Ecology Study Guide

Ecology Study [Guide]

Textbook: Miller, G.T. Living in the Environment, 10th Edition Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1998. The following is designed to help you focus on items of significance
in each of the chapters that we cover. There is a high degree of
probability that much of this material will be the basis for
questions on tests you will take. Chapter 1 Environmental Problems and their Causes p. 4 understand exponential growth, Figure 1-1, italicized statement p. 6-7 major strategies needed for a sustainable society p. 8 understand doubling time and Rule of 70 p. 8 GNP, GDP, MDC, LDC - characteristics of each p.11-12,16 what is a resource, a mineral, what are the 5 choices
we have when a mineral resource bercomes economically depleted p.16 what is a reserve; see Figure 1-14 p.12-15 be aware of Garrett Hardin and The Tragedy of the Commons p.16-17 what is pollution, a pollutant; point vs. non-point sources what are 3 factors that determine how severe the effects of a pollutant
will be(17) p.18-19 understand input vs. output controls p.20-21 what are some key environmental problems and their root causes,
see also Figure 1-16 p.20-21 be aware of connections between root causes and problems;
see also Figures 1-17, 1-18; what is difference between people
overpopulation and consumption overpopulation p.26-29 what are the major philosophical differences between Julian Simon
and Ann and Paul Ehrlich
Chapter 2 Brief History of Resource Use and Conservation p.34 see Figure 2-3 p.35 what is slash and burn cultivation and its implications p.35 what are the major environmental impacts of the switch from
hunter-gather to agricultural based societies p.37 Figure 2-6; names to know Teddy Roosevelt, Gifford Pinchot p.39 Spotlight Box; Role and philosophy of John Muir, Aldo Leopold;
understand differences between Wise Use and Preservationist philosophies p.40 role of Alice Hamilton p.40-41 Understand interrelationships between Depression, FDR, CCC,
Soil Conservation Department, Dust Bowl, Fish and Wildlife Service p.42-43 who is Rachel Carson, what did she write; its significance p.42 Figure 2-11; OPEC, oil embargos, role of Jimmy Carter p.44-45 what is sagebrush rebellion, its philosophy and Ronald Reagan's
role in environmental policy p.45 Figure 2-12 p.46 Guest Essay - Lester Brown

Chapter 4 Matter and Energy Resources: Types and Concepts it is assumed you understand the nature of the atom and its
subatomic components and their properties p.80-84 natural radioactivity, decay, radioactive isotopes; half-life concept; nuclear fission, chain reaction nuclear fusion; laws of thermodynamics and implications for living systems

Chapter 15 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy p.394-9 years to make transition; questions to ask re energy alternatives; concept of net energy; life cycle cost p.400-401 reasons for reducing energy waste p.401 methods for using waste heat; cogeneration; electric motor replacement - variable speed; energy management with computers; producing electricity - matching cost to demand p.402 transportation - increase fuel efficiency of existing vehicles, shift to electric cars; trains and ships vs. trucks p.403-407 ways to save energy in buildings - Georgia Power company example vs. World Trade Center; superinsulation benefits and problems p.403-7 problems of retrofitting; savings from heating space, water, different appliances and lights p.407-10 direct use of solar; benefits of developing renewable energy resources in the U.S.; passive vs. active solar heating p.411 pro and cons of current active systems; natural cooling system examples p.411-3 solar furnace, thermal plant, power tower, cooker p.413-5 photovoltaics - definitions ; pros and cons of current p.416 hydropower; limits to further growth in U.S., net energy yield p.416-8 benefits and problems of each type of solar pond p.418-9 benefits and problems of wind power technology p.419-421 see Figure 15-26 for summary; what is gasohol See also Table 15-1 p.421 p.424 limitations of hydrogen power p.425-8 geothermal sources, types, pros and cons p.426-7 guest essay - Amory Lovins

Chapter 16 Nonrenewable Energy Resources
p. 431 oil - differences between primary, secondary, enhanced recovery methods; what are petrochemicals p. 433 how long will supplies last - global crude oil will be economically depleted in 44 years most alternative sources and forms such as shale oil or tar sands are not productive or lack technological or economical feasibility p. 436-38 pros and cons of natural gas p. 438 coal - three types plus peat; pros and cons p. 441 minimal role for synfuels in next 40 years p. 443-50 nuclear energy - fission reactors - role of control rods, moderator, coolant problems of disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes suggested mechanisms of disposal for high level wastes methods of decommissioning of worn-out nuclear plants p. 453-4 breeder technology not economically feasible; cost and complexity of fusion reactions make short term gain unlikely p. 454-5 economics of energy resource use - 3 approaches

Chapter 11 Population Dynamics: Influencing Population Size
see notes already handed out the following is a more detailed look at China's program _ strongly encouraging couples to postpone marriage _ expanding educational opportunities _ providing mariied couples with easy access to free sterilization, contraceptives, and abortion _ giving couples who sign pledges to have no more than one child economic rewards such as salary bonuses, extra food, larger pensions, better housing, free medical care and school tuition for their child, and preferential treatment in employment when the child grows up _ requiring those who break the pledge to return all benefits _ exerting pressure on women pregnant with a third child to have abortions _ requiring one of the parents in a two-child family to be sterilized _ using mobile units and paramedics to bring sterilization, family planning, health care and education to rural areas _ training local people to carry on the family planning program _ expecting all leaders to set an example with their own family size p.300-1 Garrett Hardin's guest essay and his deer example

Chapter 12 Population Distribution: Urban Living
43% of world's population lives in urban areas - define p. 313-4 Case study: Mexico City - note problems p. 317-321Environmental Effects - note items mentioned particularly with reference to solid waste and noise pollution
Chapter 19 Minerals and Soil be aware of provisions of Mining Law of 1872 p. 503 resource supply depends on two factors recall difference between economically depleted and depletion time p. 504 what is reserve-to-production ratio who has the world's nonfuel mineral resources? know difference between critical and strategic minerals p. 506 grade of ore case studies indicating environmental problems of gold extraction 1872 Mining Law - no action currently p. 507-8 increasing mineral resource supply - what are the economic factors p. 508-9 finding new land based minerals - Antarcticap. 509 factors involved in mining low grade ores p. 510 mining the oceans - problems and possibilities p. 510 finding substitutes - ceramics, plastics

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