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Anglican Succession and
Other Lines (Explanatory Notes)

St. Augustine, the first Archbishop of Canterbury, was the Prior of St Andrew's Monastery in Rome, Italy. But Pope Gregory the Great appointed him as the first Roman Catholic Primate of the Church in England in 596 AD. (However before this there was already a celtic Church in the British Isles whose bishops were independently organized since about 314 AD.)

Augustine was consecrated at Arles, France,
and he then consecrated.
Laurentius in 604, who consecrated
Mellitus in 619, who consecrated
Justus in 624, who consecrated
Honorius in 627, who consecrated
Deusdedit in 655, who consecrated
Theodore in 688, who consecrated
Berthwald in 693, who consecrated
Tatwine in 731, who consecrated
Nothelm in 735, who consecrated
Cuthbert in 740, who consecrated
Bregowine in 761, who consecrated
Jaenbert in 765, who consecrated
Ethelhard in 793, who consecrated
Wulfred in 805, who consecrated
Feologeld in 832, who consecrated
Ceolnoth in 833, who consecrated
Ethelred in 870, who consecrated
Pope St. NICHOLAS I in 858 --

In 864, the Papal Line enters when Pope Nicholas I consecrated:

Formosus, Bishop of Porto, who later became pope. He then consecrated
St. Plegmund Archbishop of Canterbury in 891, who consecrated
ALTHELM as Bishop of Wells in 909, who in 914 consecrated
WULFHELM as Bishop of Wells, who in 927 consecrated
ODO as Bishop of Ramsbury, who in 957 consecrated
St. DUNSTAN as Bishop of Worcester, who in 984 consecrated
St. AELPHEGE as Bishop of Winchester, who in 990 consecrated
ELFRIC as Bishop of Ramsbury, who in 1003 consecrated
WULFSTAN as Bishop of Worcester and York, who on November 13, 1020 consecrated
ETHELNOTH as Archbishop of Canterbury, who in 1035 consecrated
EADSIGE as Bishop of St. Martin's - Canterbury, who on April 13, 1043 consecrated
STIGAND as Bishop of Elmham, who in 1058 consecrated
SIWARD as Bishop of Rochester on September 29, 1070 who (assisted by William, Bishop of London) consecrated
Bl. LANFRANC as Archbishop of Canterbury, who in 1070 consecrated
THOMAS as Archbishop of York, who on December 4, 1094 consecrated
St. ANSELM as Archbishop of Canterbury, who on July 26, 1108 consecrated
RICHARD DE BELMEIS as Bishop of London, who on February 18, 1123 consecrated
WILLIAM OF CORBEUIL as Archbishop of Canterbury, who on November 17, 1129 consecrated
HENRY OF BLOIS as Bishop of Winchester, who on June 3, 1162 consecrated
St. THOMAS a'BECKET as Archbishop of Canterbury, who on August 23, 1164 consecrated
ROGER OF GLOUCESTER as Bishop of Worcester, who on November 7, 1176 (assisted Gilbert Foliot, Bishop of London) to consecrate
PETER DE LEIA as Bishop of St. David's, who on September 29, 1185 (assisted Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury) to consecrate
GILBERT GLANVILLE as Bishop of Rochester, who on May 23, 1199 (assisted Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury) to consecrate
WILLIAM OF S. MERE L'EGLISE who on October 5, 1214 (assisted Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury) to consecrate
WALTER DE GRAY as Bishop of Worcester (1216 Archbishop of York), who on December 5, 1249 consecrated
WALTER KIRKHAM as Bishop of Durham, who on February 7, 1255 consecrated
HENRY as Bishop of Whithern, who on the January 9, 1284 (assisted William Wickwane, Archbishop of York) to consecrate
ANTHONY BECK as Bishop of Durham (1306 Patriarch of Jerusalem) who on the 14th september 1292 consecrated
JOHN OF HALTON as Bishop of Carlisle, who on June 27, 1322 assisted Thomas Cobham, Bishop of Worcester,to consecrate
ROGER NORTHBOROUGH as Bishop of Lichfield, who on July 15, 1330 assisted Henry Burghersh, Bishop of Lincoln, at the consecration of
ROBERT WYVIL as Bishop of Salisbury, who on March 12, 1340 consecrated
RALPH STRATFORD as Bishop of London, who on May 15, 1346 assisted John Stratford, Archbishop of Canterbury , to consecrate
WILLIAM EDENDON as Bishop of Winchester, who on March 20, 1362 consecrated
IMON SUDBURY as Bishop of London, (later Archbishop of Canterbury) who on May 12, 1370 consecrated
THOMAS BRENTINGHAM as Bishop of Exeter, who on January 5, 1382 consecrated
ROBERT BRAYBROOKE as Bishop of London, who on February 3, 1398 consecrated
ROGER WALDEN as Archbishop of Canterbury, who on July 14, 1398 consecrated
HENRY BEAUFORT as Bishop of Lincoln, who in 1405 became Bishop of Winchester and on May 15, 1435 consecrated
THOMAS BOURCHIER as Bishop of Worcester (1443 Ely, 1454 Canterbury) who on January 31, 1479 consecrated
JOHN MORTON as Bishop of Ely (1486 Canterbury) who on May 21, 1497 consecrated
RICHARD FITZJAMES as Bishop of Rochester (1503 Chichester, 1506 London) who on September 25, 1502 consecrated
WILLIAM WARHAM as Bishop of London (1503 Canterbury) who on May 15, 1521 consecrated
JOHN LONGLANDS as Bishop of Lincoln who on March 30, 1533 consecrated
THOMAS CRANMER as Archbishop of Canterbury who in June 1536 consecrated
WILLIAM BARLOW as Bishop of St. David's (1549 Bath, 1559 Chichester), who on December 17, 1559 consecrated
MATTHEW PARKER as Archbishop of Canterbury who, on December 21, 1559 consecrated
EDMUND GRINDAL as Bishop of London (1570 York, 1576 Canterbury) who on April 21, 1577 consecrated
JOHN WHITGIFT as Bishop of Worcester (1583 Canterbury) who on May 8, 1597 consecrated
RICHARD BANCROFT as Bishop of London (1604 Canterbury) who on December 3, 1609 consecrated
GEORGE ABBOT as Bishop of Lichfield (1610 London, 1611 Canterbury) who on December 14, 1617 consecrated
GEORGE MONTAIGNE as Bishop of Lincoln (1621 London, 1628 Durham, 1628 York)who on the 18th November 1621 consecrated
Bl. WILLIAM LAUD as Bishop of St. David's (1626 Bath, 1628 London, 1633 Canterbury) who on June 17, 1638 consecrated.......


