The Gone Birding Newsletter

Vol. 4, No. 3

July 2003



First Record of Greater Ani in Costa Rica

Once again, news of a new species for Costa Rica comes from Tortuguero. Following the sighting of a Large-billed Tern (Phaetusa simplex) that was in the area for several weeks in March, local naturalist guide Daryl Loth sent this report in mid-May:

"Yesterday (18 May 2003) I was starting out on a tour with a couple from Israel. Before reaching the ticket booth at the park entrance I happened to notice some Howler Monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in the trees directly in front of the village (about 25 meters from where I had photographed the Large-Billed Tern). We ended up spending quite a bit of time there because aside from observing some good feeding behaviour with the howlers we also spent some time observing a few Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana), an Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga), a pair of hummingbirds (a Rufous-tailed (Amazilia tzacatl) and a White-necked Jacobin (Florisuga mellivora)) and some Red-lored Parrots (Amazona autumnalis). This area is also frequented by Great-tailed Grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus), which can often be seen flying between this point of land and the village. I hadn't got around to mentioning one of the grackles by name when one of my clients pointed out what looked in passing like a large male perched to our right. Upon focusing my binoculars I was stunned to see that it was in fact a Greater Ani (Crotophaga major)! It was perched and quite still and at about 40-50 meters distant. I moved the boat a bit closer but it decided to move. A few short flaps of its wings and a long glide later, it perched on a branch closer to where we were before! Again I attempted to move closer and this time we had a very good view from about 15 meters. I shared my binoculars with my clients and pointed out the salient features which distinguish this bird from the other anis and the Great-tailed Grackle. A large grooved ridge extending from the base of the top of the beak could clearly be seen. The grooves were much less pronounced than on the Groove-billed Ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris) and this appeared to be not only larger than this related species but also even heavier than the Great-tailed Grackle. The beak also appeared to be more slender top to bottom than either of the other Anis. Entirely black, the shoulders and back were glossed with a green and blue iridescence and the eye was clearly pale and large and more towards green/blue than yellow. Being so close to the village I asked for permission from my clients to quickly return to the house to get my camera. Less than three minutes later we were back in the same place and found the Ani on another perch at perhaps 25 meters distance. I was able to get a couple of shots away using the same technique of putting the camera lens up to the binoculars and trying to focus off the tiny screen on the digital camera. Of course the bird had no idea of the importance of my efforts and flew into some low lying branches toward the south and promptly hopped under cover. It did not come out for the next five minutes which I thought were sufficiently long to use up the polite patience of my clients who came mostly to see monkeys and toucans and not black birds that look to them a lot like a crow.

"It turns out that they were interested enough to come by the house later on in the day to see the photos I had downloaded from the camera and to see a photo which was sent to me by an English birder who was in Brazil and managed to get a decent enough shot of a Greater Ani there. I must remind you that our description was not taken from the out of focus images I'm sending. They are taken from the clear view we had through the binoculars. Upon seeing the image sent to me by Mr. Woolley my two clients could clearly see the features I tried to elucidate when we saw the bird in the morning. I have their names and contact information for future reference."

Thanks Daryl, and congratulations on your discovery! This is yet another example of how digital photography is revolutionizing evidence-gathering for new species records, because in early February, Daryl had this experience:

"I followed a large ani-like bird along the river's edge in the low branches of the Rio Tortuguero on the west side, north of the junction to Caño Harold/Chiquero and going south. In the time that I saw it, it had travelled only fifty meters. I got a very good look at it from less than 10 meters with binoculars. It was scavenging like a Squirrel Cuckoo (Piaya cayana) taking short flights or hops from branch to branch but at a very low level. It was jumping in and out of view only two to three meters above the water. I was struck by the very strong beak and light greenish-blue eye. When I first saw it I immediately thought of an ani but it was considerably larger than the Groove-billed Anis you see so much of around here. I had never seen a Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani) before but what I saw seemed larger than the two inch difference indicated in Stiles and Skutch. In addition, I thought the beak was not more highly-ridged than the Groove-billed Ani but just gave the overall impression of being large, strong and smooth. Of course the eye was very obviously pale. It was making short grating sounds and low pitched squeaks that were quite muted. They didn't seem to be intended for communication. It was almost like it was talking to itself. It never flew above three or four meters even when it crossed the river and continued south. This was spotted at approximately 7:30 am."

