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Obverse Type: Within a circle, the laureate bust of Caracalla, facing right. A countermark with an image of Victoria (Victory) appears in the lower left field.
Obverse Legend: A[UT] K M AUR LIOS ANT‘NINOS AUG (around)
Reverse Type: Within a dotted circle sits the emperor. He holds a prize crown in his right hand, and a jug sits on the ground in front of him.
Reverse Legend: AG‘N (on the side of the throne); SEOU REIA PHILADELPHEIA (around); NIKAIE‘N (in exergue)

Obverse Type: Within a dotted circle, the laureate bust of Antoninus Pius, bearded, draped and cuirassed, facing right. Obverse Legend: AUT KAISAR TAIA* aDR ANT‘NIN (around)
Reverse Type: Within a dotted circle stands the nude figure of Herakles, leaning on club, in 3/4-view to the right. He holds his hand on his right hip.
Reverse Legend: TON KTIST  ligature N NIKAIEIS (around)

Hipparchus Born: 180 BC in Nicaea (Iznik), Bithynia (Turkey)
Died: 125 BC in Rhodes, Greece

Little is known of Hipparchus's life, but he is known to have worked in Nicaea, Rhodes and Alexandria. worked on trigonometry. He introduced the division of a circle into 360 degrees into Greece and produced a table of chords, an early example of trig tables. He also gave methods for solving spherical triangles and advocated the use of latitude and longitude for position on the Earth. Hipparchus calculated the length of the year to within 6.5 minutes and discovered the precession of the equinoxes. Hipparchus's value of 46" for the annual precession is good compared with the modern value of 50.26" and much better than the figure of 36" the Ptolemy was to obtain nearly 300 years later. His star catalog, containing about 850 stars, lists magnitude with a six point scale similar to that used today. His star catalogue, completed in 129 BC, was used by Ptolemy and its quality was such that it was even used by Halley.
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Sporus Born: about 240 in (possibly) Nicaea (Iznik), Bithynia (Turkey)
Died: about 300

Sporus taught Pappus of Alexandria and we know of him only through Pappus's writings.
Sporus worked mainly on squaring the circle and duplicating the cube. He used approximations which are early examples of integration.
Sporus criticised Archimedes for not producing a more accurate approximation of .
Not only did Sporus work on these topics but he also constructively others work in these areas. His writings and teaching clearly had a large impact on Pappus who describes him as having a high reputation.
Sporus also wrote on the size of the Sun and on the comets.

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(1st - 4th November 2000 )