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what is cinco de mayo

What is Cinco de Mayo?

Cinco de Mayo is a day of celebration in Mexico as it commemorates the Mexican army's unpredicted victory over the French soldiers in the Battle of Puebla that occurred on May 5, 1862. Cinco de Mayo means "Fifth of May" in Spanish. Below you can read other facts about Cinco de Mayo.

Table of Contents

Mexico is Culture, Geography and Political Frustration
Mexican Culture is Priceless and Timeless
Pre-17th Century Mexico
Mexico is Central American Geography
Mexicans are Americans
Post-17th Century History

Interweaving the Battle Players

Quiet, desperate hope for Ethic-less Aristocrats

The Marquis de Radepont
President Andrew Johnson
The "Civil War's North
The "Civil War's South
The Corwin Treaty #2
Benito Juarez
Juarista General Ignacio Zaragoza:
The Mexican Aristocracy:
The Mexican peasantry
Santa Anna


Why Attack Mexico 7
a) It had a history of dictator 8
b) Previous Mexican Presidents had borrowed millions of dollars 8
c) The Mexican military forces 8
d) The United States 8


"Poor France and the U. S.'s South" 12
A demonstration of Mexican honor! 13
Your author's resume 15


Many books have been written on Mexico, others on Napoleon III, one in Spanish about Cinco de Mayo, and others on battles throughout the world.

This booklet's author is a business consultant, teacher and researcher. Upon subtle suggestion from Librarian Joseph Cajero, at Harmon Library, Phoenix, Az., "Since you like to research a lot [to write business books], we could use a booklet in English on the Cinco de Mayo.

At that time, (May 3, 1992) I knew only that Cinco de Mayo was celebrated as a Mexican national holiday; I knew nothing else about it. While researching this special day, May 5, 1862. I became acquainted with events and people related to this historic battle at Puebla, Mexico. To guide readers of this booklet, I have chosen to add in this preface, my intent, slant, reason for writing, et al.

I take the stance that many individuals and groups had a direct influence on the battle at Puebla. For historic perspective, a magazine article provided by Mr. Cajero prompted my further study as I examined books about Napoleon in Mexico.

Some readers, especially educators, might feel I stretch reasoning as I "tie together" people and events to this single day in Mexico's history. Other readers, however, may feel certain people, events or consequences were not represented that should be. All authors must (and I do), hold themselves responsible for the slant, representations, suppositions and hypotheses reached in their books, magazine articles, et al. I therefore am solely responsible for the conclusions reached within this booklet.

It might be that a traveler (to 22 nations, [several visits to Mexico] and 36 states, and a teacher for a fair part of the past 25 years, would reasonably reach the conclusions discussed in this paper. Your author is this traveler and teacher.

As is listed in the POST SCRIPT, the author has other books on business and psychology being edited, that might also interest the reader. Your author is currently working with acquisitions and initiating businesses in Mexico during the writing of this booklet.

This capitalistic activity may color this booklet but it is unlikely. Your book's author felt it necessary to divulge his slants and current interest in Mexico. Ref: Napoleon in Mexico, p.77, 5th para. (2) pg 16, 24, s5.

Pre-17th Century Mexico

Mexico's founders, like other nations' founders, include explorers. Unfortunately, many of these courageous men (few women were either permitted to do things on their own or were given credit for their discoveries) weren't Mexican or pure Indian. Mexico's heritage includes explorers and conquerors who were native Indians, Spaniards and others of inconclusive ancestry.

It is known that of the Indians who first populated the United States and then Mexico, some were involved in a natural earth-oriented (agrarian) existence while others were warmongers (pillagers). Nevertheless, these pillagers continued an Indian way of life, alien to the non-hedonistic cultures of the Anglos that arrived with the European boats that brought Spaniards and other Catholic heritage cultures and races.

These explorers included caravans of French, Spanish and Austrian "warlords." Spain's role in Mexico includes negative exploitation of Mexican natives. Spaniards so penetrated Mexico's various regions that Mexico's "native tongue" became an amalgamation of various Indian languages; Spanish, some English and tailings from other visitors-turned-residents.

Mexico is American Geography

Your author has met many people proudly calling themselves Mexicans who are not Spanish, as commonly thought, but are instead, proud Indians of Mayan or other tribal heritage who originated in Asia, tens of thousands of years ago (similar to the Indians who settled in the United States), came across Alaska and, after walking down through pre-Anglo United States, settled within Mexico before other explorers arrived by boat.


