Glenn's Beer Pages
Glossary of Beer and Brewing Terms
- A -
A.A.U.--Alpha acid units. The measurement, in percentage of alpha acid, of the
potential bitterness in hops.
Acetaldehyde -- Green apple aroma, a byproduct of fermentation.
Additive -- Enzymes, preservatives and antioxidants which are added to simplify
the brewing process or prolong shelf life.
Adjunct -- Fermentable material used as a substitute for traditional grains, to
make beer lighter-bodied or cheaper.
Aerobic -- An organism, such as top fermenting ale yeast, that needs oxygen to
Alcohol -- Ethyl alcohol or ethanol. An intoxicating by-product of fermentation,
which is caused by yeast acting on sugars in the malt. Alcohol content is
expressed as a percentage of volume or weight.
Alcohol -- An intoxicating by-product of fermentation, which is caused by yeast
acting on the sugars in the malt. Alcohol content is expressed as a percentage
of volume or weight; the US uses weight.
Alcohol by volume -- Amount of alcohol in beer in terms of percentage volume of
alcohol per volume of beer.
Alcohol by weight -- Amount of alcohol in beer measured in terms of the
percentage weight of alcohol per volume of beer, i.e., 3.2% alcohol by weights
equals 3.2 grams of alcohol per 100 centiliters of beer. (It is approximately
20% less than alcohol by volume.)
Alcoholic -- Warming taste of ethanol and higher alcohol's.
Ale -- Beers distinguished by use of top fermenting yeast strains, Saccharomyces
cerevisiae. The top fermenting yeast perform at warmer temperatures than do
yeast's used to brew lager beer, and their byproducts are more evident in taste
and aroma. Fruitiness and esters are often part of an ale's character.
Ale -- One of the larger families of beers. True ales are fermented with
top-fermenting yeast. They are low in carbonation and served warm. Best known in
All-malt -- A relatively new term in America. "All malt" refers to a beer made
exclusively with barley malt and without adjuncts.
Amber -- Any top or bottom fermented beer having an amber color, that is,
between pale and dark.
Amylase Enzymes that liquefy starches and convert them to maltose (sugar) and
Anaerobic -- An organism, such as a bottom-fermenting lager yeast, that is able
to metabolize without oxygen present.
Aroma -- The particular combination of smells from malt, hops, yeast, and any
unusual or distinctive disturbances in the beer.
Aroma Hops -- Varieties of hop chosen to impart bouquet. ( See Hops) Astringent
-- A drying, puckering taste; tannic; can be derived from boiling the grains,
long mashes, over sparging or sparging with hard water.
Attenuation -- Extent to which yeast consumes fermentable sugars (converting
them into alcohol and carbon dioxide).
- B -
Bacterial -- A general term covering off-flavors such as moldy, musty, woody,
lactic acid, vinegar, or microbiological spoilage.
Balance - Hoppiness versus maltiness -The complexity of their interaction, and
a measure of the brewer's art.
Balling Degrees -- Scale indicating density of sugars in wort. Devised by C J
Barley -- A cereal grain that is malted for use in the grist that becomes the
mash in the brewing of beer.
Barrel- One US barrel equals two kegs or 31 gallons.
Barrel -- A unit of measurement used by brewers in some countries. In Britain,
a barrel holds 36 imperial gallons (1 imperial gallon = 4.5 liters), or 1.63
hectoliters. In the United states, a barrel holds 31.5 US gallons (1 US gallon
= 3.8 liters), or 1.17 hectoliters.
Beer -- Name given alcohol-containing beverages produced by fermenting grain,
specifically malt, and flavored with hops.
Beer Styles - The three major beer styles are lagers, ales, and specialty
beers. Specialty beers are brewed with various non-standard ingredients.
Beer - A fermented beverage made from barley. hops, water, and yeast, and
sometimes other ingredients.
Bitter -- Bitterness of hops or malt husks; sensation on back of tongue.
Bitter One of the British ales almost exclusively served on draft in English
Bitterness -- The perception of a bitter flavor, in beer from iso-alpha-acid
in solution (derived from hops). It is measured in International Bitterness
Bitterness- The taste component added by hops.
Black malt -- Partially malted barley roasted at high temperatures. Black malt
gives a dark color and roasted flavor to beer.