Old Catholic:

Saint Willibrord, the Apostle to the Netherlands, was the founder of the Apostolic See of Utrecht, Holland.
Consecrated to the episcopacy by Pope Sergius I, in 696 A.D. at Rome, he returned to the Netherlands and centered his See at Utrecht with dioceses at Deventer and Haarlem.
One of his successors was Saint Boniface, the Apostle of Germany.

The See itself contributed to the papacy in 1552 with the accession of Pope Hadrian VI, and others who were notable in its history -- Geert Groote who founded the Brothers of the Common Life, and Thomas a Kempis who wrote the Imitation of Christ and other works for the Dutch church.

In 1145 A.D. the Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad II petitioned Pope Eugene III for the right of the Bishop of Utrecht -- Bishop Heribert -- to elect successors to the See in times of vacancy.
The privilege was granted by the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215.

Later a second papal grant was issued by Pope Leo X called "Debitum Pastoralis" conceding to Philip of Burgundy (57th Bishop of Utrecht) that "neither he nor any of his successors, nor any of their clergy or laity, should ever be evoked by an external tribunal from the traditional Ancient Catholic Church of the Netherlands, and that not even a pretense of apostolic letters, should nullify it."
This decretal in 1520 was one of highest in importance in defending the church from its enemies.

During the Reformation the church went underground in order to survive since it was totally catholic in faith and practice. But finally the Archbishop of Utrecht reached an informal agreement with the civil government whereby it was allowed openly to function again without interference from Reformers.

Although it was allowed now to function openly, the Counter Reformation forces led by the Jesuits sought to force submission of the Utrecht Church to papal administration once again, by accusing Archbishop Peter Codde in 1691 of favoring the Jansenist heresy. Pope Innocent XII commissioned the Cardinals to investigate the accusations and the result of the enquiry was complete exoneration for the Archbishop.