You see? What do you do with a report like that, other than file it under "Interesting Reports"? Had there not been rumors already circulating of Greater Ani in Tortuguero, one might not have given too much notice to such an account. Fortunately, the photos from the second sighting (although blurred) together with the reports, make for what should certainly be a valid addition to the Costa Rica bird list.

It is noteworthy that each sighting consisted of a lone individual, when this is typically a gregarious species. The riparian habitat at Tortuguero, however, fits quite nicely with the requirements of Greater Ani and it will be exciting to see what happens with this species' presence in the future.



Crusts of Bread, and such, for Green Herons

Not surprisingly, Daryl Loth's account of observations on the feeding behavior of a Green Heron (Butorides virescens), which was reported in the previous newsletter, generated several responses from readers.

Chris Fagyal posted the story on a birding listserver and "received several very interesting responses, most of [which] were stories relating instances of similar behaviour. Several people have witnessed Green Herons as well as Striated Herons (B. striatus) doing similiar things, especially in areas populated by tourists which throw bread for the birds, where the herons would use the bread as "bait". One instance of this was actually observed at the little stream behind Villa Lapas, where it was relayed to me that a few kids at the hotel were throwing bread bits for the heron. The heron subsequently picked up a larger piece of bread, broke it into two pieces, stashed the larger piece on the log it was standing on, and then placed the smaller piece in the water, retrieving it and replacing it when it was close to being out of reach. It then waited for a minnow to approach the bread and then snatched the minnow in one quick motion.

"Apparently this behaviour has also been witnessed in Florida and was actually filmed by the BBC for inclusion in 'Predators Programme Part 6, Natural Borne Killers.'"

And Simon Tickle sent word that in March 1999 he "also observed similar behaviour by a Green Heron, in Barbados.

"At The Graham Hall Swamp Reserve in the southwest of the island of Barbados, there is an area of mangroves with an open lake. A number of tarpon have become trapped in the lake after being cut off from the sea and have become a favourite with visitors to the reserve for their dramatic feeding habits. Visitors can buy fish pellets to feed the tarpon. A Green Heron that had been resident and well known to the reserve staff, was in the habit of using these pellets to attract smaller fish within striking distance. The heron would use a pellet that had escaped the attentions of the tarpon and would retrieve it each time it floated out of it's strike zone."



Bat Falcon Adds Diversity to Diet

In early July, while birding at the Arenal Observatory Lodge, Paco Madrigal observed a Bat Falcon (Falco rufigularis) feeding on fruits! Paco watched the bird make a total of 12 flights to different branches of a large isolated tree in a pasture. At first, Paco thought that the small falcon might be capturing insects in the tree, especially as he had already noticed "a plague of locusts" in the general area that were devouring the leaves of some of the Cecropia trees. However, after examining the tree from various angles using both binoculars and telescope, he realized that there didn't seem to be any potential food in the tree other than relatively small green fruits ("smaller than a cherry"). Rather than returning to a perch after each pass at a branch of the tree, the Bat Falcon remained on the wing.

This report of such seemingly strange behavior for a falcon, brought to mind an article by Leo Chaves, published in Zeledonia (November 2000), in which Leo described his observations of a group of 15 Swallow-tailed Kites (Elanoides forficatus) that were circling a fairly large tree and swooping down to pluck small fruits from it with their feet. Curiously, this case of frugivory by a raptor also occured in the same area, near the Arenal Dam. Leo's experience took place on 19 February 1999. By taking a sample of the fruit to the National Museum, he was able to identify the tree as a member of the genus Sapium (Euphorbiaceae), locally known as Yos. While the nutritious arils of this genus are known to be fed on by numerous species of fruit-eating birds, this was the first report of kites also consuming the oily seed covering.

Leo's research for the article, and additional personal observations, revealed that Swallow-tailed Kites have also been known to feed on the fruits of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae), known as Nance, and Matayba oppositifolia (Sapindaceae). He also came across references of the following genera of raptors that have been seen eating fruit: Milvus, Gypohierax, Polyboroides, Ibycter (formerly Daptrius), and Milvago. Most of these are prone to eat carrion in their normal diets.

