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Page 8.

Setting Telemeter

41. The setting of the position of the telemeter prism to

correspond to infinity is carried out by the aid of a rotating

disc fitted with alternate colour filters which are illuminated

from behind, the whole being fixed in the roof of the assembly

shop. The measurement from the lens flange to the centre of

the telemeter actuating roller with the telemeter set at

infinity is 0.750 mms.

Testing of Lenses

42. The Sumitar lenses were tested for definition by

projection at a focal length of 51.68 mm. and were stopped down

to 3.2 aperture throughout the test. The total backward and

forward movement was also checked by a clock coupled to the lens

mount by a pivoted lever movement. The amounts shown by the

clock were very closely checked with the readings of the footage

scale engraved on the focussing mount. The projection test

was in the form of a fine interlaced vertical and horizontal

graticule, interspaced with fine figures and letters which were

compared with a known standard engraved on a vernier attachment

mounted on the screen on to which the image of the graticule

was projected.


Final Test.

43. Each completed camera is tested finally by taking a

number of black and white photographs between 1.25 to 10 metres.

The result is checked with individual lens, a standard speed

film and a metol hydroquinone developer being used. The tests

are compiled for lens performance reference.

Drawing Office

44. The office was well organised and was scrupulously clean.

The equipment appeared to be new and included about 50 drawing

boards, 12 printing machines and the usual accessories. The

filing systems for finished drawings was excellent. The quality

of paper was, of course, poor.

Research and Development.

45. Leitz have a well organised research department with an

impressive staff of scientists, physicists, mathematicians,

optical computors and chemists.

Page 9.


46. The labour is drawn from Wetzlar and neighbouring towns

and the continuity of service helps to ensure a steady skilled

craftsman basis on which the whole works is built. The labour

force, which was nearly 5,000 in early 1939, consists of 2,453

men and 428 women of whom 357 males and 81 females are members

of the staff.

47. The industrial labour force is made up as follows:-


Born Between        Skilled Semi-Skilled Unskilled         Assist-          Apprentices

Years.               Worker.      Worker              Worker              ants.


1875-1922        673             678             158           137

1923-1925         92              25               29            72

1926-1928         63              23                      45                  77

1929-1932           -                  7                       47                   39

1928 and the

following years       ______            ______           _______           _______        256

                                828              733              279            325                  256

                               ______            ______            _______           _______        _____


48. It will be seen that the skilled labour percentage is

very high and the apprentice training scheme is devised to en-

sure a very steady flow of skilled labour.

49. It was very noticeable that men between the ages of 20

and 40 were very few, a fact which of course is attributable

to the War. Of the Leitz employees who were in the fighting

forces 400 were killed and 300 are still prisoners of war.

Working Hours.

50. The factory is at present working a week starting at

6.45 and finishing at 4p.m. with one hour for lunch. The

standard week at Leitz in normal times is 48 hours.

Page 10.


51. A new wage system has recently been introduced, after

agreement with Trade Union, which divides the men in to 8 groups

and the women into 6, each group being graded according to

skill. This grading is carried out by the management in

consultation with the workers' representatives.

52. In each grade the rate is made up of the basic rate, for

which normal (and predetermined) output is required, and an

addition for output about the standard. Details of these

systems are given in Appendices "A" and "B".

53. Wage rates are practically the same as before the War

and are low compared with British standards. Production per

employee is now only 50/60% per hour of pre war and this is

attributed to re-action from War, insufficient food lack

of purchasable goods.

Production and Costs Etc.

54. In November 1946, the production of Leica Cameras was

1100 per month of which 89% was allocated to the American

forces, 6% for French forces and 5% for German sales. A

small proportion of the American 89% was available for the

British forces in exchange for Rolliflex cameras.

55. Although the the camera was in great demand production was

limited owing to shortage of materials, particularly optical

glass. Stocks of brass and other metals appeared to be high.

56. Through the shortage of optical glass, lens manufacture

was confined to the f/3.5 5 cm. (standard) and 3.5 cm. (wide

angle) and the f/4.9 cm. and f/4.5 13.5 cm. lenses.

57. The price of the camera with Elmar f/3.5 5 cm. bloomed

lenses and ever-ready case is now 40% above pre-war price with

an addition of Rm. 30 for these models fitted with ball bearings.

58. This makes the German retail price of the camera as

described Rm. 546.6

59. The body without lens or case would be Rm. 394

Other Products.

60. The main items of production at the time of inspection,

besides the Leica camera, were binoculars, projection apparatus

and microscopes. The microscopes included the H. Powder

Binocular, Students, Panphot and Ortholux.