Undaunted by this the Counter Reformationists in the church prevailed upon Pope Clement XI to summon Archbishop Codde to Rome in 1700 under the pretext of a Jubilee Year and then to try him in ecclesiastical court when he arrived.
The second confrontation also resulted in a complete and unconditional acquittal.

But Pope Clement issued an order in 1701 to suspend the Archbishop and appointed his own successor to the See of Utrecht in his stead. When the news was made public the people refused to accept the successor but demanded that Codde be released to return to his See.

When he returned in June 1703 he found all in confusion and although he tried to exercise his office, under protest against his suspension, he felt defeated and so he finally retired, moving to his home in Utrecht, and he died on December 18, 1710.

In attempting to resolve the situation further the case again was debated at Louvain University in May 1717, and within the course of the next year theologians and canonists agreed that the rights of the Chapter of Utrecht were violated and all actions against it were not only contrary to canon law but were entirely null and void.

The appeal to a future General Council of the Church was ignored, and the result was that the Church of Holland declared autonomy and became an independent church. When the Cathedral Chapter elected Cornelius Steenoven to the office he was the seventh archbishop of Utrecht, and he had been the companion of Codde during his sojourn in Rome.

In 1853 Pope Pius IX established a rival hierarchy to the Church of Holland and since there were now two churches of Holland, both of them calling themselves catholic, the restored hierarchy chose the name “Old Roman Catholic” in order to distinguish itself from its rival appointed by the pope.

In the convening of the First Vatican Council although the people were hopeful that their grievances would be heard and resolved, the delegates were refused admission to the synodical deliberations.
And during the same council the dogma of "papal infallibility" was declared and a considerable number of Catholics from Germany, Austria and Switzerland dissented, insisting that the pope ‘acting alone in matters of faith and dogma’ was not infallible, and that according to the orthodox tradition only the entire church could decide these issues, as it always had traditionally been done in past centuries. They left in protest in order to adhere to their beliefs and practices that they had always followed.

After their departure they appealed to the Archbishop of Utrecht for episcopal assistance in establishing an episcooak hierarchy, and he consecrated the first bishops for them so that they would not lack bishops to maintain for them the traditional sacraments of the church.

The orders and sacraments of the Old Roman Catholics, the See of Utrecht and all those consecrated by them are considered valid. To distinguish themselves from the Old Roman Catholics these called themselves “Old Catholics”. All the churches together are known as the Union of Utrecht.

An Old Catholic Church was established for Great Britain and Ireland in 1908 under the fourth Earl of Landaff, Archbishop Arnold Harris Mathew. He was consecrated as its first Bishop by the Dutch bishops. But later he severed relations with the Union of Utrecht in 1910 due to the growing number in the union who were influenced by the Modernist heresy. This culminated their inter-communion, and resulted in the Utrecht Union forming an intercommunion with the Anglicans in 1932 instead.


Roman Catholic Brazilian Line (Duarte Costa):

Monsignor Duarte Costa was the Roman Catholic Bishop of Maura, Brazil. In June 1945 he was excommunicated by Pope Pius XII after initiating a strongly anti-papal campaign against the alleged alliance of the Vatican with the Axis powers.

The pope issued a Concordat with the Axis powers which was meant to protect all Roman Catholics from violence and abuse, but it resulted in horrors for others and even for underground activists who were working for catholics and jews.

Duarte Costa had particularly indicated the wrongs of issuing Vatican passports to those who had actively participated in the Axis government and its atrocities. And by the use of these documents many who should have been tried and punished for their war crimes, obtained emmigration from their native countries only to relocate in others much to the public's ignorance of these facts. They setteled particularly in South America where they could lead quiet lives of escape, and thereby avoided all punishment for their heinous crimes in wartime.

After his "excommunication" he continued to minister in Brazil, there instituting the Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church. On August 15, 1945 he consecrated Salomeo Ferrez of the Ingeja Catolica Libre do Brazil(Free Catholic Church of Brazil). This church was organized in 1936 with Bishop Ferrez as its Bishop Primate.