As Paco suggested in his correspondence, perhaps the Bat Falcon was eating the fruits for "medicinal reasons," much as a dog eats grass when it's not feeling well. Or maybe due to inclement weather insects weren't flying, and therefore the Bat Falcon's principal prey items (swallows, swifts, and bats) weren't flying either. Although it is worth noting that most mammalian carnivores here in the tropics are known to consume significant quantities of fruits because they are high in energy and easily digested, as well as readily available. In fact, that's the whole point of the evolution of the "packaging and marketing" of fruit: to be attractive and easy to harvest. It's possible that both the abovementioned Bat Falcon and Swallow-tailed Kites were simply taking advantage of an easy food source.

It will be most appreciated if any of you readers can cite further cases of raptors feeding on fruits.

[By the way, if you happened to click on the above link to my photo of a Bat Falcon, you likely noticed that the throat and sides of the neck were quite orange. The color is slightly exaggerated by the fact that the picture was taken very near sunset, thus giving everything a somewhat reddish light. Nonetheless, that bird, like so many others here in Costa Rica, did have a pale rufous wash to the feathers that in the illustration in the field guide are shown immaculate white. When seeing a bird like this in the field and consulting the plates, the logical conclusion would be Orange-breasted Falcon (Falco deiroleucus).

Over the years, I can't think of any other species for which I've heard more "rare bird reports" than Orange-breasted Falcon -- and not a single one of them has been substaniated. In fact, they have all inevitably turned out to be Bat Falcons with rusty tinges to the throat and neck feathers. (Fortunately, Bat Falcons often frequent an area for a long enough period of time to make such assessment possible!)

So, exercise caution (i.e., read the field guide, don't just look at the illustrations) when confronted with an "orange-breasted" falcon here in Costa Rica. Actually, an Orange-breasted Falcon would have a white throat, not the orangish ones that so many of our Bat Falcons show. Also, the feet of an Orange-breasted Falcon should look quite large, though that's a relative comparison that can only be made when one is quite familiar with Bat Falcons.]



More on Motmots

In response to the reports of Keel-billed Motmot (Electron carinatum) sightings near the Arenal Dam, as mentioned in the previous GBN, Leo Chaves sent a message saying that he also saw the bird in that area in January 2003. His sighting was about 100m up the gravel road from the main road (just before the beginning of the earthen dam if coming from La Fortuna). The motmot was perched in a Cecropia, just three meters away from a Broad-billed Motmot (E. platyrhynchum)! "The differences were obvious. I watched it for 15 minutes with a telescope and in good light."

(The gravel road, where these sightings have taken place, is the road that connects to the Arenal Volcano NP rangers' accomodations, and is known as "La Peninsula," should you happen to be in the area and want to go searching for this rare motmot.)

Additionally, Paco Madrigal made good on his word to send us a photo of the bird he saw there earlier this year. Wilson Hsu, who was a member of the group from Taiwan that Paco was leading, took this excellent photo.



Possible Spot-tailed Nightjar Sighting in Northern Puntarenas Province

Unfortunately, there isn't complete certainty of what Eduardo Amengual and Robert Dean saw one evening early this year as they were returning to Monteverde, but I present the following report both so that other birders will be alert to the possibility and also simply because it's a tale that most of us can relate to in terms of rare bird sightings. Here's Eduardo's description of the bird they observed on 26 January 2003 along the road between Sardinal and Guacimal (road to Monteverde), at about 350 meters above sea level, at 18:30, after it was already dark:

"Various Common Pauraques (Nyctidromus albicollis) had been seen on the road before we found something different. The first thing that caught our attention and made us stop the car was the distinct iris color—pale green, instead of the red of a pauraque. Looking at the bird with binoculars, it was evident that it wasn't a pauraque. It was much smaller with a generally darker color. Our first thoughts were Whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus vociferus) or White-tailed Nightjar (C. cayennensis), both smaller. As we got closer we became certain that the bird was different and not one of the species known from Costa Rica. Seen laterally, the bird was very small and dark, with a pale buff stripe above the wings, on the back, and a noticeable pale buff superciliary that was long and quite wide. Seen head-on, the bird showed a marked contrast between the very dark crown and the pale superciliaries, very large eyes, no obvious white on the throat, breast irregularly colored without any obvious design (e.g. spots), and belly finely barred. The pattern made us think more of an Australian Owlet-Nightjar (Aegotheles cristatus) than of any Costa Rican nightjar. That's how surprising it's aspect was.