Page 11.

General Conclusions.

61. The Leitz factory is a well-run happy organisation,

this being due in no small measure to the family nature of the

business and to its importance in the neighbourhood. Discipline

is strict without being severe and one gets the impression of

great interest by employees of every grade in the work being


62. This pride in workmanship and the just pride all have in

their world-wide reputation for quality work is the permeating

spirit of the place and helps greatly to offset apathy caused

by the present dismal state of the country.

63. The products coming from the Leitz works are equal to

any turned out before the war although in some cases the finish

is inferior due to poor materials, especially paints and


64. The team came away with the impression that the Leica

camera is still worthy of its pre-eminent position and that the

skill of the craftsmen is very much in evidence in the Leitz


Page 12/13


No. 18. Dated 30.9.46

Group II - Wage Rates System.

Management Notice.

New Wages System.

After approval by the Works Council, the Metal Trade Union

and the Hessen District Employment Office, Ernst Leitz Ltd. and

W. and H. Seibert put into effect a new wages system from 1st

October 1946.

The New Wages System gives 8 wage groups for Men and 6 for

Women and makes it possible to grade in our factory different

types of work in the order of the skill required to do it.

This ensures a fairer method of payment than the previous


The grading of the works employees into the various Wage

Groups will be carried out by the Departmental Manager, the

Workers representatives and a member of the Time Study Office.

The new rate will be built up on the basic rate (G.L.)

as shown in the attached chart "Wage-Groups with Age-Gradings

for Men and Women". The Basic Rate is the minimum wage

granted by the Company for which it expects normal output. As

output increases so the basic rate is increased by 10%, 20% or

25% as the case may be; if output decreases the basic rate

is reduced by 10% or 20%. The output grading of time workers

will be done by the Departmental Manager in conjunction with

the Workers representative: at fixed intervals the gradings

will be re-examined and, if necessary, adjusted.

After this, the wage of each worker will be confirmed to

him. In addition, the skilled worker will receive 10% , so

that the addition for a skilled man, in Wage Group V with an

output grade of 125% hourly wage, will be 25% + 10% = 35%and

he will, therefore earn Rm 1.00 + 35% = Rm 1.35

The new rate of piece work is based on the piece work

average. The amount of that rate is 15% higher than the

basic rate and normal output is expected. Vf is the calcu-

lating factor, being earnings per minute.

If work of varying skill, i.e. in different wage groups

,is performed and the re-distribution of such work is

impossible or unnecessary, the new wage will be fixed in the

higher wage group.

If it is necessary, in exceptional circumstances to give

a worker work covered by a lower wage group, the time worker

will receive for equal output his average earnings in the

higher grade and the piece worker the calculation factor of the

wage group in which he has done most work.

The highest age stage has now been reduced from 23 years

to 21 years and the classification of age grades has altered


The basic rates for women over 21 years of age have been

assessed at 75% of the corresponding mans rate in the

equivalent wage-group.

In addition to the above the following agreements will be

implemented. "Wage rates for the Iron, Metal & Electro-

industry for the Economic District of Hessen" dated 13.4.38,

clauses VI & IX and "Agreement covering Wage Rates in the Iron,

Metal & Electro-industry of the Economic District of Hessen"

of 1.7.40, clauses 9 to 12.



                                    WAGE-GROUPS WITH AGE-GRADINGS FOR

                                                        MEN AND WOMEN.




Wage groups.             Over 21 years                                 Over 19 to 21 Years

                                               100%                                                      90%


                                            Basic                  Piece                                          Piece

                                            Wage                 Work          Per             Basic      Work              Per

                                          Pfennigs                Average      Minute      Wage      Average         Minute


I)                                       70                 81         1.34            63           72              1.21

II)Unskilled                       77                 89     1.48           69             79                1.32

III)                                       85                 98     1.63          77             89                1.48

IV)Semi-skilled                       92                      106     1.77             83            95                1.59

V)                                     100                      115     1.92             90            104      1.72

VI)Skilled                              107                      123         2.05       96            110              1.84

VII)                                       114                      131     2.18

VIII)Exceptional                    122


Over 17 to 19 years.


                                        Over 18 Years. Under 18 Years.

                                  Basic              Piece          Per          Piece Work          Per

                                  Wage             Work          Minute     Average              Minute


I)                             53           61    1.01             66                     1.10

II)Unskilled             58           67    1.11             73                      1.22

III)                                64           74    1.23             80                      1.33

IV)Semi-skilled             69                   79     1.32             86                      1.43

V) Skilled                     75                    86         1.44             94                     1.57

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