JUSTICE LEAGUE OF AMERICA

Membership: Aquaman, Atom, Batman, Black Canary II, Elongated Man, Firestorm, Flash II, Green Arrow, Green Lantern II, Gypsy, Hawkman, Hawkwoman, Martian Manhunter, Phantom Stranger, Red Tornado, Steel, Superman, Vibe, Vixen, Wonder Woman, Zatanna

Base of Operations: Secret Sanctuary, Happy Harbor, RI, Justice League Satellite, Justice League Compound, Detroit, MI

First Appearance: The Brave and the Bold I #28 (March, 1960)

History

(Justice League of America I #1) - Flash came upon Saranna and Jasonar, two refugees from Kalanor. Their home dimension had been conquered by the tyrant Despero, and Jasonar had perfected an anti-weapon device to disable Despero's arsenal. Flash summoned the JLofA and they prepared to use Jasonar s dimensional traveler to go to Kalanor, but Despero had ambushed the JLofA and held them in stasis in their hq. He planned to banish them to other dimensions, but couldn't affect Flash, who'd been exposed to the radiation of the dimensional traveler that made him immune to Despero's teleport beam. He challenged Flash to a variation of chess, using the JlLofA as pawns. He rigged the game with his mental powers, and each time Flash lost a pawn, a leaguer was teleported to another dimension. Flash lost and entered a dimensional traveler to the world of Narx. The planets the JLofA were on were targeted for destruction by Despero, but the League saved the planets and returned to Earth. Despero caught up with Jasonar and was about to take his anti-weapon device, when Snapper, who'd stowed away on Despero's traveler turned the anti-weapon on him, sapping his energy. The League allowed Jasonar to take Despero back to Kalanor as a prisoner.

(Justice League of America I #4) - The JLofA nominated Green Arrow as their new member when they received a message from the alien Carthan, who'd kidnapped the Arrow. he told the team he'd placed three engines of destruction around the world, and that it was up to them to disable them and free Arrow. Carthan was only posing as a villain, the tyrant Xandor had exiled him from his planet Dryanna, and the engines prevented him from leaving Earth. The JLofA disabled the engines and freed Arrow, but Carthan imprisoned the team in a hollow diamond so he could explain that he was not a villain. Batman, who wasn't trapped, knocked him into the control panel of his ship, and Carthan couldn't dissipate the diamond. he showed Green Arrow the stress point of the diamond, and the archer used his skills to shatter the prison with a diamond-tipped arrow.

(Justice League of America I #5) - A gang of criminals escaped imprisonment, and the JLofA were challenged by them. Wonder Woman, Flash and Green Arrow confronted King Clock, Professor Menace and Captain Cold in an ice palace. After avoiding Clock's quicksand clock trap they forced the villains to flee. On the verge of capturing them Green Arrow shot arrows that caused an explosion, and his teammates thought he purposely sabotaged their capture. Aquaman, Martian Manhunter and Green Lantern dealt with the Getaway Mastermind, Electric Man and the Puppet Master, who caused deadly weather to slow down the heroes. As they pursued the villains  plane, Green Arrow arrived, show more arrows that caused an explosion and knocked out the Leaguers. At hq the League accused him of being a traitor. He told them that he observed that Captain Cold, King Clock and Menace were robots rigged to explode, so he destroyed them before his teammates got in range. The Getaway Mastermind's ship had an explosive forcefield, so he activated it before the JLofA could reach it and be killed. The exonerated Arrow had already captured all the villains, but told the League he knew there was a real traitor among them. Green Lantern had been captured by Dr. Destiny and replaced by him, so they subdued "Green Lantern" and took him to the police. They walked into Destiny's trap, as he had a ship nearby that hit the League with an anti-gravity and  will-deadener ray. He prepared to put them aboard a rocket ship, and with their wills gone they'd be helplessly floating in space forever. His prisoner Green Lantern escaped, because using the will-deadener on the League sapped power from the ray aimed at him. The League apprehended Destiny and closed the case.

