"In time the earth will become again incapable of

supporting life, and peace will return."

Bertrand Russell


Environmental degradation takes many forms, has many facets, and produces a diversity of kinds and degrees of consequences. Attitude changes due to information inputs followed by goal-oriented actions would seem to be the sequence of events necessary to facilitate thoughtful progress. How this can be accomplished efficiently, economically, and rapidly, and what effects and sacrifices are to be expected of an informed citizenry, seem to be major questions in this regard.


The United States has shown in its current and past space programs that it can set and attain a goal it deems important by concentrating manpower, time, and financial resources towards that end. Can this country and its global neighbors set a goal more important than sustaining the integrity of the environment which nurtures and sustains us? I think not.


Pointing the finger of accusation at previous generations may pinpoint the origin of the problem, but the solutions must come from the present generation. To solve a problem you must define it. To define it you may need to obtain substantial background. In a word, you and future generations must become educated about the problem.


Your assignment is as follows:

          You have been given the opportunity to educate future generations about environmental problems and potential solutions.

You have been asked to write the last three chapters of a college biology textbook. Chapter 34 deals with problems and challenges facing the atmosphere as well as present and future solutions to those problems. Chapter 35 deals with the same type of information for the land masses and Chapter 36 deals with the water.

          Your first (and only) task is to compile information regarding the topics outlined. You must find a total of six (6) articles dealing with one of the chapters - three of the articles should deal with the problems and three should deal with the solutions. It should be clear as to which area you are working in. Write an abstract of each of those six articles - see attachment on " How to Write an Abstract". The articles must come from journals and magazines no earlier than 1998 - no Ladies Home Journal, Better Homes and Gardens, Reader's Digests, newspapers or encyclopedias. The articles must be at least a full page in length and I MUST APPROVE THE SOURCE OF EACH ARTICLE BEFORE YOU WRITE YOUR ABSTRACTS! Each abstract is worth 4.0 percent of the final grade. The abstracts, with an attached XEROX copy of each of the articles, are due the last day of classes. Happy Hunting !


                                              Writing an Abstract


          An abstract is a summary of an article. Readers use abstracts to determine whether or not an article contains information of interest to them. Therefore, abstracts have to be well-written, informative, and concise!


1. Your abstract should be as short as possible and grammatically

    correct. It must also be legible.

2. By reading the abstract, the following should become apparent:

    a. the subject or problem being investigated;

    b. the hypothesis or proposal being tested (if any);

    c. the methods used in these types of investigations;

    d. the results and conclusions of the investigation.

3. Abstracts should contain 100 words or less unless the article

    being abstracted is over 6 to 8 pages in length. In that case the abstract         may contain more than 150 words. Definite and indefinite articles and 

    numbers count as full words. A hyphenated word counts as just one word.

    Words in the title are not counted in the 100 word limit. YOU MAY TAKE A


4. The title should contain the following information:

    a. the author's name (last name first)

    b. the date (year) of the article or book

    c. the title of the article

    d. the name of the journal or book

    e. the volume number, if a periodical

    f. the pages on which the article is found






   Dupuis, E.M. and C. Geisler. 1988. Biotechnology and the small

     farm. BioScience 38(6):406-411


   Marx, J.L. 1988. Cell growth control takes balance. Science





































































BI 176                   ECOLOGY PROJECT             Dr. Emmeluth



     Last year Americans threw away about 160 million tons of trash. This is enough to fill a line of 10 ton garbage trucks stretched halfway to the moon. This represents about 1300 pounds from each American. Much of this trash is placed in landfills, some is burned in incinerators for energy generation, a small percentage is recycled, and some materials are reclaimed and reused.

     There is no single solution to America's solid waste problem. Long-term solutions must necessarily integrate source reduction, recycling, state-of-the-art-waste-to-energy-incineration, and environmentally secure landfills. The EPA has called for a 25% reduction in waste through source reduction and recycling by 1992.

     Solutions are possible only when individuals and institutions become committed to change. Change often requires an attitude shift. Attitude changes always involve awareness of alternatives which, in turn, implies an educated population.

     Recycling can play a significant part in solving America's solid waste problem. Everything recyclable should be recycled, including yard wastes, paper, metals, glass, and plastics.

Recycling involves: (1) collection, (2) sorting by type (sorting

plastics from glass, for example), reclamation - the recovery of material into salvaged and usable form, and (4) end use - identifying ways for the materials to be used again.


     Your project - if you decide to become involved - is to produce a feasibility report designed to answer the following question:

What can we, at this institution, do to encourage recycling?

This report will be presented to the Board of Trustees at their May meeting with your recommendations for a recycling program for this campus. This report will outline, in some detail, the possibilities and potential problems associated with such a program.

     There are several questions and areas of consideration that you will need to explore. The following are a few examples:

     Who needs to contacted on this campus? off campus?

     Which areas of the campus should be considered?

     Are there grants or other types of financial aid that might

     be available for starting such a program?