Mexicans are Americans

America is a geographical description; All citizens from Alaska to the southern tip of Peru are Americans! Some are South, some Central (Mexico is part of America) and the rest are North Americas (Canadians and citizens of the United States!)

It's interesting that most Anglos from the United States fail to realize that Mexicans are more American than anyone who arrived from Europe with Columbus!

Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor and Commander-in-Chief of the French forces, lost the battle of Waterloo in Europe in 1812. As Commanders-in-Chief have many excuses for losing wars and battles (many battles make a war), outsiders, using the benefit of hindsight, often can pinpoint several reasons for the loss of a battle or war.

It is likely that arrogance and narrow attention to the environment (many separate things grouped together) played major roles in Napoleon Bonaparte's loss at Waterloo. This arrogance and inaccurate narrow focusing seems to have been handed down from father to son to brother, throughout generations.

Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte had a brother, King Louis of Holland, who had a son (or so "conservative" historians say, though it is likely our Louis Napoleon III's real father was [unofficially], Rene de Villeneuve, Eugene's Chancellor, while Napoleon III's mother's was Hortense, Queen of Holland.

Louis' birth name was Charles Louis Napoleon. His first name Charles, was rarely used, leaving the name most called him; Louis Napoleon III. As he matured, like his famous and powerful French uncle, Napoleon Bonaparte, Louis Napoleon III dreamed of power and, as a boy, of controlling a monarchy.

Nephew Louis Napoleon III, perhaps as powerful a monarch as his uncle, lost his "Waterloo" 50 years later, in 1862. This loss was crucial to the French, yet beneficial to Mexican farm workers!

Interweaving the Battle Players

Your author hopes that each reader can, without much stretching of the imagination, understand how each person and group depicted in this booklet became involved in their respective specified activities and how, by fitting all the players together, it becomes reasonable to believe the Battle of Puebla was inevitable. The Mexican farmer's battle success at Pueblo, is now celebrated throughout Mexico and Mexican neighborhoods world-wide as Cinco de Mayo.

In the production of a movie, all sorts of people are involved: producer, director, writer, salesperson, advertiser, actor, sound technician, etc.

This book's author feels there were, like the types of people that make a movie, all sorts of people directly or indirectly involved in causing the battle of Puebla to be fought. Also, individuals and groups gained or lost different things as a consequence of the results of the battle.

What is perplexing (but part of humanity's heritage and habits), is that too often those who have acquired wealth or stature (Mexican Aristocratic Roman Catholics) would rather lose their Mexican heritage and become French or Austrian citizens, than the "toys" and power their wealth provided.

What really happened, as part of this true historical story, is that Napoleon's French representatives, in talking with the Mexican Catholic Church and its aristocrats, found the aristocracy feared the United States would spread its democratic style to Mexico with Abraham Lincoln's Latin American policies of protection. Lincoln's policies attempted to assured (Black) people everywhere their own independence while also assuring that Mexican peasants who had long been exploited would no longer be victims (especially of invasion).

Rather than desire Lincoln's democracy and fairness for all (or his successor, President Andrew Johnson), the Mexican aristocrats wanted the protection of the tripartite (France, Spain and England). The Mexican aristocracy felt sure that the United states was about to spread its political ideologies (the national vote and freedom for all races) and allow Mexico's peasants a say in Mexico's governance--something that would have intimidated the aristocracy. The wealthy Mexican and French aristocrats tried to keep Mexican peasants and farm workers from having a say in Mexico's use of its economic power, or in owning any major businesses.

The Mexican peasantry had virtually been prohibited from owning anything but a donkey and the clothes on their respective backs! This control or limitation had existed for over a hundred years and aristocrats weren't about to allow anyone to change the status quo favorable to themselves--the aristocrats had control over all property (that the Roman Catholic church didn't itself own) and the aristocrats needed that constancy.

Some of the aristocratic land owners (known as conservative wealthy Mexicans), were willing to give up their voting rights to French leaders who could inject money and provide soldiers to assure the current wealthy supporters of the Mexican Catholic Church kept their way of life.

The Mexican president, Benito Juarez, wanted to make life desirable to the peasants but the wealthy Mexicans couldn't allow the peasants to enjoy any of this power.