Duarte Costa was a man of integrity, but his stance against the church resulted in the authorities in Brazil to question him and his motives. Being in a roman catholic country with allegiance to the pope, he was denied many privileges and rights, and eventually died an impoverished man without distinction.

Although today many question the authenticity of the orders descending from him, it is "undeniable" that he consecrated validly. One bishop who obtained consecration under his aegis, later was invited to head a commission in Vatican Council II. The very fact that he was not re-consecrated -- even sub-conditione -- but was given full episcopal privileges and honors by his consecration at the hands of Duarte Costa -- was incontrovertible evidence that Duarte Costa's ordinations and consecrations are all valid. By the Roman Church appointing and accepting this bishop, it thereby validated all the rest of Duarte Costa’s episcopal consecrations demonstrating they are "acceptable" to the Roman Catholic Church.

Their terminology for this is broached in the terminology of considering them “valid but not licit”. However in Duarte Costa’s case they are considered “licit” apparently and need no further explanation or clarification.


Armenian Uniate Line

The founding of the Holy Apostolic Church in Armenia can be traced to the Apostles Thaddeus and Eustatius, who were two of the "Seventy Apostles" (the list includes the original 12 plus those others considered equals of the original Apostles) sent out to evangelize the then known civilized world.

All suffered martyrdom about the middle of the First Century A.D. but the honor of converting the Armenians as a nation dedicated to Christ was gained by Saint Gregory the Illuminator, who in 302 was consecrated Archbishop of Etchmiadzine by Saint Leontius, Exarch of Caesarea in Cappadocia.

This was originally within the Patriarchate of Antioch, but afterwards it became a "catholicate" within the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church under the Patriarch of Etchmiadzine, the "Supreme Catholicos" of all the Armenians.

In about the twelfth century, some of the Armenians began to contemplate union with Rome and the Catholicos was present as guest of honor at the Latin Council of Antioch in 1141 and later at the Council of Florence in 1439 when a formal union was proclaimed.

But this document largely remained a "dead letter" and from 1701 all attempts to actualize it into a Uniate body failed.

In 1712 a line of Patriarchs arose in Cilicia and was inaugurated by Rome in the person of Peter Abraham I, from which time the Armenian 'Uniate' Church continues to this day.

During the reign of Patriarch Antonios Peter IX (Hassun), Archbishop Leon Charchorunian was consecrated to the Armenian Uniate Patriarchate and the Alexandrine Patriarchates of the Monophysites.

Today the cause of monophysites is questioned, and indeed championed by some of the Orthodox. Some insist that at the time of the separation of the Chalcedonian from the non Chalcedonian churches, there were political not doctrinal arguments and divisions, the monophysites although they chose an alliance that embraced the cause of the Melkites who were subsequently espoused to the Byzantine Patriarchate, -- and in the Great Schism of 1054 they remained among the Eastern Churches, theologically the issues which divided them from the main body, were perhaps a matter of semantics. It is now thought by some of the eastern churches, that it is time to reinstate them and accept them as brothers in the church no matter what differences now seem to separate them from the rest of the Body of Christ.

Under Patriarch Athanasius IV of Antioch, they submitted themselves to Rome and since then they continue as the Greek Melkite Uniate Church (Melkite meaning here traditionally as "allied to the King").

In the latter century quite a number fled the Turkish persecutions and the afermath of the second world war, most of them migrating to the United States.
But from 1911 onwards, those who had already migrated were under the aegis of Athanasius Sawoya, Archbishop of Beirut and Gebell in Syria who consecrated Joseph Aneed as Exarch of the Greek Melkite Rite in the U.S.


Syro-Chaldean Line

East Syria, Assyria, Persia and Mesopotamia were evangelized by Saint Thomas assisted by Saint Addai, who was one of the Seventy Apostles sent by Christ (Luke 10:1) and one of their disciples Saint Mari. They proceeded from Palestine to the east, preaching and eventually receiving martyrdom at Mylapore, India.

This has been recorded in the apocryphal Acts of Thomas which however is not one of the accepted canonical books of Holy Scripture. (Other branches of the one, holy, catholic and apostolic church do not follow the same rules for canonicity of the sacred writing, and one must take into account these issues too when investigating history.) According to Book IV of the Apostolic Histories the Apostles Saint Simon and Saint Jude also went to Persia where they consecrated Abdias as Bishop of Babylon.