     What are the possible alternatives to existing policies?

     What will be the cost - economically and personally - in the

     short term and the long term?

     Where can you find information about similar programs?






BI 176                   ECOLOGY PROJECT             Dr. Emmeluth


Suggested procedure (subject to modification by the participants)

The participants will be divided into three groups. Each group will elect a chairperson and a recording secretary.


Group I will be responsible for contacting and interviewing college personnel and staff, county supervisors, solid waste coordinators in the two counties, state and national leaders.


Group II will identify and contact suppliers of various materials related to recycled products or procedures. They will identify cost figures for the various changes suggested and determine how much is presently being spent on products currently being used. They will determine the approximate break even time for these new methods and products.


Group III will devise and interview students and SGA members. This will determine the collective campus attitude and willingness to be involved in a project of this type. This group will determine sites and types of collection stations on the campus. They will also devise a timetable for bringing this project into full compliance.


The very nature of this project and the suggested group tasks requires that the groups will need to be in constant contact with each other and with the instructor. Deadlines will need to be established and each group will need to follow-up on details.


Grading Procedure:

     Each group's end product will be evaluated by the instructor, and each member of the group will receive the same grade. Each member of the group will be evaluated by every other member of the group on a confidential grading form provided by the instructor.




















On Campus

     Dr. Richard Teaff - Vice President                ext. 233

     Mrs. Maria Otruba - Bookstore Manager           ext. 255

     Mr. Robert Cleghorn - Supervisor, Building & Grounds   290

     Mr. Frank Mahar - Business Manager                   ext. 211

     Dean Varghese Pynadath - Liberal Arts & Sciences     ext. 310

     Dean Robert Kusek - Career Education            ext. 313

     Bill Pierce - Director of Student Union              ext. 251

     Ms. Charlotte Leo - Director of Public Relations     ext. 220


The Recycled Paper Company, Inc.         High quality papers for:

185 Corey Road                           Stationery/envelopes

Boston, MA   02146                       copiers/laser printers

(617) 277-9901                           newsletters/brochures


Windsor Barrel Works                     cluster barrels for

P.O. Box 47                              collecting recyclables

Kempton, PA   19529

(215) 756-4344


Doug Wadsworth                        plastics recycling

Clearvue Polymers

2 Plaza Avenue

Rensselaer, NY   12133

(518) 449-1251


Plastics Again                           used polystyrene foam

24 Jytek Park                            discards

Leominster, MA   01453

(508) 840-1521


Better Environment, Inc.                 trash containers

480 Clinton Avenue

Albany, New York   12206

(518) 426-4987


Diversified Recycling Systems            complete internal

Office/Warehouse Products for Recycling  recycling system for

5606 N. County Road 18                   business and office

New Hope, MN   55428

(612) 536-6662


Jeanne Wirka                             keep abreast of govern-

Solid Wastes Alternatives Project        ment initiatives to deal

Environmental Action Foundation          with the garbage crisis

1525 New Hampshire Ave. N.W.

Washington, D.C.   20036

(202) 745-4870



The Coalition for Recyclable Waste       publishes a newsletter

P.O. Box 1091                            on food packaging and

Absecon, NJ   08201                      other solid-waste issues


Earth Care Paper Co.                     makes cellulose bags to

P.O. Box 3335-GM                         replace plastic packages

Madison, WI   53704                      recycled paper products

(608) 256-5522


Seventh Generation                       biodegradable garbage

Dept. #3099246                           bags in 3 sizes

10 Farrel Street

So. Burlington, VT   05403


Crosse Pointe Paper Corporation       makes recycled papaer

Eastern Region

1185 Avenue of the Americas

30th Floor

New York City, NY   10036


Senator Hugh T. Farley                Chairman, Committee on

Room 706                              Environmental

Legislative Office Building           Conservation

The Senate

State of New York

Albany, NY 12247

(518) 455-2181


Paul D. Tonko

Assemblyman 105th District

Room 725

Legislative Office Building

Albany, NY   12248


Alphonse M. D'Amato

520 Senate Hart Office Building

Constitution Avenue and 2nd Avenue NE

Washington, D.C.   20510


Daniel P. Moynihan

464 Senate Russell Office Building

Constitution Avenue and Delaware Avenues NE

Washington, D.C.   20510















                ECOLOGY (BI 176) PROJECT SURVEY


The following survey is part of a class project to determine the feasability and support for recycling on this campus. Your parti-cipation is appreciated.


 1. Status

     Student _____   Faculty _____   Staff _____   Other _____


 2. Do you currently recycle any materials? Yes _____   No _____


 3. Do you feel that recycling is an inconvenience?

     Yes _____          No _____


 4. Would you like to see a recycling program begun on campus?

     Yes _____          No _____


 5. Would you participate in a recycling program on campus?

     Yes _____          No _____


 6. If you answered Yes to question # 5, what areas should be

    covered in this program?