The Marquis de Radepont; a French officer and diplomat for the French Emperor; the originator of the entire Battle of Pueblo fiasco.

The Marquis developed a plan to "take over" Mexico. This "taking over" required an invasion and a step-by-step sequence of victories. The Marquis, therefore, developed the plan for the invasion of Mexico and the battle at Puebla. He also developed plans for the occupation of Mexico after the French soldiers´┐Ż presumed victory at Puebla.

Eugenie, wife of French Emperor Louis Napoleon III, Eugenie, helped push the Marquis de Radepont's plan for the conquest of Mexico, because she wanted a way to stop America from expanding its democracy ideologies. Eugenie's half brother, Morny, was influential and a positive aide to Eugenie since he owned thousands of Mexican bonds. If Eugenie's and Morny's venture into Mexico was successful, these bonds would increase their value substantially!

Himself, the Nephew of the first emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte, the loser at Waterloo. This Louis Napoleon III was no insignificant individual: he ruled much of Europe between 1840-70! This was significant because he was the commander of the sailors who brought the tripartite's soldiers to Vera Cruz.

Comte de Lorencez, was commander of the regimental brigade that attacked Puebla, was Louis Napoleon III's succeeding Commanding General of the French, after replacing Major General Lorencez, the loser at Puebla, Aide to Louis Napoleon III who wrote dispatches describing victories and failures of the Emperor's forces.

Maximallian of Austria (about 24 years old, and younger brother of Emperor Franz-Joseph of Austria (small European nation below Germany) was to become the leader of Mexico, on invitation of the conservative Mexican Aristocracy and their Catholic Church. The aristocracy themselves followed Louis Napoleon III's desires. (The French were powerful, cultured and economically alive--perhaps more so than the United States at this time in the history of the world.)

Princess Charlotte of Belgium, Maximillian's wife, sought an empire for her husband and an extension of their Monarchy. (Charlotte actually lived in Austria with her husband, Maximillian.)

James Howard Harris (known as Lord Malmsbury) was the British Foreign Minister in Mexico representing Queen Victoria.

Genral Juan Prim was the military dictator of Spain who wanted to expand the idea of monarchies, from Spain (and France) to Mexico which would stop the spread of democracy from the United States.

President Lincoln; wanted to protect any neighbor who felt threatened by "enemies."

President Andrew Johnson, Lincoln's successor; chose to continue Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation policy designed to free all slaves.

The "Civil War North" was the United States' national defense and charged by the President of the United States with both forcing the return of the "South" and protecting the United State's borders while defending the President's foreign policies.

The Civil War's South" wanted self-rule. Upon its presumed victory in the U. S. Civil War, Jefferson Davis' administration had offered to place 5,000,000 negro slaves on Mexico's hot costal lands as security for mortgages on Mexico's Northern mines and timber land-cheap mine labor for Mexican Aristocrats!

The Corwin Treaty, April 6, 1962, provided for loan guarantees or direct cash loans to the French victors- to-be in Mexico to enable Mexico to re-build itself and to help pay its multi-million dollar loans procured by earlier Mexican Presidents from various European powers over the previous 10 years.


Benito Juarez : the Mexican President wanted to return the land (which the peasantry cultivated for the aristocracy) to the peasants themselves.

Juarista General Ignacio Zaragoza: was the defender of Puebla, the city where this famous battle took place.

The Mexican Aristocracy: wanted a leader for their country that would assure they would be able to keep their power and land.

The Mexican Peasantry; wanted a leader to represent their needs and values--and Juarez appeared to be that leader--a native Indian that threatened the aristocracy and was prepared to take lands from the power elite (aristocracy) and give it to the peasants working it.

Santa Anna: On and off again leader of the Mexican people; more often then not, a federal general who became, like the aristocracy, greedy, thereby stealing from the Mexican peasantry and becoming an unwanted rebel.

Eugenie's plan:
1) Spread monarchy during Mexico's vulnerability
2) Take money owed tripartite

Eugenie Napoleon, wife of Louis Napoleon III, the French Emperor, wanted to both halt the spread of Democracy and expand her potent Monarchy. While Eugenie was determining how to spread her husband's power and influence throughout the world, she felt the upheaval in Mexico was the ideal place to go to expand this monarchy. Mexico seemed vulnerable to attack as it held great dissention between the Mexican peasantry and the rich Catholic Church and its Aristocracy.

