blood __________________________________

4. Baby with type B blood __________________________________

5. Baby with type A blood __________________________________

6. Baby with type O blood __________________________________



Underline the correct response.


7. If a colorblind man marries a woman who is a carrier for

colorblindness, it is most probable that:

a. all of their sons will have normal vision

b. half of their sons will be colorblind

c. all of their sons will be colorblind

d. none of their children will have normal color vision


8. Darwin observed that different, but closely related, species of finches

filled the diverse environmental niches on the different galapagos

islands. The filling of these environmental niches is known as:

a. acquired characteristics

b. blending inheritance

c. common ancestry

d. adaptive radiation


9. In the early stages of development, the embryos of birds and reptiles

resemble each other in many ways. This resemblance suggests that


a. belong to the same speices

b. are adapted for life in the same habitat

c. share a common ancestry

d. are both animal-like protists


10. In addition to the basic ideas of Darwin, the modern theory of

evolution includes the concepts that

a. variations are the result of mutations and gene recombinations

b. overproduction of organisms leads to extinction

c. variations exist only in large populations

d. competition occurs only between members of the same species


Scientific Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories

Each of the following statements contains an underlined word or phrase that makes the statement false. On the blank, write the word or phrase that will make the statement true.


1. a. Monerans are eukaryotes and have no membrane-bond organelles.


b. The two types of cell extensions are cilia and flagella. _______________

c. The drug tetracycline stops the formation of a rigid cell wall.


2. List four evolutionary adaptations in bacteria that have allowed them

to survive for billions of years and expand into multiple habitats.

a. ________________________________________________________________________

b. ________________________________________________________________________

c. ________________________________________________________________________

d. _______________________________________________________________________


3. Match the description or definition with the correct term.

a. botulism b. decomposer c. facultative anaerobe d. endospore

e. chemosynthesis f. obligate aerobe

______ an organism that breaks down organic matter

______ a bacterium that must have free oxygen to live

______ a deadly form of food poisoning

______ a structure resistant to adverse environmental factors

______ a bacterium that does not use oxygen during respiration

List and explain three (3) ways in which bacteria exchange genetic


4. ________________________________________________________________________


5. ________________________________________________________________________


6. _______________________________________________________________________




7. What is an extremophile? Are all archaea extremophiles? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

8. What is a chemoautotroph?______________________________________________


9. Which type of medical doctor probably needs to know a great deal

about fungi an orthopedic specialist or a dermatologist? Why?




10. Match the bacterial diseases with the different Patients.




















1. A plant has a life cycle with alternating diploid and haploid stages. The

diploid stage of a plant which produces sex organs which produces gametes is called the

________________ stage. The stage of a plant which produces spores

is therefore called the ________________ stage. The life cycle is known as

Alternation of Generations.

2. Plants are often divided into the categories of nonvascular and

vascular. (see Diversity Lab II for a breakdown) List three (3) ways

vascular plants differ from bryophytes.

a. _____________________________________________________________________


b. _____________________________________________________________________


c. _____________________________________________________________________


3. Why are ferns less tied to a moist environment than mosses? Why are

they more tied to a moist environment than seed plants?





4. Distinguish between pollen, a seed and a fruit.





5.-10. Match the following animal groups with the list of features. Some

groups may have more than one feature. Use the letter of each group.

A. sponges B. cnidarians C. flatworms D. roundworms E. arthropods

F. mollusks G. annelids H. echinoderms I. chordates J. amphibians

K. cartilaginous fishes L. ray-finned fishes M. reptiles N. turtles

O. snakes P. birds Q. mammals


__________ muscular foot responsible for locomotion

__________ swim bladder

__________ the only animals that lack tissues

__________ adaptations for subduing large prey and swallowing them


__________ muscles all run longitudinally--from head to tail--down the

body, resulting in a flailing whiplike motion

__________ polyp stage and a medusa stage alternate

__________ leeches

__________ segmented worms

__________ segmented bodies and jointed legs

__________ terrestrial vertebrates restricted to moist environments

because their skins are composed of living cells that are

vulnerable to drying out, and lay eggs without shells

__________ maintain a constant flow of water in through numerous pores,

into the central cavity, and out the top, whose purpose is for

food capture

__________ birds and crocodiles

__________ tube feet

__________ tentacles armed with barbed stinging cells

__________ hollow bones, air sacs in the body, and a four-chambered heart

__________ includes the group known as the insects

__________ a notochord, gill slits, and a tail that extends beyond the anus

__________ starfish

__________ skeleton made of cartilage

__________ have hair and feed their young milk

__________ tapeworms

__________ platypus

__________ squeezes its entire body inside its ribcage

__________ flying endotherms

__________ frogs

__________ you