Cross-Tabulation Tables

One questionnaire item’s answers as viewed by or compared to another questionnaire items’ answers.

For example, in the first table below we see that of the item that Joseph Smith was inspired by God,  79 of the L.D.S. said they had a conviction of “Very Strong” which was 72% of the total L.D.S.

In the second table the relatively small numbers in each separate denomination other than L.D.S. make conclusions based on them questionable.  Thus it might seem that 100% of the Lutherans, of whom there was 1 in the study, were active.  Can we conclude, then, that of Lutheran scientists more were active in their church than LDS were in theirs? No, but looking at the table as a whole we can get an accurate impression that where the study scientists have stated a religion, they are more likely than not to be active in it.  We can also conclude that LDS scientists are almost always active in their church, since in this category we have relatively large numbers showing the picture.

CONVICTION THAT JOSEPH SMITH, JR. WAS INSPIRED BY GOD

IN THE L.D.S. CHURCH   FORMATION, BY DENOMINATION

 No Such Weak Strong Very Strong Fair Total L.D.S. 5 5 15      14% 79         73% 4 108 None 18 1 1 20 Catholic 1 1 Methodist 5 1 6 Orthodox 1 1 Baptist 2 1 1 4 Lutheran 1 1 Others 2 1 13 Total 45 7 15 154

WHETHER ACTIVE IN CHURCH, BY DENOMINATION

 LDS NONE CATH METH ORTH BAPT LUTH Rest TOTAL Active? No 13 19 1 3 1 7 44 Yes 94  88% 1 3 1 3 1 6 109 1 1 Total 107 20 1 6 1 4 1 13 153

WHETHER ACTIVE BETWEEN AGES 18-24, BY DENOMINATION

 LDS NONE CATH METH ORTH BAPT LUTH Rest TOTAL No 18 18 1 3 3 1 12 56 Yes 89 82% 2 3 1 1 1 97 Other 1 1 Total 108 20 1 6 1 4 1 13 154

The table above clearly shows a high level of youthful activity in their church by LDS scientists, 82%.   Since these also showed 86% with strong or very strong belief in Jesus as divine, their religious conviction was almost overwhelmingly related to their church activity during college undergraduate years.  There is much less religious activity in college years by scientists of the other denominations and also smaller, though substantial we would say, percentages with conviction that Jesus is divine.  Again, the relatively small numbers of other denominations make comparisons shaky from this particular data.

ACTIVE BY DENOMINATION, BY CONVICTION THAT JESUS WAS THE DIVINE SON OF GOD

 Conviction Active LDS NONE CATH METH ORTH BAPT LUTH Rest Total No Such No 5 16 1 6 28 Yes 1 1 1 3 Total 6 17 2 6 31 Other Yes 1 1 Total 1 2 Weak No 2 1 3 Total 2 1 3 Strong No 3 1 1 5 Yes 13 1 1 15 Total 16 1 1 1 1 20 Very Strong No 2 1 1 4 Yes 74 2 1 2 1 3 83 Total 76 3 1 2 1 4 87 Fair No 1 2 1 4 Yes 6 1 7 Total 7 2 1 1 11

BELIEVE THAT UTAH’S LEAD IS ATTRIBUTABLE TO LDS INFLUENCE, BY DENOMINATION

 LDS NONE CATH METH ORTH BAPT LUTH Rest Total No 12 14 1 3 1 1 1 7 40 Yes 92 85% 6 3 3 6 110 No Opinion 3 3 Other 1 1 Total 108 20 1 6 1 4 1 13 154

 No Yes No Opinion Some Total LDS 13    12% 74       68% 1 20  18.5% 108 None 18 2 20 Catholic 1 1 Methodist 2 3 1 6 Orthodox 1 1 Baptist 2 2 4 Lutheran 1 1 Others 4 3 2 4 13 Total 40 86 4 24 154

BELIEF IN JESUS AS DIVINE BY CHURCH MEMBERSHIP OF STUDY SCIENTISTS

 None Other Weak Strong Very Strong Fair Total LDS 6 2 16   15% 77   71% 7 108 None 17 1 2 20 Catholic 1 1 Methodist 2 1 3 6 Orthodox 1 1 Baptist 1 2 1 4 Lutheran 1 1 Others 6 1 1 4 1 13 Total 31 1 3 20 88 11 154

HARMONIZING OF RELIGION AND SCIENCE, BY CHURCH MEMBERSHIP OF STUDY SCIENTISTS

 No Yes No Opinion Other Answer Some Partially Total LDS 8 78  72% 5 2 15  14% 108 None 7 1 10 1 1 20 Catholic 1 1 Methodist 1 4 1 6 Orthodox 1 1 Baptist 2 2 4 Lutheran 1 1 Others 2 9 1 1 13 Total 18 96 15 2 2 21 154

SCIENCE GIVEN MAJOR ROLE IN ALL CONVICTIONS, BY BELIEF IN JOSEPH SMITH

AS INSPIRED IN THE FORMATION OF THE MORMON CHURCH

 No such Weak Strong Very Strong Fair Total No 10 1 34     42% 3 48 Yes 30 7 13    86% 32     38% 3 85 No Opin 2 1 4 1 8 Other 3 10 13 Total 45 7 15 80 7 154

SCIENCE MINOR ROLE IN CONVICTIONS, BY BELIEF IN JOSEPH SMITH AS INSPIRED

 No Weak Strong Very Strong Fair Total No 29 4 6 41     51% 3 83 Yes 7 3 3 32    40% 3 48 No Opin 7 6 3 1 17 Other 2 3 5 Total 45 7 15 80 7 154