Black Patent Malt -- Malted barley roasted at high temperatures to give color
and taste to the beer.
Bock German-style -- Beer with a strong alcoholic content. Dopplebock has yet
a higher alcoholic content (6% or more) and Eisbock (made with a freezing
process) can have an alcoholic content equivalent to wine.
Body -- The particular feel of a beer is described as full-bodied,
medium-bodied, or light bodied, depending on the sense of thickness or
thinness in your mouth.
Body -- Thickness and mouth-filling property of a beer described as "full or
Bottle-conditioning -- Secondary fermentation and maturation in the bottle,
creating complex aromas and flavors.
Bottle of Beer -- A bottle of beer equals twelve ounces.
Bottom-fermenting yeast -- One of the two types of yeast used in brewing.
Bottom-fermenting yeast works well at low temperatures and ferments more
sugars leaving a crisp, clean taste and then settles to the bottom of the
tank. Also referred to as "lager yeast".
Bottom-fermenting Yeast (Lager Yeast) -- The yeast used to ferment lagers.
This yeast works at colder temperatures than ale yeast and settles to the
bottom of the fermentation vessel.
Brewhouse -- The collective equipment used to make beer.
Brew Kettle -- The vessel in which wort from the mash is boiled with hops.
Also called a copper.
Brewpub -- Pub that makes its own beer and sells at least 50% of it on
premises. Also known in Britain as a home-brew house and in Germany as a house
Bright Beer Tank -- See conditioning tank.
Bung -- The stopper in the hole in a keg or cask through which the keg or cask
is filled and emptied. The hole may also be referred to as a bung or bunghole.
Real beer must use a wooden bung.
Butterscotch -- See diacetyl.
- C -
Cabbagelike -- Aroma and taste of cooked vegetables; often a result of wort
spoilage bacteria killed by alcohol in fermentation.
CAMRA -- The CAMpaign for Real Ale. An organization in England that was
founded in 1971 to preserve the production of cask-conditioned beers and ales.
Carbonation -- Sparkle caused by carbon dioxide, either created during
fermentation or injected later.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - A gas consisting of one part carbon and two parts
oxygen released during fermentation.
Caramel -- A cooked sugar that is used to add color and alcohol content to
beer. It is often used in place of more expensive malted barley.
Caramel malt -- A sweet, coppery-colored malt. Caramel or crystal malt imparts
both color and flavor to beer. Caramel malt has a high concentration of
unfermentable sugars that sweeten the beer and, contribute to head retention.
Also known as crystal malt.
Cask -- A closed, barrel-shaped container for beer. They come in various sizes
and are now usually made of metal. The bung in a cask of "Real" beer or ale
must be made of wood to allow the pressure to be relived, as the fermentation
of the beer, in the cask, continues.
Cask-conditioning -- Secondary fermentation and maturation in the cask at the
point of sale. Creates light carbonation.
Chlorophenolic -- A plasticlike aroma; caused by chemical combination of
chlorine and organic compounds.
Chill haze -- Cloudiness caused by precipitation of protein-tannin compound at
low temperatures, does not affect flavor.
Chill Haze - A condition occurring in some beers at low (near freezing)
temperatures caused by proteins in the beer becoming cloudy. Not an indication
of bad beer.
Chill proof -- Beer treated to allow it to withstand cold temperatures without
Clovelike -- Spicy character reminiscent of cloves; characteristic of some
wheat beers, or if excessive, may derive from wild yeast.
Conditioning -- Period of maturation intended to impart "condition"(natural
carbonation). Warm conditioning further develops the complex of flavors. Cold
conditioning imparts a clean, round taste.
Conditioning Tank -- A vessel in which beer is placed after primary
fermentation where the beer matures, clarifies and, is naturally carbonated
through secondary fermentation. Also called bright beer tank, serving tank
and, secondary tank.
Conditioning -- The process of creating carbonation in the finished beer,
typically taking place in the bottle or keg after sugar is added. Conditioning
can also mean aging or lagering beer.
Contract Brewing -- Making beer for smaller companies that either do not have
a brewery of their own or lack the capacity to meet demand.
Contract Beer -- Beer made by one brewery and then marketed by a company
calling itself a brewery. The latter uses the brewing facilities of the
Copper -- See brew kettle.
- D -
Decoction -- Exhaustive system of mashing in which portions of the wort are
removed, heated, then returned to the original vessel.