(Justice League of America I #6) - Each member of the JLofA had an incident of bad luck on standard cases, but didn't realize their difficulties were caused by Prof. Amos Fortune, who was testing his Stimoluck that caused either good or bad luck in anyone it was aimed at. Letters to the JLofA came in requesting the League's help, and they found two worthy causes. Flash, Green Arrow and Martian Manhunter handled one case in which Hazel Deeping sought the fortune on her farm hidden by her grandfather because she needed the money to aid her grandparents. The grandfather left a clue in the form of a poem, but by the time they realized the treasure was in the farm's antique gateposts Fortune, with his luck boosted by the Stimoluck, had purchased them from Deeping. Fortunately the League had also found a valuable painting by Gilbert Stuart and a reservoir of oil on the farm. Aquaman, Green Lantern and Wonder Woman went to Sea Dunes to solve a series of robberies to a museum. The museum was built from an old castle and impenetrable, but the custodian Charles Hobart was using a fishing reel to steal pieces from the barred window. The put him in custody, but spotted Fortune taking off with other pieces Hobart had stolen and hidden in a cliff face. They pursued him, but Fortune managed to capture all the members of the JLofA through sheer luck, and he tied them to a Wheel of Misfortune that would destroy the human glands that gave people good luck and would cause the League to forever after have bad luck. The Wheel only affected human physiology, so Martian Manhunter was able to escape, disable the machine and defeat Amos Fortune.

(Justice League of America I #15) - Stone giant Untouchable Aliens stole military weapons and tried to eradicate Brasilia, Tokyo and Central City, but were foiled by the JLofA. Green Lantern probed their minds and brought the League to their world, an Earth separated from ours because it existed one minute into the future. The Aliens set off a cobalt bomb at the same time our Earth tested a nuclear bomb, weakening the barrier between world. The Alien's cities were going to merge with the three Earth cities they tried to destroy, because two objects occupying the same time and space would be disastrous. They could not move their own cities because the cities were rigged to explode if tampered with, a failsafe against invasion. Green Lantern used his ring to completely separate the Alien's Earth from ours, preventing catastrophe.

(Justice League of America I #34) - The JLofA had dreams where parts of their teammates costumes attached themselves to them and gave them their teammates powers and weaknesses. In their dreams they overcame this and defeated a giant Italian statue, giant seashells and Joker and Chac. When they woke these dream adversaries became real, as did the objects that handicapped them. Their enemies had learned from their dream defeat, but by switching up tactics the league defeated them. They reasoned that Dr. Destiny was involved, and although he was in jail he'd built a Materioptikon in his dreams. The League had him sent to a psychiatrist in hopes of removing his dream powers.

(Justice League of America I #117) - The Equalizer infected Thanagar with microbes that made everyone average, with no one smarter, stronger or more capable than anyone else. Hawkman found he no longer had the power to be a law enforcement agent, and pursued the Equalizer, who was heading towards Earth, in his Thanagarian ship. Hawkman knew he d need help, so he contacted the JlofA, and they met him on Mars. The Equalizer s microbes averaged out the JlofA s powers, and let Hawkman share in some of them. He didn ' have time to explain his situation, and the JlofA were baffled and thought their loss of powers were an attack by their former ally. Hawkman managed to defeat them, and left them on Mars while he continued to chase the Equalizer. The League focused their reduced willpower on Green Lantern s ring, allowing them to catch up to Hawkman, who was at a standstill with the Equalizer. After Hawkman explained the situation the League aided him, but the Equalizer countered any attack they mustered. They realized that he also equalized his emotions in response to theirs, so they focused their thoughts on hate to make him give a loving response. The Equalizer realized how much they despised him, so he cured the League of the microbes infecting them and either self-destructed or returned to his home galaxy. Hawkman realized he couldn't return to Thanagar for fear of being reinfected until he found a cure, and asked for readmission to the League. The JlofA voted him back in, and he shed a single tear of gratitude.