Eugenie felt, in order for her husband to gain and keep control of Mexico, she and her husband would need someone they could trust and still control; ideally, a close family member or friend. Eugenie Napoleon found just the trustworthy friend she and her Emperor husband had sought in Maximillian of Austria.

Maximillian qualified as a suitable candidate for the throne of Mexico since he was already an aristocrat and the Monarch's (of Austria) younger brother. Eugenie and Louis Napoleon III felt Maximillian could force satisfactory payments of all debts Mexico owed England, Spain and France. Further, Eugenie wanted help keeping the peasant Mexicans (Indians) from overwhelming the French soldiers when the French soldiers invaded Mexico to expand the European Monarchy, all in one swoop!

The Marquis de Radepont, a major diplomat and advisor to Louis Napoleon III, had, on his own ambition, developed a plan to expand France's power in Mexico, by converting Mexico into a French satellite Monarchy.

Mexico was, at the time, in political turmoil and a modified democracy. President Juarez was trying to appropriate land from the Aristocrats and give it to the peasant farmers. Mexico was also a prime candidate for invasion (and therefore) conversion to a Monarchy) for several reasons:

The Aristocracy thought Mexico was currently led by a democratic Indian (most native Mexicans are Indians) named Juarez. This democratic status/manner was a threat to the Aristocracy because, under a democratic governement led system, the embezzlement, patronage (giving favoritism in government jobs) and outright theft of personal property would be slowed and possibly stopped by previous inept and graft-oriented municipal and federal leaders.

Juarez brought hope and therefore opportunity to the indians because he was trying to gain control of land currently belonging to aristocrats and the church and turn it over to peasant farmers. Juarez' confiscation of land from the rich and giving it to the poor (like Robin Hood did in Sherwood Forest in England) farm workers made him an ally of the United States and his Indian-peasant farmer constituents, but, at the same time, an enemy of conservative, wealthy Mexicans (who had been exploiting the peasants for hundreds of years) and Monarchs throughout Europe to finance previous Mexican wars.

Another legal problem Mexico faced was that its treasury was behind on loan payments due to European nations who had financed previous Mexican wars and illegal federal purchases.

President Juarez felt the native Mexican-Indians shouldn't have to pay for wars in which they played no voluntary role and yet where they lost property. Upon receiving a demand for payments by England, Spain and France, Juarez indicated that, for an indefinite period of time, he would postpone payments to these nations.

The Mexican federal soldiers were considered to be insignificant and inadequate in comparison to the battle-hardened French soldiers, who were thought by the tripartite to be the best in the world.

Another reason Mexico was vulnerable to attack was because, its alley, the president of The United States, was in the middle of a Civil War of its own, with the North (the federal government), trying to force (which it did successfully in 4.5 years) re-bonding with the Southern states.

France, England and Spain had many talks about places where their respective monarchies could spread.

They came up with Mexico.

In the world community, France, Spain and England (the tripartite) felt the debt Mexican President Juarez owed them constituted reasonable reason for their invading Mexico. After many talks, Louis Napoleon III got Maximillian, upon its availability, to accept the Throne of Mexico. Now Louis Napoleon III needed only to get his man, Maximillian, to Mexico and have enough loyal tripartite troops available to capture any important cities that may resist while the tripartite troops marched to Mexico City to establish Maximillian's throne.

While Louis Napoleon and Maximillian were doing their planning, they had to be careful about upsetting the United States' North. The United States had always been in favor of Democracy (where people vote for their leader). The constitution and foreign policy of the United States specified the U.S. government must help any nation needing its protection if the troubled nation's democracy was threatened by other nations or internally.

President Juarez figured he could get the U.S. to help defend his country if anyone invaded Mexico. This assurance was good as long as the U.S. was not at war with itself. (The Tripartite) France, England and Spain knew of these security measures and would not bother the U.S. as long as the U.S. had a secure government; no nation on earth could afford to challenge the U.S. in any way, for its might was equal to anyone's (including the French).

Therefore, during the time the U.S. was stable, no government would be foolish enough to threaten it or its foreign protection policy. Until the war with the "South" began, England, Spain and France (the tripartite) hesitated to attack Mexico to force the re-payment of the loans that Mexico's new liberal president, Juarez, renounced.

In 1860, the U.S.'s civil war (between its North and South) began, which lasted from 1860 through 1864. Louis Napoleon III and Spain and England's leaders, now firmed up their plans to invade Mexico to forcibly take the money that Juarez' government owed them.