BELIEF IN JESUS AS DIVINE, BY CHURCH MEMBERSHIP OF STUDY SCIENTISTS

 None Other Weak Strong Very Strong Fair Total LDS 6 2 16   15% 77    71% 7 108 None 17 1 2 20 Catholic 1 1 Methodist 2 1 3 6 Orthodox 1 1 Baptist 1 2 1 4 Lutheran 1 1 Others 6 1 1 4 1 13

SCIENTISTS VIEWS OF THE LDS CHURCH AS AN INSTITUTION FOR HUMAN WELFARE,

BY CHURCH MEMBERSHIP OF STUDY SCIENTISTS

 Favorable No Opinion Other Views Indifferent Antagonist Total LDS 105  97% 1 1 108 None 8 2 2 5 3 20 Catholic 1 1 Methodist 6 6 Orthodox 1 1 Baptist 4 4 Lutheran 1 1 Others 7 2 1 2 1 13 Total 132  88% 5 3 8 6 154

HARMONIZING OF RELIGION AND SCIENCE, BY CHURCH MEMBERSHIP OF STUDY SCIENTISTS

 No Yes No Opinion Other Answer Some Partially Total LDS 8 78  72% 5 2 15  14% 108 None 7 1 10 1 1 20 Catholic 1 1 Methodist 1 4 1 6 Orthodox 1 1 Baptist 2 2 4 Lutheran 1 1 Others 2 9 1 1 13 Total 18 96 15 2 2 21 154

Tables of Fields not included here because of size

The tables of the scientists’ data as related to their fields of science although available in SPSS from the returns of the study are not printed out in this document because of their large size.  However, some observations from them are as follows:

Study Scientists, by Religion and State of Birth

Of the 108 LDS study scientists, 64.8% were born in Utah, 12% in Idaho, 7.4% in California, 3.7% in Wyoming, and the rest in other states across the nation.

Of the “No Church” study scientists, which were 13.4% of the study scientists, 25% were born in Utah, 10% in Washington, 10% in New Jersey, and the rest in a scattering of states across the nation.

The study scientists of all other church memberships were born in various states except all southern states but Virginia (3.8%), Missouri (7.6%), and Arkansas (3.8%).

Study Scientists’ field of Science, By Joseph Smith as Inspired by God.

The largest percentage of these “Strong” and “Very Strong” conviction that Joseph Smith as inspired by God were in Chemistry (19%), next were in Engineering (10%), next Physics (8.4%), next Soil Chemistry (6%), and next Geology (4.8%).

Of those with “No Such Conviction” (which would have included almost all non LDS), the largest percentage (17.7%) were in Biology.  Next were those in Pharmacology (11%), Ecology (8.8%), and General Experimental Medicine (6.6%).  Others were scattered thinly over the spectrum of fields.

Agree that evolution was probably a method of God in creating Man, by fields of study scientists with “Strong” and “Very strong” LDS conviction that Joseph Smith was inspired by God.

LDS with either “Strong” or “Very Strong” conviction that Joseph Smith was inspired by God in the formation of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and also agreeing that evolution was probably God’s process, are spread over 22 fields of science, usually with 1 or 2 in each of the fields represented.

There were a total of 41 in this category, the belief in this process of evolution, over all fields, or 49.4% of the total with “Strong” and “Very Strong” conviction that Joseph Smith as inspired by God in the formation of the LDS Church. (This includes those who agreed “Tentatively”.)

The field with the most in this category, 21%, is Chemistry.  Next with 9.7% was Physics, then Ecology, 7.3%, Geology, 7.3%, and 4.8% each for Biochemistry and Entomology.

Of those LDS with “Strong” and “Very Strong” convictions that Joseph Smith was inspired who do not believe in “Evolution” (but in “Special Creation”), the field with largest percentages was engineers with 21%.  Next were chemists with 9.3%, then biochemists and soil chemists with 6.9% each, and then with 4.6% each were agriculturists, computer scientists, organic chemists, plant pathologists, and physicists.

There were a total of 55 in this category of special creationists, which is 66% of the total “Strong” or “Very Strong” conviction that Joseph Smith was inspired by God in the formation of the Church. (Included those who agreed Tentatively)

On the pro-evolution item, those indicating “No Opinion” were 17%.  With “Other” opinions than choices listed were 31%, 7.3% biologists and 7.3% chemists and 4.8% physicists.  Those “Other” opinion were usually not written in by the scientists and are not in the report.

There were 14 among the evolution set indicated in the heading stating “Tentative Agreement” with evolution.  Ten of the agreement with “Special Creation” were “Tentative”.

The word “evolutionist” as used here with the “Strong” and “Very Strong” Mormons, as shown by their questionnaire answers, means one who agrees that evolution was a process of God in creating man.  It does not mean evolution by only chance and survival of the fittest, which is the questionnaire choice typical of the scientists stating no religious membership or activity.  “Evolution” as used here thus includes facts and theories of “intelligent design” in the development of living things over millions of years.

The term “special creation” as used in the questionnaire, and commonly used in the current controversies involving schools and churches, is clearly “anti-evolution” and is thus distinct from evolution as defined in either sense above, either the “chance only” or the “intelligent design” theories.

We use the word “theory” in its scientific meaning, namely, high probability from accumulation of all known facts with substantially reliable predictive power achieved by extensive objective testing and verifying or rejecting of competing hypotheses.  “Theory” is not used here in the common lay sense of speculation, nor as a distinction from the word “practice”.

That the researcher of these studies over the past sixty years will repeat the study for the next edition of American Men and Women of Science is not likely.  We hope that some other researcher will carry on such studies, and we, while available, will be glad to help in any way we can.

Readers with questions or comments about these studies are cordially invited to communicate with the researcher at RTW7555@cs.com