"It made periodic short flights to a nearby streetlight in pursuit of insects, allowing us to observe that it had no stripes or spots on the wings (uniform pattern). Nor did it show white or spots on the corners or sides of the tail. Occasionally, it emitted a suip-suip in flight. We watched the bird for about five minutes.

"The rest of the way to Monteverde our heads were spinning with thoughts of, "What the devil could it have been?" Arriving home, I said "Hola" to Patricia and the baby, and headed straight to my books in search of answers. For quite a while, nothing seemed to concur with what we had seen. In the Panama guide I found a referrence to a species that might possibly show up there, according to Ridgely: Spot-tailed Nightjar (Caprimulgus maculicaudus), a species that "breeds in southern Mexicoand probably also in eastern Nicaragua (where apparently absent in "winter"), . . . and is recorded widely in South America." However, as there was no illustration, I began to look elsewhere. I pulled Volume 5 of Handbook of the Birds of the World off the shelf, looked in the index, and when I turned to the plate of Spot-tailed Nightjar, I froze. The drawing was very, very similar to our bird. The photo of the bird likewise bore an extreme resemblance. The habitat described in the handbook also coincided with the site of our observation—an open field with scattered trees. I reached for the phone and called Robert, saying, "Open the handbook to plate 30 and tell me what you see." His response was immediate, "It's the bloody thing!!" Other illustrations that we have now seen in other books are also very similar.

"In summation, I think it very probable that our bird was a female Spot-tailed Nightjar, which has no white in the tail. Although, as Rafa Campos told us, we'd need a specimen to be 100% sure. So there you have it, the typical sighting that drives you half crazy and you'll never be totally certain of what you saw!"




Dr. Skutch Visits an Otorhinolaryngologist 

There's good news for anyone who may be planning to pay Dr. Alexander Skutch a visit at his farm, Los Cusingos, in the near future. As you may know, Dr. Skutch's hearing has been severely limited for the last few years, making conversation with him very difficult. Fortunately, he recently agreed to visit an ear specialist in San Isidro de El General and had his ear canals cleaned, which apparently helped his hearing immediately. Nonetheless, hearing aids are still recommended to allow him to hear even better.

That news was passed along to me by Walter Odio of Selva Mar Tours in San Isidro. I then contacted Rosa Elena Montero of the Tropical Science Center, the NGO that oversees Los Cusingos. She confirmed the news that they are analyzing ways of financing the purchase of the hearing aids (the best quality ones cost approximately US$5,000). Although, I still don't know if asking for donations will be necessary, anyone who would be interested in the possibility of contributing can contact me for more details.




Spring Migration Slipped Quietly By

Following the publication of the April GBN, I didn't hear much in the way of rare migrant reports. However, there were a few noteworthy sightings to pass along.

Freddy Madrigal saw a Black-whiskered Vireo (Vireo altiloquus), on 20 April 03, while birding at Rancho Naturalista. The bird was in a flock with Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus), Yellow-green Vireos (Vireo flavoviridis), Scarlet Tanagers (Piranga olivacea) and Hepatic Tanagers (Piranga flava).

Apparently, a Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii) turned up in the nets of the bird monitoring program at Tortuguero, though the info that reached me was second or third hand.

At the opposite extreme of the country, Cagan Sekercioglu was doing thesis work at Las Cruces (a.k.a. the Wilson Botanical Garden) and turned up some surprises in the mist nets. [In the last newsletter, I described Cagan as "a visiting Turkish birder," however, I subsequently discovered that he is also a conservation biologist, who was here working on an on-going study of forest fragmentation in association with Dr. Paul Ehrlich and Dr. Gretchen Daily of Stanford's Center for Conservation Biology.]

On 17 February 2003, two male Ruby-throated Hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) were mistnetted. Though not unheard of so far south, this is definitely reaching the limits of their normal wintering range.

On 09 March 2003, a Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) was caught.

On 01 April 2003, a male Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris) flew into the nets. Neither this nor the preceeding species were on the existing Las Cruces bird list, though Jim Zook tells me that he has seen them in the area during his censusing work.

In his work, Cagan also came across some interesting nonmigrants worth noting. On 20 February 2003, he mistnetted a female Green-breasted (?) Mango (Anthracothorax prevostii) and commented, "This is an interesting one. The median line is blue-green up to the throat and then turns black. In the drawing of the female Veraguan Mango (A. veraguensis) in the Handbook of the Birds of the World and Birds of Panama, the black stripe does not reach the lower mandible. I don't know, however, if this is a definitive characteristic." . . . And so the mystery continues as to just which species of mango hummingbird is in the southwestern portion of Costa Rica.

