BURNHAM. This battery was named for Lt. Howard Burnham who was killed in the battle of Chickamauga Georgia September 1863.
This battery was armed with 1-8-inch BL Rifles model 1888 nos 4 were fabricated by the Watervliet Arsenal. The cost of the guns was $16,875.
The following is information on the Model 1888 #4
Emplacement #1 - the reference height of the crest was 120 ft above mean low water.
Gun Model 1888 #4 Was mounted and emplaced in 1901 under the supervision Lt. L.B.Davis. Limits of elevation of gun as mounted and emplaced: elevation; 18o depression; -5oand the number of shots fired was 7.
The following is information on the Model 1894 #32
Carriage Model 1894 #32 was mounted in 1901 under supervision of L.B. Davis and was leveled by Ordnance Dept.
The movement of ammunition must be very rapid and it is the duty of the Engineer Department to so design it emplacement that each and every step of the ammunition service may be performed with such speed that the ammunition can be carried to the breech of the gun at least as rapidly as it can be loaded into the gun and fired; and so the rate of fire which can be obtained from the gun be limited by consideration other that the functioning of the portion of the ammunition service for which the Engineer Department is responsible.
As with any battery is to be built in any Engineer district, as much information as may be necessary is sent to the district officer.
"On January 24 1899 directions were given by telegraph to start the work on this battery, with funds from "National Defense" act of March 9 1898. The allotted amount for this battery was $28.700.00, plus an additional $4,000 and construction was started in February 1899".
This battery was to be located to the left (west) of Battery West (1871-1876 period) where a few uncounted mortars had once been placed. The battery was 135' across and 85' deep, there was a shot and shell room, and a powder (see below) Commanding Officers was 10' X 16' as was the Guard Room, Plotting Room 10' X 16', Hoist Room, 4' X 5', Telephone, 10' X 5', the passageway were 6', and the Observation Station was 6' X 8, wide also there were three fireplaces, and the Latrines, which was on the left rear of the battery.
"Construction of this battery began in April 1, 1898. The first step is to clear the site so that the excavation can start, the excavation was begun March 2 and, the work being done in two eight hour shifts.
The excavation is clay to a depth of about 5', where it changed to soft rock, getting harder as the depth increased. 'T was moved by blasting and loading into dump carts, at an average cost of .69 a cubic yard, there was 6933 cubic yards removed to put in a foundation. The foundation were uniformly good under the entire emplacement, with no difficulty due to unequal settlement has occurred."
After the excavation was finished, they started building the forms. On the timber used in making the forms, in all cases dressed lumber was used, and then the reinforcing for the concrete, they use wire mesh, steel bars, trolley tracks, rails from railroads, bars, the reinforcing steel will be measured by the pound in place and ready for pouring concrete and will include allowance for minimum laps, splices and hooks, if any item needs to be embedded in the concrete such as bolts, anchor, pipes or other embedded items are firmly and securely fastened in place excluding the Maneuvering Ring, as indicated on the plans.
All possible precaution was taken to prevent leakage. Wall in contact with the earth were plastered and painted with paraffin paint and drain tiles were placed at the bottom of them.
"Partition tile were placed around all the rooms and on three side of the magazine. These tile are 6 by 12 by 12 ", there being a partition in the center dividing them into two parts 41/8 by 41/2", interior measure. They are placed in the concrete about 2 feet from the inner wall, and extend from a trifle below the floor to a foot or two above the ceiling.
At the bottom is a gutter draining into the sewer system. The tile is set over this gutter in mortar and the concrete placed on each side of them. In this way the air spaces run continuously from the top to the gutter below.
Tile 6 by 6 by 12" outside and 41/2 x 41/2" inside are used to cover the top. They are grooved so that one side can be knocked before they are placed in position".
"A damp-proof course or asphalt was placed in the concrete about 2 feet over the magazine extending to the outer edge of the partition tile and having a slight crown. This course was about 1" thick and consisted of 85% per cent pure asphaltum and 15% sand.
The top surfaces were covered with a smooth cement finish about 2" thick and marked off into squares like a sidewalk. In some places this finish cracked along the grooves marked on it causing slight leaks. These leaks were stopped by filling grooves with grout". One of the last items to built is the using of sand on the front and flanks of the lower floor of batteries, the sand was filled in front of the concrete,(Horizontal protection, front of magazine, 15 feet of concrete, 45 feet of sand; equivalent to 30 feet of concrete.- Horizontal protection front of gun, 15 feet of concrete, 40 feet of sand; equivalent to about 28 1/2 feet of concrete- Vertical cover over magazine, 10 feet of concrete) then when a shell was fired at the battery it has been found that a projectile entering a mass of sand appears to have a tendency to deflect upward and to leave the sand with out penetrating very far.
The exception is the blast apron, which is made of concrete, and immediately in front of the gun, they had to be layered very carefully, or the would be blown away. The District Engineer prepared the “transfer drawing" then the Engineer officer and the local Coast Artillery officer, make an inspection of the structure, and if all is in order the keys, are transferred to the Artillery commander. This battery was transferred May 1 1900 at a cost of $32,500.00.
The entire work was completed June 20 1899, so far as can be done until the hoist and base ring are received, and the electric plant, and some of the plumbing, will be soon be completed, but until the standard drawing of the chain ammunition hoist for the 8" gun are issued the emplacement will be left in it present state, until the gun and carriage are received. The hoist arrived and was installed in July of 1901 at the same time a tool room was erected in the reverse slope, racks were provide in the emplacement for rammers, and several other minor changes were made on the switchboard of the electric-lighting plant.
The gun was delivered on Oct 7 1900, and the Carriage Jan 13 1901 to Fort Mason and the base ring was set, and the gun was mounted all was completed in early Feb. 1901.
"Electrification of this battery was furnished from a 5 hp Hornsby-Akroyd horizontal oil engine: De La Vergne Co.; purchased January 10 l900. Which was belted to a 2.62 KW, 125 V D.C current, multi-polar Westinghouse generator, purchased January 10, 1900. There were not any telautograph service or post building lighted from this plant. This plant was not designed for installation of parallel units. No transformers or storage batteries The battery used 1.64 K.W. for lights. Was transferred to Artillery on August 21 1900 at a cost of $1,253.00. The # 9 searchlight was located at Point San Jose. the generator was an independent 25kw, gasoline set located in abandoned Battery West magazine.
Burnham was tied into the same fire command as Slaughter, Sherwood, Baldwin, and Blaney. The Fire Command station was behind and above Sherwood and was an F9. The "Crows Nest" on top of the battery was it B.C.
This battery was connected to water and sewer, with a latrine outside the battery, The Hodges hoist was replaced by a new T/R,. when the new hoist was installed, the winch of the old hoist was removed and installed at the District Radio Station, Fort Scott. The ventilation for this battery was national draft 6" vents from the magazine terminating at rear wall, there was not any telephone in this battery. Trunnion elevation in battery 118.0 Datum M.L.L.W.
The gun and carriage were originally emplaced at this battery, from Aug 21 1900 until 1909,. In 1909, they were removed and remounted Battery Rod, Harbor Defenses of the Columbia. After this battery was closed its ammunition was sent to Battery Slaughter and by 1909 it was complete abandoned (was used for post plumbing shop) with it gun dismounted and carriage removed.
This battery was completed in 1899, but was considered obsolete only eight years later, the first of the Endicott battery to be so regarded in May 1908. The reason for not using this gun was , the character of it armament (8-Inch) and it unimportant field of fire, and did not justify a searchlight or fire stations This battery only saw 8 years of service.