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BATTERY BALDWIN




This Endicott battery was named in GO 105 October 9, 1902, in honor of 2Lt Henry M. Baldwin, Fifth Artillery, who died of wounds received at Cedar Creek, Virginia, on October 19 1864. Lt. Baldwin was born in New Jersey, and appointed from New Jersey. GO 105 Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General Office Oct 9 1902.


 ORDNANCE



This Battery was armed with Two 3-inch rapid fire 15 ponder Model 1898, nos. 73 and 74 manufactured by Diggs Seabury Gun and Ammunition Company, but were modified by Frankford. These guns cost $3,165.00, and were placed 30' apart. It had a range of 15500 yards.

The guns in this battery were mounted Diggs-Seabury (Balanced Pillar Mounts) Model 1898 nos. 73 and 74. This was a unique model that warrants special comment, the 3-inch gun on a carriage known as the Balanced Pillar Mount, operated somewhat in the manner of the large gun lift carriage. This mount consisted of a vertical, telescoping cylinder that allowed the entire gun and carriage to be lowered behind the parapet crest after firing. There were 120 built, and were employed from 1899 to 1905, the original emplacement was 111. The carriage cost $4,250.00.


AMMUNITION SERVICE



As to ammunition storage and service, this battery two Magazines. The movement of ammunition must be very rapid and it is the duty of the Engineer Department to so design it emplacement that each and every step of the ammunition service may be performed with such speed that the ammunition can be carried to the breech of the gun at least as rapidly as it can be loaded into the gun and fired. This gun being 3-inch, the projectiles are ordinarily stored and transported to the gun in the form of complete cartridges , put up in a metallic case much like a cartridge used in a Infantry rifle, theses cartridge weigh so little that they can be moved by hand, with out any mechanical handling, the 3-inch, is always issued to the battery, and shipped to the battery in wooden boxes or cases containing several rounds.(complete rounds without packing weighted 26.70 lbs. or 4 rounds packed in a box weighted 166.8 lbs. and were 3.66 cubic feet, the box s were 43 X 12 1/6 X 12 2/8, in inches, or 61.92 cubic inches. Fixed rounds of ammunition for these guns are packed moisture-resistant fiber containers in wooden packing boxes or without individual containers in sealed metal lined wooden packing boxes. Its storage, therefore consist simply in piling up the boxes in the most convenient arrangement, about 6 boxes high, so they were easy to get down, The projectile are stored in rows along the wall of the shell room. The ammunition sup-ply for this battery was stored in the magazine which was 9 X 15 (there were 2 of them) and were to the left on the lower floor of the guns, held 800. Larger amounts could be put in the shell and power rooms, by stacking higher or closer together.


CONSTRUCTION


As with any battery is to be built in any Engineer district, as much information as may be necessary is sent to the district officer. In May 1900, Instruction had been received to select a site to prepare plans and estimates for the construction of two emplacement for 15-pounder rapid-fire guns on balanced pillar mounts, on May 11 1901 the site was approved and by the end of the fiscal year the plan's were completed.

There was considerable delay was experienced in the selection of the site, three locations being thoroughly examined and abandoned on account of too expensive construction and other objections. A site was finally approved on March 23 1901, and the plans were approved April 11 1901. A provisional allotment of $12,000.00 was made on November 8 1900. Of this $800.00 was withdrawn April 11 1901 and $137.25 expended in the preliminary work leaving $11,062.75 for the construction of the battery.

Construction of this battery began in 1901, In the latter part of April, the grading and clearing of the site, and the road to it put in good condition. In May a temporary tool and cement shed was put up, and the excavation could be started with the removal of approximately 1294 cu yds of dirt and sand. The excavation was in sand to a depth of, from 7ft in the rear to 14ft in the front end in clay of moderate hardness below the sand. The excavation was carried on principally by four-horse scrapper; the clay was loosened with a plow. As the sand extended below the foundation on one corner of the emplacement, the excavation was carried below the grade to the clay and filled in to grade with concrete in the proportion of 1:5:11. The floors were made entirely separate from the wall and the space below them was filled in with sand to grade. The concrete in the emplacement was in proportion of 1:3:6, Portland cement of the "Hemmoor" and "Red Diamond" brands being used, and mixing being done by hand.

Most of the forms had been built by this time, on the timber used in making the forms, in all cases dressed lumber will be used. At this time before the pouring of the concrete all of the iron and steel, in the form of I beams for reinforcing ceilings, and in columns for supporting ceilings, for reinforcing concrete, they used deformed steel bars. The next step is to star pouring the foundation, Now the concrete which was hand mixed, was poured, it used 463 cu yds of con-crete and 1100 lbs of reinforcing steel bar and 286 cu yds of back and top fill. In contrast to earlier batteries, this one was built as separate monoliths in order to guard against unequal setting, and no damp-proof course was placed in the monolith containing the magazines. To date there has been no sign of leakage.

This battery was 67' across the front and 52' in depth and 30' between the guns and was a two story battery, there was also an oil room, approximately 4 x 12, on the left flank of emplacement # 2. From the back of the battery there were steps that descended down a slope to the macadamized road behind the battery from McDowell Ave to the battery, and a fence with a gate constructed, there does not seem to be a guard room or a C.O. room in this battery.

By the end of the fiscal year the work was complete except painting, whitewashing, top dressing, part of the rear slopes, wiring for the electric lights, setting the doors, painting the recesses for the doors, and setting the cylinders. When the structure is completed the district Engineer officer and the local Coast Artillery officer, make an inspection of the structure, and if all are in order the keys, are transferred to the Artillery commander. This battery was completed in 1903, and transferred on December 3 1903 at a cost of $11,119.09.


 POWER


This battery was electrified around December of 1903, it used 0.8 kw, and there were no motors in this battery.


MISCELLANEOUS


Trunnion elevation in battery was 70.9, Datum plane M.L.L.W, battery was connected to water and sewer, but had no latrine. it used a telephone for data transmission, ventilated by natural draft, 6" terra cotta flues from magazines, terminating at rear wall over entrance door.


ABANDONMENT



This battery saw service from October 9 1902 until May 26 1920, these gun were dismounted "Ltr WD. 400.702/445, O of Co. May 26, 1920. Remainder of armament dismantles and salvaged in 1943 under authority contained in letter, Service of Supply, November 19 1943 SPX 662 (November 12 1943) GB-S. SPDDO subject; Proceedings of Local Harbor Defense Board, October 5 1942, Salvage of obsolete Armament. It is near the National Cemetery, and the emplacement was turned over to the Presidio in accordance with an adjustment of the administrative boundary between Fort Scott and the Presidio The perfection of underwater mines made inner-harbor defensive works largely obsolete, so this battery was disarmed in 1920. For many years it was believed that the construction of the Doyle Drive highway approach to the Golden Gate Bridge had destroyed the empty battery, but Cal Tran in July 1995, excavation of the area to remediate lead build up in the area has uncovered the old fortification,. buried at the time, and it looks very intact, this is a real find.



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