Dextrin -- The unfermentable carbohydrate produced by the enzymes in barley.
It gives the beer flavor, body, and mouthfeel. Lower temperatures produce more
dextrin and less sugar. While higher temperatures produce more sugars and less
Dextrins -- Non (or slowly) fermentable carbohydrates found in the malt. They
give beer flavor, body, and mouthfeel.
Diacetyl -- A volatile compound in beer that contributes to a butterscotch
flavor, measured in parts per million.
DMS -- Taste and aroma of sweet corn; results from malt, as a result of the
short or weak boil of the wort, slow wort chilling, or bacterial infection. --
Dimethyl sulfide, a sulfur compound.
Dosage -- The addition of yeast and/or sugar to the cask or bottle to aid
Draft (Draught) -- The process of dispensing beer from a bright tank, cask or,
keg, by hand pump, pressure from an air pump or, injected carbon dioxide
inserted into the beer container prior to sealing.
Dry-hopping -- The addition of dry hops to fermenting or aging beer to
increase its hop character or aroma.
- E -
EBC -- European Brewing Convention. An EBC scale is used to indicate colors in
malts and beers.
Enzymes -- Catalysts that are found naturally in the grain. When heated in
mash, they convert the starches of the malted barley into maltose, a sugar
used in solution and fermented to make beer.
Ester -- Volatile flavor compound naturally created in fermentation. Often
fruity, flowery or spicy.
Esters - Esters are organic compounds that result from the interaction of
acids and alcohol. The presence of esters can cause the fruity flavors and
aromas, such as banana, blueberry, and pear, that intentionally or
unintentionally occur in some beers.
Estery -- Aroma or flavor reminiscent of flowers or fruits.
- F -
Fahrenheit (degrees) -- F = ((Cx9) ( 5) + 32.
Fermentation - This is the process of producing alcohol and carbon dioxide
through the actions of yeast on grain-based sugars.
Fermentation -- Conversion of sugars into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide,
through the action of yeast.
Final specific gravity -- Specific gravity of a beer when fermentation is
complete (that is, all fermentable sugars have been fermented).
Fining - A process of producing a bright beer by clearing the beer of unwanted
haze or yeast, by adding ingredients such as isinglass or gelatin.
Fining -- An aid to clarification: a substance that attracts particles that
would otherwise remain suspended in the brew.
Filter -- The removal of designated impurities by passing the wort through a
medium, sometimes made of diatomaceous earth ( made up of the microscopic
skeletal remains of marine animals). Yeast in suspension is often targeted for
Filtering - The process of passing beer through a porous substance to clarify
it. This process occurs after fermentation.
Fruity/Estery -- Flavor and aroma of bananas, strawberries, apples, or other
fruit; from high temperature fermentation and certain yeast strains.
- G -
Grains -- (such as rice, corn, maize, or wheat) used in addition to malted
barley to make a beer. They tend to lighten the flavor of a beer and produce
Grainy -- Tastes like cereal or raw grain.
Gravity (Specific) - The weight of a liquid relative to the weight of an equal
volume of water. Specific gravity must be checked before and after
fermentation. Used as an indication of the amount of alcohol present in the
Grist -- Brewers' term for milled grains, or the combination of milled grains
to be used in a particular brew. Derives from the verb to grind. Also
sometimes applied to hops.
Grist - Dry mixture of barley malts and adjuncts used in mashing.
- H -
Hand Pump -- A device for dispensing draft beer using a pump operated by hand.
The use of a hand pump allows the cask-conditioned beer to be served without
the use of pressurized carbon dioxide.
Hang -- Lingering bitterness or harshness.
Hard Cider -- A fermented beverage made from apples.
Head -- Foam that forms on top of the beer when it is poured. Head tends to
indicate the degree of carbonation, hops, and malt in the beer.
Heat Exchanger -- A mechanical device used to rapidly reduce the temperature
of the wort.
Hefe -- A German word meaning "with". Used mostly in conjunction with wheat
(weiss) beers to denote that the beer is bottled or kegged with the yeast in
suspension (hefe-weiss). These beers are cloudy, frothy and, very refreshing.
Hogshead -- Cask holding 54 imperial gallons ( 243 liters ).
Hopping Rate-- The amount of hops added to a specified volume of wort. Often
referred to in BUs (bittering units).