     _____ aluminum cans               _____ library

     _____ plastics                    _____ athletic building

     _____ paper                       _____ classroom building

     _____ foam products (cups)        _____ student union

     _____ others                      _____ administration bldg


 7. Would you buy recycled products if they were sold on campus?

     Yes _____           No _____


 8. Would you use collection bins if they were provided?

     Yes _____          No _____


 9. Do you feel that a recycling project would be beneficial to

    the college?        Yes _____          No _____


10. Would you be willing to donate $1.00/semester for a recycling

    program?            Yes _____          No _____


11. Where might the best locations for siting collection bins?




12. Additional ideas, comments, or opinions







Thank you!















                      FEASABILITY REPORT













Prepared for Dr. Donald S. Emmeluth in partial fulfillment of the requirements for BI 176: Ecology.


Presented by:


Jeffrey Conine

Lisa Cristiano

Steven Hudman

Robert P. King

Daniel Terwilliger

Rebecca Tomlinson




Presented to the Fulton-Montgomery Community College Board of Trustees, May 10, 1990.














The following report and supporting materials represent work done to determine the feasability of a recycling program at Fulton-Montgomery Community College. Since such a program will soon be required, preliminary planning will be necessary. It is hoped that this report will provide a first step in such planning.


The following pages outline the intent and methods followed in compiling this report. A copy of the results of a survey is included in this report. Correspondence with elected officials is

included in the supplemental information files.


The general objectives of this project included:


(1)  determining the current feelings of students, faculty, and    staff regarding the willingness to reduce the purchase and

     use of environmentally harmful products

(2)  determining ways to conserve paper products

(3)  determining ways to recycle a large percentage of various

     types of campus waste

(4)  determining ways to increase the demand for recycled      products within the college community


It is clear that many of these objectives have not been fully explored. Time constraints and the failure of many companies and individuals to respond to repeated written inquiries has been both frustrating and informative.


The results of the project show that:


(1) the college community supports such a proposed program and  

    would be willing to provide limited financial support

(2) such a program would be most successful if phased in over a

    several semesters  

(3) paper, plastics, and aluminum cans constitute the greatest

    amounts of potentially recyclable material

(4) the Student Union and Classroom Buildings are the logical

    starting points for siting collection bins

(5) people would be willing to buy recycled materials, if


(6) there is a need to create a demand for recycled materials

(7) the sale of recycled materials should be used to:

     a. maintain the program

     b. increase student services or decrease student fees

During the course of the project, the following persons and groups provided responses (all favorable) and materials. Copies of letters are enclosed.


     Assemblyman Glenn H. Harris

     Assemblyman Paul Tonko

     State Senator Hugh T. Farley

     Congressman David O'B. Martin

     United States Senator Daniel P. Moynihan


     Department of Environmental Conservation

     Albany, New York   12212


     Fulton County Recycling Coordinator

     Cindy Livingston


     Montgomery County Recycling Coordinator

     Chuck Lowenhagen


     Amoco Chemical Company

     200 East Randolph Drive

     MC 4106, Department M082

     Chicago, Illinois   60601


     Richard Bastin, Sales Supervisor

     Coca Cola Bottling Plant  459-2010

     with reference to Reverse Vending Machines

     (see also ChemEcology, p. 6)


     Windsor Barrel Works

     P.O. Box 47

     Kempton, Pennsylvania   19529


Interviews were conducted with Michelle DiPasquale, cafeteria director, Mrs. Maria Otruba, Bookstore Manager, and Mr. Robert Cleghorn, Supervisor of Buildings and Grounds. All of those interviewed provided support, encouragement, and a series of ideas and possibilities for recycling on campus.















                ECOLOGY (BI 176) PROJECT SURVEY


The following survey is part of a class project to determine the feasability and support for recycling on this campus. Your parti-cipation is appreciated.


 1. Status

     Student   122    Faculty    6     Staff    1    Other    8 


 2. Do you currently recycle any materials? Yes  107  No   29


 3. Do you feel that recycling is an inconvenience?

     Yes   35           No   101 


 4. Would you like to see a recycling program begun on campus?

     Yes   132          No    4  


 5. Would you participate in a recycling program on campus?

     Yes   122          No   13  


 6. If you answered Yes to question # 5, what areas should be

    covered in this program?

       93  aluminum cans                 47  library

       66  plastics                      26  athletic building

       85  paper                         57  classroom building

       64  foam products (cups)          74  student union

       18  others                        33  administration bldg


 7. Would you buy recycled products if they were sold on campus?

     Yes   123          No   11  


 8. Would you use collection bins if they were provided?

     Yes   128          No    8  


 9. Do you feel that a recycling project would be beneficial to

    the college?        Yes   122     No    6  


10. Would you be willing to donate $1.00/semester for a recycling

    program?            Yes   117     No   17  


11. Where might the best locations for siting collection bins?

     Student Union, Classroom Building


12. Additional ideas, comments, or opinions







Thank you!