(Justice League of America I #118, 19) - Dr. Hubble sent out signals to outer space from his observatory in Central City. His continued failures led him to switch off the machine, but his last message was garbled and received by an alien from Arcturus. He concluded from the scrambled message that Earth was being overrun with superhumans, and sent his Adaptoids to destroy Earth s superheroes. The Adaptoids arrived in Central City, where they were confronted by the Flash. Hawkman was observing from the JlofA satellite, and his separation from Thanagar and Hawkwoman made him need a new League adventure, so he hit the JlofA emergency signal. The League responded, and after adapting to an Earth environment the creatures attacked the League and adapted to counter all of their powers before returning to their spaceship. Their master sent out a broadcast to the JlofA, telling them they could either abandon Earth, or face athree groups of Adaptoids stationed in Hong Kong, San Francisco and Venice. The heroes saw the Adaptoids as a threat, and confronted them, but left Hawkman behind, feeling his grief for his loss of Thanagar would make him a liability. The battle went against them, and after being infected by the Adaptoids they retreated back to the JlofA satellite. Hawkman left a note saying he d returned to Thanagar, and they were all steamed at his selfishness. The Adaptoids decided that the entire human race was viral, spreading too fast and destroying the planet Earth. They were no longer satisfied with forcing superheroes to leave Earth, they promised to exterminate the human race to save the planet, and broadcast their intentions on a TV transmission. Batman, Atom, Elongated Man and Green Arrow tried to defeat hem, but were bested and teleported back to the JlofA satellite alongside their fellow beaten Leaguers. The Adaptoids started toppling world governments when Hawkman returned from Thanagar, along with Hawkgirl, and teleported the Adaptoids to ther satellite. The League questioned his motivations, but his plan soon became clear. Hawkgirl s Equalizer Disease that made everyone around her equal gave the JlofA the edge over the aliens, enabling them to defeat the Adaptoids and imprison them on an abandoned planet halfway between Earth and Thanagar. The Adaptoids settled into their new home, building cities and prospering, while Hawkman and Hawkgirl vowed to monitor them.

(Justice League of America I #120, 121)   The JlofA foiled a mad scientist on New Guinea who tried to wipe out the southern hemisphere with an aqua-bomb. On Guinea Flash discovered a cave painting of Adam Strange, and  the team was then transported to Adam s adopted home of Rann by a zeta-beam. The League helped Adam disable a giant remote-controlled ray-gun, and after introductions were made Adam told them how his wife-to-be had seemingly been vaporized by a flying lens. The Leage realized the gun and lens were both more powerful recreations of past threats Adam had faced. Just then Sardath appeared, and informed the League that someone had summoned them with his new Zeta-Plus Beams, which could be connected with Earth instantly, instead of taking years of advance planning.  Two more threats from Rann s past attacked, the giant Kalulla bird, and the robot Borg. Borg apparently disintegrated the League, and Adam used the Zeta-Plus Beam to return to Earth and gather the rest of the League to avenge their comrades and deal with the mastermind behind the attacks. Kanjar Ro, the villain responsible, looked on in glee. He d orchestrated everything so he could destroy the league for having defeated him in the past. The JlofA were distressed to hear about their teammate s fate, and Green Arrow flew off the handle, ready to attack Adam because he blamed him for anything that happened to Black Canary.  Before the League could form a plan of action they were alerted to a freak electric storm in Long Island, and left their satellite to respond, with Adam staying behind because Earth s surface was poisonous to him. The storm turned out to be a Cloud Creature, another revamped threat from Rann, and it defeated the League. Kanjar confronted Adam Strange and explained his schemes, but Adam responded by stealing the energi-rod he d used to recreate the Rannian menaces and zeta-beamed back to Rann. Sardath used the brain waves on file from Kanjar Ro s time as a prisoner on Rann to allow Adam control over the energi-rod. Adam correctly reasoned that Kanjar s ego demanded that he destroy the entire JlofA in one fell swoop, so the seemingly murdered Leaguers must have been in captivity on Rann. In an ice cave he found the five black spheres that Kanjar had turned the League into, and undid the transformation with the energi-rod. He found an additional black sphere, and it turned out to be Alanna. She told Adam that Kanjar kept her alive as insurance to have leverage against Adam if his plan failed. The JlofA returned to Earth and defeated the Cloud Creature. Without his energi-rod Kanjar was easy pickings, and Black Canary knocked him out with a karate chop. The League went to Rann with Adam and attended his wedding to Alanna.