General Juan Prim, the military dictator of Spain, and James Howard Harris (known as Lord Malmsbury--the British Foreign Minister in Mexico representing Queen Victoria of England and Louis Napoleon), sent a fleet of ships with 6,300 Spanish, 2,800 French and 800 British soldiers to Vera Cruz to begin the tripartite's attack of the sea port on their way to Mexico City.


The invading nations had 5 commissioners with them to try and negotiate for the payment of the foreign debt. These commissioners were; from France; Admiral Jurien and Count Dubois de Saligny, from England; Sir Charles Lennox Wyke and Commodore Hugh Dunlop. The leader and Chair of these commissioners was Spanish General Prim. (He had two additional titles; Count of Reus and Marquis de los Castillejos).

It was the intent of the tripartites' governments to negotiate with Mexico's governmental representative in Vera Cruz and see if the money owed England, Spain and France, could be obtained peacefully. If the commissioners (negotiators) could not obtain these payments, the commissioners were empowered to begin occupying Mexico by attacking governmental structures and then replacing the local, state and federal officials wherever found, between Vera Cruz, Puebla and Mexico City.

The sea port,Vera Cruz, appeared docile when the tripartite army approached the local and federal tax collectors and demanded the revenue collections which would help pay back the $10,000,000 debt the Mexican government owed France, Spain and England.



The Mexican government officials and few soldiers stationed in Vera Cruz didn't resist the tripartite's troops, and gave what money existed in Vera Cruz's treasury. With their mission complete, the Spanish and English had no further reason to continue to Puebla or Mexico City and so they returned home.

The French, however, were in Vera Cruz for two reasons; to get their part of the payment due the tripartite and prepare the way for Maximillian to take over the Throne of Mexico; so the French had to overthrow Juarez´┐Ż Mexican government.

By combining the data from messages that the Mexican Aristocrats sent to Louis Napoleon III, along with the non-resistance of the Mexican soldiers in Vera Cruz, Lorencez, the French Commander of soldiers, felt the rest of his trip through Puebla and on to Mexico City would be quick and easy.

After saying goodby to his allies (the returning Spanish and British), Lorencez immediately set out for Puebla, the only defended city on his way to Mexico City, the federal government seat.


When the Mexican peasants realized their culture was being jeopardized and a restricted way of living was soon to be forced upon them, they were eager to fight alongside their Indian President, Juarez. These Mexicans had animo and wanted to continue living as proud Mexicans!

On the morning of May 5th, instead of a simple walk to the fortified city's front door, the French Commander Lorencez's emissary met the fort's defender, Juarista General Ignacio Zaragoza. General Zaragoza refused entrance to these arrogant French troops.

French General Lorencez was caught of-guard by presuming he and his troops faced a passive Mexican fort. Realizing his obligation lay in capturing the city (Puebla), Lorencez hastily directed his brigade commander, Brigadier General Charles Latrille, to assault the Cerro de Guadalupe, the bridgeway guarding the access to the fortified garrisoned Puebla.

Both President Benito Juarez, the leader of Mexican people at the time, and his commanding general, General Ignacio Zaragoza, felt they had aces up their collective civilian and military sleeves; in addition to the armaments (rifles and cannons) they felt enough proud Mexican farmers (who were helping as militiamen) and loyal federalist troops would stand beside them because these two Mexican factors were defending their homes and way of life, whereas the French were just blindly following orders (which indicated a no-problem march was all that lay ahead for them) as the mighty French Commander Lorencez remained puzzled as to why this inadequately armed and manned Puebla would be so earnestly defended even when the French army challenged them, out numbering the Mexicans 2 to 1! There were 5,000 Mexicans and over 10, 000 French soldiers; the French army (the enemy) could not claim victory!

Many honorable Mexican farm workers died so that Mexico could remain independent!

Like the battle of 1776 for the independence of the United States, the Cinco de Mayo was Mexico's battle for independence! The Mexican soldiers and citizenry had to fight for all they were worth--if they lost they knew they would became a part of Austria and therefore, a colony or a part of, France. --Something the farmers would not tolerate!

French Major General Lorencez had a problem not faced by the fort's defenders; he had to hold enough French troops in reserve so that he could continue on to Mexico City. He had to fight conservatively!