On 15 February 2003, between 5:20 and 5:40 AM, Cagan videotaped a Short-tailed Nighthawk (Lurocalis semitorquatus) flying over the Wilson Botanical Garden (about 1200 m elevation), foraging and calling. This species was not on the Las Cruces list, either.

On 25 August 2002 (sic), a
Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Phaeomyias murina) was mistnetted, representing what is probably only the third time this species had been mistnetted in Costa Rica. Jim Zook made the initial discovery of this species for the country when one turned up in his nets near Palmares de Peréz Zeledón in November 1996. Jim also informed me that about three years ago, while working on a Cherrie's Tanager (Ramphocelus costaricensis) project, Terry Krueger of the University of Miami netted one of these tyrannulets in an area of coffee fields and charral near the Wilson Gardens.

Of course, life can't be all work and no play, so Cagan also took some time off to go birding elsewhere in Costa Rica. In addition to the sightings mentioned in the April newsletter, it turns out that on 22 January 2003 he was fortunate enough to see, and even videotape, a Strong-billed Woodcreeper (Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus) near point 10 on the Las Palmas Trail, behind the Quebrada Gonzalez Ranger Station in Braulio Carrillo NP.



An Altitudinal Record for Green Kingfisher

Mark W. Larson, President of the Seven Mountains Audubon Society of Lewisburg, PA, was leading a birding group here in June. One of their stops was the Chacon's at San Gerardo de Dota. "While there, we observed a Green Kingfisher (Chloroceryle americana) perched on the headgate of the trout pond nearest their bridge over the Rio Savegre. Interestingly, this common species is not listed on Marino's checklist for that area. Perhaps the altitude is too great normally despite the abundance of prey."

An odd coincidence is that I was standing looking at that same trout pond on 20 June, in the company of Lou and Mary Hegedus, when Lou asked about kingfishers. My reply was that even though it would seem as if there were easy pickin's -- between trout in the river and in numerous ponds all along that stretch of the valley -- I'd never seen, nor heard of, any species of kingfisher there. So, it will be interesting to see if the kingfisher stays around to take advantage of the plentiful food supply and if more join it to add to the list of lowland species that have found a nice home in that pretty little highland valley.



Mystery Bird Photo Quiz

The mystery bird photo in the previous newsletter produced a record number of correct responses: 21 in all! Congratulations to Carson Wade, Jenny Lynn Smith, Tim Fitzpatrick, Janet Baker, Ernesto Carman, Freddy Madrigal, Jimmy Trejos, the Biro family (Michael, Elena & 11-year-old Sophia), Lori Conrad, Leo Chaves, William A. Tice, Bruce Young, Jan Cubilla, William Granados, Alfredo Scott, Ruth Marie Lyons, Charlie Gómez, Ray Belding, and Jim Zook, all of whom were able to identify the Semiplumbeous Hawk (Leucopternis semiplumbea) without having to see its face.

Even though people apparently had little difficulty with that quiz photo, I have to admit that I think the following comments sent in by Carson Wade are quite valid:

"When we see a bird in the field, we use a lot of intuition and "unclassified experiential background" in our identification. When the bird is silent, not moving, and in one fixed position on a two-dimensional surface, without even a very definite size comparison available, we switch to a more intellectual, "left-brained" identification. The "essence" of the thing (I personally hate the word "jizz," or whatever it is; won’t use it!) is gone, and we are left with what I’ll call a "Lawyer’s View"! (How do you like that?!?) Meaning, of course, that all our reasoning has to be mathematical, as opposed to our, let’s see, "Poet’s Views" in the field; if you get my drift.

"Because, good view or bad view, a view in the field is all-through-us; our entire psyche is engaged in the thrill of discovery. In identifying a Mystery Bird in the Newsletter, all of that energy is waiting, as I said, like a little boy in the sidelines, as the brain and only the brain computes the data and pronounces its verdict."

Maybe one day I'll move up to digital video to give the right side of the brain more of a chance. Meanwhile, you'll just have to do what you can with the left side, as for example in this edition's quiz image. At this time of year we often see some strange-looking avian individuals. Between recently fledged immature birds and molting adults, one can come across some aspects that just aren't illustrated in the field guide (though reading the text can usually help!). If you saw this bird, would you know what you were looking at?