Hops -- One of the four principal ingredients of beer, hops are flower cones
added to beer as a bittering agent, a preservative, and an aromatic.
Hop back -- Sieve-like vessel used to strain out the petals of the hop
flowers. Known as a hop jack in the United States.
Hops -- Herb added to boiling wort or fermenting beer to impart a bitter aroma
Hoppy -- Aroma of hops, does not include hop bitterness.
Hydrometer -- A thermometer-like device used to measure the specific gravity
to determine the proportion of potential alcohol in the beer.
- I -
IBU -- International Bitterness units. A system of indicating the hop
bitterness in finished beer.
Infusion -- Simplest form of mash, in which grains are soaked in water. May be
at a single temperature, or with upward or (occasionally) downward changes.
Infusion-- The process of introducing mash into hot water for mashing. The
infusion method of mashing involves mashing a single time at a constant
temperature, as opposed to other, more complex mashing techniques that involve
mashing more than once at different heat levels.
Isinglass - Material made from fish bladders used to clarify beer.
Irish Moss-- A seaweed that is added to boiling wort to filter proteins.
- J -
Just one more reason to have a beer!
- K -
Keg -- One-half barrel, or 15.5 U. S. gallons. A half keg or, 7.75 U. S.
gallons, is referred to as a pony-keg.
Keg-- A vessel holding 15.5 gallons that is used for serving beer in large
Kräusening -- The addition of a small proportion of partly fermented wort to a
brew during lagering. Stimulates secondary fermentation and imparts a crisp,
Krausen Wort - A small quantity of sweet, unfermented wort added to finished
beer. This wort ferments to produce natural carbonation.
- L -
Lager -- Beers produced with bottom fermenting yeast strains, Saccharomyces
uvarum (or carlsbergensis) at colder fermentation temperatures than ales. This
cooler environment inhibits the natural production of esters and other
byproducts, creating a crisper tasting product.
Lager -- From the German word to store, lagers represent a major family of
beers. They have a longer and cooler fermentation period than ales, and are
brewed with bottom-fermenting yeast. Most German and North American beers are
Lagering -- Aging the beer by letting it stand for a number of days in a
Lagering -- From the German word for storage. Refers to maturation for several
weeks or months at cold temperatures (close to 0°C /32°F) to settle residual
yeast, impart carbonation and make for clean round flavors.
Lauter -- To run the wort from the mash tun. From the German word to clarify.
A lauter tun is a separate vessel to do this job. It uses a system of sharp
rakes to achieve a very intensive extraction of malt sugars.
Lauter Tun -- See mash tun.
Spontaneously fermented wheat beers from Belgium. The yeast is not manually
added; instead, it is allowed to drift in from the surrounding countryside.
Length -- The amount of wort brewed each time the brew house is in operation.
Light Beer -- Low-calorie beers that also usually have a low-alcohol content
(for example, 3.2%). Sometimes light beer is produced by simply watering a
full-calorie and/or full-alcohol beer. Low calorie beer? 90 calories, versus
120 calories? Whatever.
Lightstruck -- Beer damaged by exposure to light. Also known as corona.
Light-Struck --Skunklike smell; from exposure to light.
Liquor -- The water used in making beer.
Liquor -- The brewer's word for water used in the brewing process, as included
in the mash or, used to sparge the grains after mashing.
- M -
Malt (ing) -- The process by which barley is steeped in water, germinated
,then kilned to convert insoluble starch to soluble substances and sugar. The
foundation ingredient of beer.
Malt Extract -- The condensed wort from a mash, consisting of maltose,
dextrins and, other dissolved solids. Either as a syrup or powdered sugar, it
is used by brewers, in solutions of water and extract, to reconstitute wort
Syrups manufactured by evaporating excess water out of wort.
Malt Liquor -- A legal term used in the U.S. to designate a fermented beverage
of relatively high alcohol content (7%-8% by volume).
The basis of beer. Malted barley is created by germinating (sprouting) barley
for optimum starch content and enzyme development, then drying it quickly.
This provides starches that convert to sugars, which then ferment into alcohol
The main fermentable sugar obtained from malted grains.
Mash -- (Verb) To release malt sugars by soaking the grains in water. (Noun)
The resultant mixture.
The double-jacketed, stainless-steel vessel in which mashing occurs.