The battle hardened French troops under brigade commander, Brigadier General Charles Latrille, met unbelievable resistance as they fought and, not having a formidable plan, lost to citizens of Puebla who stood alongside their leader President Juarez, General Zaragoza, and the nobel and courageous Mexican Federal soldiers. Soon thereafter, via dispatches from France, Major General Lorencez, failing at Puebla (though his brigade commander, Brigadier General Charles Latrille--was actually at fault, Major General Lorencez was held responsible by the French Emperor, and so Major General Lorencez was replaced by Major General Forey.

"Poor France and the U. S.'s South"

England and Spain quickly removed their backing because of the French failure at Puebla. With this backing now absent, Maximillian was rightfully hesitant to even come to take his throne!

The United States' "South" realized that they now had no dependable ally; the South originally thought they could count on the Tripartite to help them win their war with the North (by having the French troops block any attack by the Union soldiers who were planning to attack the"South" from Arizona or Texas.

What might have happened if the French had beaten the Mexicans at Puebla on the 5th of May?

We know the Spanish and English partners in the tripartite left Vera Cruz when they were paid by the Mexican treasury. European support would have been much greater if the "cake walk" had occurred; if Lorencez had just taken over Puebla.

If the tripartite felt secure in knowing that all of Mexico lay totally vulnerable to foreign invasion, they might have brought over more soldiers, section/state governors and merchants from major European industries would have immediately gained greater "market share" from having these new factories in this new land.

The vacillating yet popular Mexican heritage would have been eradicated within 5 years and all of Mexico would have likely taken on the appearance of a distant Spain, England and Austria.

European Aristocratic influence would have been quickly felt in schools, churches and business as a new currency was minted, throwing all traditional Mexican activity into chaos and perhaps, would have led inevitably to an additional internal war between members of the tripartite over division of the "spoils"

--shall seaports become British, or tri-colored, shall education be in all three languages and shall one tri-colored paper bill become the standard currency?

Would the tripartite have, within the next 12 years, carved up Mexico to create a little Spain, England and France/Austria?

It is likely that the United States would have been ripe for invasion because the land to the north was itself under attack and the tripartite would have made the odds much more favorable for the South (who was doing rather well despite the battle participant's ratios of 3 northerners to every southerner. If the tripartite came into Texas, California and Arizona at the same time and then had its armies pivot to the east, it is likely that Grant and Mc Clellan would have been overwhelmed and caved in to the firepower the tripartite added to the South's battle wisdom!

Soon, the United State's South would have overwhelmed the North and likely forced Grant and then Lincoln to capitulate and the Capital of the United States would have moved to Jefferson Davis' Southern Headquarters in Dixie.

Canada would have been invaded next (it was partially French already) and soon, the tripartite would have become the strongest nation in the world! Whatever name the tripartite would have called itself, it could have challenged the rest of the world!
Thanks to the moral conviction of the 5,000 plus soldiers and citizenry of Puebla, the Mexican government was made stronger. The United States finally forced the South back into the democracy it previously had, and Canada was never the wiser about its own potent change! Viva Mexico!

Let me take you to another century, to tie the two Napoleons together.

In July, 1991, the entertainment director for the Starlite Cruise Ship Empress (which cruised between La Paz and Acapulco while headquartered in San Diego, California), conducted ocean cruises with an emphasis on the Mexican Riviera), guiding passenger's questions about tours, city spots, fair prices and other valuable bits of information its passengers, of which I was one, desired!

This director taught us all an important word when visiting Mexico--Animo! Animo; electric, magnificent, powerful and super feelings about a wonderful place to be visiting--cities and their ports in Mexico (in this case, the Mexican Riviera).

This definition of Mexican life and its people is well earned!

[--This book is available in three formats; the other two are for grammar school students in grades 1-4 and 6-8 (which includes jr. high) This version, with more detail and sophisticated language, is designed for high school, college and adult readers.]

I am writing several books:

Dealing with explanations of why people independently and organizations do what they do, with an emphasis on propensities

Recapitalizing Chapter 11 OTC's:
A Practitioner's Book

Doctoral, undergrad and lay person's book on curing mom and pop businesses and re-capping Ch 11 OTCs.
Entrepreneurship in the 90's ASSURED ENTREPRENEURIAL SUCCESS [in book format, computer software, paperback, and 35 languages]
Chandeliers Don't have Dice, but they light; an Autobiography: The life of Kevin Kemper

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