(Justice League of America I #125, 126) - Lugons of energy built up in the Dronndarians dimension and threatened to reach critical mass. To siphon off the energy three Dronndarians used their transmission facilities to send their minds to Earth. Their intellects inhabited statues of Julius Cesear, Benjamin Franklin and Napoleon, and offered underworld figures a chance for a one-time use of unlimited power. Each time a criminal used the transmitted lugons of energy to murder a ruival or commit a crime, Dronndarr gained more time before exploding. The Dronndarrians approached Batman nemesis Two-Face, but his schizophrenic personality made him turn down the offer in hopes pof saving Earth. He alerted the Justice League of America, and they were initially skeptical, but the details of his story panned out, they allowed him to help them quell a riot at Oceanside Prison led by  Bull  Langdon and other criminals powered by the Dronndarians. Aquaman figured out that the lugon energy was short-circuited by water, and commanded whales to splash the criminals, ending the riot. They confronted the Dronndarrians, who fled from their animated statues and returned home. The Dronndarrians realized they had failed, even if the League hadn t intervened they hadn't siphoned off nearly enough energy to save their world. They went to the Anti-Matter Universe and contracted the Weaponers of Qward to save their world by destroying Earth with a massive burst of lugon energy. The Qwardians employed Two-Face, who d decided to turn against the League, to attach Dronndarian power blast devices to each of the Leaguers, and tell them about their planned attacks on Bonn, Sydney and Toronto. The JlofA released more and more lugons of energy into Earth as they battled and overcame the Qwardians, but Atom realized the Qwardian scheme and Two-Face s betrayal. He alerted his teammates and they allowed the Qwardians to beat them until the last of their lugon energy was siphoned back to Dronndar. GL used his power ring to observe the Dronndarians final fate, as their world exploded they evolved into beings of pure energy to survive.

(Justice League of America I #127) - The Anarchist kidnapped several world leaders in the name of bringing chaos to the world s governments, and challenged the JlofA to stop him from kidnapping a group oif U.N. delegates. Superman, Green Arrow, Flash and Red Tornado responded, but the Anarchist and his cronies fought them to a standstill and snatched the delegates, leaving the U.N. furious with the Justice League. Clark Kent covered a performance by Simon Elis, faith-healer, and was convinced that he was the Anarchist. The JlofA followed Elias, but he foiled them with a burst of energy, and managed to teleport away with League members Batman, Black Canary and Elongated Man. Green Lantern told Superman that someone was mind-controlling him, forcing him to recharge his power ring and siphoning off the energy, and they deduced that the Anarchist was the culprit. The next time the Anarchist tried to make GL recharge, GL convinced Superman to knock him out with a punch. The JlofA tracked down the Anarchist, and he revealed that he was using Green Lantern s powers and creating chaos so that he could restore the world order as Simon Elis and become a dictator. Without GL s power to draw off, the Anarchist and his cronies were easy pickings for the League.

(Identity Crisis #2 (fb)) - The JLA defeated Hector Hammond, and then received a distress call from Sue Dibny from the JLA satellite. They found Sue being savaged by Dr. Light and quickly defeated him. Elongated Man took Sue to the hospital, but Light threatened the rest of the JLA, telling them he d find their loved ones and do to them what he did to Sue. Hawkman proposed that they mindwipe Dr. Light and make him less of the threat. After the deciding vote was cast Zatanna used her magic to erase Light s memory, but in trying to alter her personality she magically lobotomized him, making him a minimal threat.

(Catwoman III #50 (fb)) - The Justice League of America went behind Batman's back, and kidnapped Catwoman, who was quite close to him even though she was a criminal. Zatanna, reluctantly taking orders from Hawkman, planted a seed in Catwoman's mind to turn her from villain to hero.

(Flash II #215, 216 (fb))- Flash came to the JLA and asked Zatanna to brainwash Top, one of his most dangerous foes, and make him into a hero. The League debated the morality of once again having Zatanna alter someone s mind, but she agreed to help Flash because she thought it would be to Top s benefit to be reformed. Top s reformation was brief; his memories of his horrendous past soon drove him mad.

Comments: Created by Gardner Fox.

The Justice League of America received a profile in Who's Who: The Definitive Directory of the DC Universe #12 and Silver Age Secret Files #1.

JLofA I had a cameo in Action Comics I #554, 650,  Aquaman Secret Files #1, Batgirl I #62, Batman Plus #1, DC Comics Presents #26, 30, Green Arrow III #8, 19, Green Lantern III #63, Hawkman V #5, Identity Crisis #1, 6, JLA #24, 27, 117, Justice League of America II #0, 5, 7, Martian Manhunter II #12, R.E.B.E.L.S. Annual #1, Spectre III #54.

The Crisis on Infinite Earths removed Wonder Woman from the original JLofA roster and replacing her with Black Canary. The Infinite Crisis restored her original membership.

All characters mentioned or pictured are ™  and DC Comics, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Please visit The Official DC Comics Site at: http://www.batman.com