The answer will be announced in the October 2003 newsletter.



Bird Geography Quiz

Regular readers of the GBN will probably have noticed that I'm nearly as fascinated by news of common birds showing up out of their "normal" range (e.g., the Green Kingfisher seen at Savegre, as mentioned above) as I am by rare sightings and new country records. In part, this bird biogeography comes into play in the mental list we keep of the species seen at a given site. And every site seems to have its own slightly unique subset of species, while at the same time many bird species are quite limited in their geographic distribution.

So, with this edition I'd like to inaugurate a new quiz section. The idea of this geography quiz will be to list five birds and see how many readers can guess the actual site -- or at least come close in terms of naming the region of Costa Rica -- where they occur together.

The following five species were seen on 05 June 2003, along the same trail within 200 meters of each other. Where could I have been?

Scaly-throated Foliage-gleaner (Anabacerthia variegaticeps)

Slaty-capped Flycatcher (Leptopogon superciliaris)

Red-crowned Ant-Tanager (Habia rubica)

Elegant Euphonia (Euphonia elegantissima)

Sooty-faced Finch (Lysurus crassirostris)

I'll look forward to your answers!



Thanks to everyone who contributed news of rare sightings and good finds. I hope that you've enjoyed this newsletter and welcome any comments at or if you're in Costa Rica, feel free to give me a ring at 293-2710.

Wishing you all great birding,

Richard Garrigues



April 2003

Large-billed Tern, Green Heron, Golden-cheeked Warbler, Yellow-rumped Warbler, Keel-billed Motmot, Red-throated Caracara, Pheasant Cuckoo, Wattled Jacana, Tropical Mockingbird

January 2003

Christmas Bird Count results, Southern Lapwing , Short-tailed Nighthawk, Lanceolated Monklet , Sunbittern, Magnolia Warbler, Prevost's Ground-Sparrow, Tricolored Munia

October 2002

Golden-cheeked Warbler, Migrant monitoring, Southern Lapwing, Harpy Eagle, Violaceous Quail-Dove,Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch, Rusty Sparrow

July 2002

Dr. Skutch update, Veraguan Mango, Pearl Kite, Red-breasted Blackbird, Tody Motmot, Mourning Dove, Red Knot, Pinnated Bittern, Black-and-white Owl

April 2002

Harpy Eagle, American Avocet, Pacific Golden Plover, Ruff, Cave Swallow, Southern Lapwing, South Polar Skua, Maroon-chested Ground-Dove

January 2002

Southern Lapwing, White Tern, Chipping Sparrow, Black-headed Grosbeak, Ash-throated Flycatcher, Migrant warblers, hummers and more hummers

October 2001

South Polar Skua, Pomarine Jaeger, Sharpbill, Long-billed Curlew, Lovely Cotinga, Black-banded Woodcreeper, Blue-and-yellow Macaw, White-tipped Sicklebill, Bicolored Hawk, Lanceolated Monklet

July 2001

South Polar Skua, Silvery-fronted Tapaculo, Scaled Antpitta, Pearl Kite, Scarlet Macaw, Mystery hummers, White-eyed Vireo, Nashville Warbler, Masked Duck

April 2001

Crested Oropendola, Rosy Thrush-Tanager, Wattled Jacana, Brown-throated Parakeet, Lanceolated Monklet, Black-banded Woodcreeper, Lovely Cotinga, Cinnamon Teal, Silvery-throated Jay, Migrant wood-warblers, Violaceous Quail-Dove

January 2001

Crested Oropendola, Lark Sparrow, Oilbird, Double-striped Thick-knee, Pheasant Cuckoo, Y2K CBCs, Ochre-breasted Antpitta, Crested Eagle, Rufous-necked Wood-Rail

October 2000

first migrants and rare warblers, disappearing migrant shorebird habitat, Mallard (sic), Rufous-necked Wood-Rail, Scaled Antpitta, Black-and-white Owl

July 2000

Blue-tailed Hummingbird, Prairie Warbler, Tiny Hawk, Red-throated Caracara, Western Slaty-Antshrike, Red-breasted Blackbird, Clapper Rail, Swallow-tailed Gull

April 2000

Green-winged Teal, Painted Bunting, Green Ibis, Western Slaty-Antshrike, Pearl Kite, Southern Lapwing, Lanceolated Monklet