Mash Tun -- A tank where grist is soaked in water and heated in order to
convert the starch to sugar and extract the sugars and other solubles from the
The preparation of the wort, the liquid base of beer. Mashing converts
starches to sugars by mixing malted barley with hot water.
Maltose -- A water soluble, fermentable sugar contained in malt.
Mead -- Meads are produced by the fermentation of honey, water, yeast and
optional ingredients such as fruit, herbs, and/or spices. According to final
gravity, they are categorized as: dry (0.996 to 1009); medium (1010 to 1019);
or sweet (1020 or higher). Wine, champagne, sherry, mead, ale or lager yeasts
may be used.
Medicinal -- Chemical or phenolic character; can be the result of wild yeast,
contact with plastic, or sanitizer residue.
Metallic -- Tastes tinny, bloodlike or coinlike; may come from bottle caps.
Microbrewery-- Breweries and brewpubs producing less than 1,500 barrels per
Microbrewery -- Small brewery generally producing less than 15,000 barrels per
year. Sales primarily off premises.
Mouthfeel -- A sensation derived from the consistency or viscosity of a beer,
described, for example as thin or full.
Mouthfeel-- A sensory way of evaluating the body of a beer. Mouthfeel is the
viscous feeling in the mouth that provides a measure of the texture of beer,
ranging from thick to thin.
Munchener-- Dark brown or golden German lager beers featuring sweet taste and
Musty -- Moldy, mildewy character; can be the result of cork or bacterial
Original gravity -- A measurement of the density of fermentable sugars in a
mixture of malt and water with which a brewer begins a given batch.
- N -
Noon -- Beer O'clock
- O -
Oxidized -- Stale flavor of wet cardboard, paper, rotten pineapple, or sherry,
as a result of oxygen as the beer ages or is exposed to high temperatures.
- P -
Palate-- Taste. Influenced by the grains, hops, water, yeast, and adjuncts
used in production.
Pale Ale-- Light-colored ales that are usually full-bodied and on the bitter
Pasteurization -- Heating of beer to 60-79(°C/140-174°F to stabilize it
microbiologically. Flash-pasteurization is applied very briefly, for 15-60
seconds by heating the beer as it passes through the pipe. Alternately, the
bottled beer can be passed on a conveyor belt through a heated tunnel. This
more gradual process takes at least 20 minutes and sometimes much longer.
Pasteurization-- The process of heating finished beer to kill all living
organisms in it, thereby stabilizing it for shipping and increased shelf life.
Phenolic -- Flavor and aroma of medicine, plastic, Band-Aids, smoke, or
cloves; caused by wild yeast or bacteria, or sanitizer residue.
Pilsner-- A type of lager beer, first made in Czechoslovakia in the late 13th
Pitch -- To add yeast to wort.
Pitching-- Adding yeast to the wort in the fermentation tank.
Plato, degrees -- Expresses the specific gravity as the weight of extract in a
100 gram solution at 64°F (17.5°C). Refinement of the Balling scale.
Porter-- A characteristically dark brown beer, of English origin. The
bitterness of this beer derives from the use of roasted, unmalted barley.
Priming -- The addition of sugar at the maturation stage to promote a
Primary Fermentation-- Occurring after pitching the yeast and during the first
three days on the average, fermentation converts sugars to alcohol and
carbonation. Fermentation time for the microbrewery ranges from three to seven
Priming Sugar-- Sugar added to the bottle or keg that ferments and provides
Priming - The process of adding sugar to the brew to create carbonation,
either in the bottle or keg.
Proteins - Nitrogen-containing compounds, an excess of which cause a haze in
Pub -- An establishment that serves beer and sometimes other alcoholic
beverages for consumption on premise. The term originated in England and is
the shortened form of "public house".
Publican -- The owner or manager of a pub.
- Q -
Quit your bitching and have another brew!
- R -
Racking - The process of separating the fermented beer from the yeast cells at
the bottom of the fermenting vessel. Also the transfer of finished beer to
kegs. Broadly, moving beer from one vessel to another.
Regional specialty brewery -- A brewery that produces more than 15,000 barrels
of beer annually, with its largest selling product a specialty beer.
Reinheitsgebot - A German purity law enacted in 1516 stipulating that beer can
be made only from barley, hops, water, and yeast.
Reinheitsgebot -- "Purity Law" originating in Bavaria in 1520 and now applied
to all German brewers making beer for consumption in their own country. It
requires that only malted grains, hops, yeast and water may be used in the
- S -
Saccharomyces cerevisiae -- See Top-fermenting yeast.
Saccharomyces uvarum -- See Bottom-fermenting yeast.
Saccharomyces carlsbergensis -- See Bottom-fermenting yeast.
Salty -- Flavor like table salt; experienced on the side of the tongue.
Sanitization -- The never-ending process of cleaning brewing equipment.
Secondary fermentation -- Stage of fermentation occurring in a closed
container from several weeks to several months.
Sediment - Yeast material at the bottom of the bottle formed as a result of
conditioning the beer in the bottle. Not a sign of bad beer.
Shelf life -- Describes the number of days a beer will retain it's peak
drinkability. The shelf life for commercially produced beers is usually a
maximum of four months.
Solventlike -- Reminiscent of acetone or lacquer thinner; caused by high
Sour/Acidic -- Vinegarlike or lemonlike; can be caused by bacterial infection.
Specific gravity -- A measure of the density of a liquid or solid compared to
that of water ((1.000 at 39°F (4°C)).
Sparge -- To spray grist with hot water in order to remove soluble sugars
(maltose). This takes place at the end of the mash.
Sparging - Rinsing the mashed grains to ensure complete extraction of the
sugars from the mash.
Squares -- Brewers' term for a square fermenting vessel.
Sweet -- Taste like sugar; experienced on the front of the tongue.
Sulfurlike -- Reminiscent of rotten eggs or burnt matches; a by-product of
- T -
Tart -- Taste sensation cause by acidic flavors.
Temporary Hardness - Hardness in water that can be removed by boiling.
Terminal gravity -- Synonym for final specific gravity.
Top-fermenting yeast -- One of the two types of yeast used in brewing.
Top-fermenting yeast works better at warmer temperatures and are able to
tolerate higher alcohol concentrations than bottom-fermenting yeast. It is
unable to ferment some sugars, and results in a fruitier, sweeter beer. Also
known as "ale yeast".
Top-Fermenting Yeast (Ale Yeast) -- A style of yeast that works at cellar or
warm temperatures and floats to the top of the beer. Ale yeasts are
responsible for the creation of most beers other than lagers. However, this
style of brewing is practiced mostly in England and very few breweries in the
US use this type of yeast to produce real ales. Instead, US ales are made with
a modified lagering process.
Trub -Proteins in barley filtered during the wort boil.
Tun -- Any large vessels used in brewing. In America, "tub" is often
- U -
Units of bitterness -- See IBU.
- V -
Vinous -- Reminiscent of wine.
- W -
Weisse -- A beer made with approximately one-quarter wheat malts and usually
served cold with either woodruff or raspberry.
Weizenbier-- A beer made with approximately one-third wheat malts and usually
served cold with lemon.
Winy -- Sherrylike flavor; can be caused by warm fermentation or oxidation in
very old beer.
Wort -- The solution of grain sugars strained from the mash tun. At this
stage, regarded as "sweet wort", later as brewed wort, fermenting wort and
Wort --The sweet liquid derived from mashing, or mixing malted barley with
water. Wort is the beginning of all beers.
Wort Chiller -- See heat exchanger.
- X -
Xtra beer is always a good idea.
- Y -
Yard Glass -- A tall glass (traditionally 3 feet) that was originally produced
in England back in the days when travel by horse-drawn coach was common. When
a coach would stop at an Inn to rest the horses and feed the passangers, the
Coach driver would have to stay on the coach to handle the reigns. Since the
coach driver wanted beer, but was way up there on the coach while the barmaids
where way down there on the ground, the yard glass was developed to help the
barmaids hand the beer up to the coach driver. A yard glass typically has a
large mouth, a long skinny neck, and a large bulb at the bottom. It takes a
bit of practice, but it certainly is an entertaining and traditional way to
Yeast -- A micro-organism of the fungus family. Genus Saccharomyces.
Yeast --Living plant microorganisms that convert sugars to alcohol and carbon
Yeasty -- Yeastlike flavor; a result of yeast in suspension or beer sitting
too long on sediment.
- Z -
Zymurgy -- The science / art of yeast fermentation. Also, the last word in
Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.