The Persian Church from its earliest days was traditionally governed by the Metropolitan of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, which were the twin capitals of the Persion Empire. These were traditionally subject to the Patriarch of Antioch and all the East, but owing to difficulties of communication between them, the Patriarchal jurisdictional authority was delegated to the Metropolitan who was designated the “Catholicos of the East” which means “holder of all” and he was therefore the true Patriarch over it.

The Syro-Chaldean Church under this Catholicos at one time became the largest body of christians in the world, extending throughout all Persia, Mesopotamia, India and China, but was eventually reduced to small numbers by the barbarian invasions.

The Indian branch of the church remained in communion with the Catholicos until the Synod of Djampur in 1599, when latin missionaries forced the Indian Christians to sever their allegiance connection with the See of Seleucia-Ctesiphon and submit to Rome instead.

Although as stated, a number of them effected a union with the Syrian Orthodox Church of Malabar, for some, in the better part of two and a half centuries, they were cut off from their historic center of jurisdiction. A faithful remnant was perpetuated and it was not until 1862 that the Syro Chaldean jurisdiction in India was restored by the rise of His Sacred Beatitude Mar Shimun XVIII Reuben, Patriarch of Seleucia-Ctesiphon and Catholicos of the East who consecrated on Oct. 17, 1862 Thondatta Anthony, Mar Abdeese Antonios as Metropolitan of Malabar.

This resulted in the line which comes through Mar Georgius (Hugh George de Wilmott Newman) who then passed this on to Herman Adrian Spruit in 1957.


Chaldean Uniate

In 1445 a section of the Syro-Chaldean Church which was resident in Cyprus entered into union with Rome and Pope Eugenius IV threatened excommunication to anyone who dared to continue to call themselves “Nestorians”. In 1552 owing to a contested Patriarchal election a division took place in the main body and part seceeded to Rome as uniates.

The leader was John Sulaka, who had been invested as Uniate Patriarch by Pope Julius III on April 20, 1553 but his eventual successor Mar Shimun XIII repudiated the union agreement with Rome in 1662 because of the use of force and threat, and it is the predecessor of these Syro-Chaldean Patriarchs from then until the present which are in this line.

The group remaining in communion with Rome was for many years governed by a line of Patriarchs all bearing the name of Joseph but on July 5, 1830 Pope Pius VIII supressed the Josephite line and declared John VIII Hormez to be Patriarch of Babylon of the Chaldeans and as such the head of the Chaldean Uniate Rite which descends from Mar Emmanuel Thomas II, Patriarch of Babylon. From him issues the line which comes via Mar Georgius (Hugh George de Wilmott Newman) and is within the "Roman" controversy of validity of orders. But since the line is authentic there is no doubt its transmission is continuous.


Alexandrine Line

Ancient tradition also points to Alexandria where there was a large colony of jews as the scene of missionary activities along with Saint Mark the Evangelist. The Apostolic Constitutions (VIII,46) relate that he consecrated one Anienusas the first bishop of Alexandria and a second See where Abilios was consecrated by Saint Luke the Evangelist to serve the people there.

Because of the rapid spread of the gospel in Egypt, Alexandria became the Primatial See raised to the dignity of a Patriarchate ranking third only to Rome and Constantinople. Despite severe muslim persecution even up to today, it is sadly shorn of its former strength and glory.

The Coptic Orthodox Church has managed to continue in existence down to our own time, and owing to the presence of numerous Africans in the U.S. has established a mission under Archbishop St. John the Divine Hickersayon who consecrated on May 27, 1947 Mar Lukos, Bishop of Lagos, Accra and Trinidad who then consecrated Mar Georgius (de Wilmott Newman) on Sept. 18, 1954. He then extended this line to Spruit before the consecration of others such as James, and Billet.


Old English

Shortly after the outbreak of World War One (1914-1918) the Archbishop and fourth Earl of Landaff, Arnold Harris Mathew, decided it was necessary to arrange for the safeguarding of his Apostolic Succession and called upon his priests to elect a suitable candidate for the Episcopacy. This is the duty of ALL consecrated bishops -- to seek out someone to convey their line to -- so that the line may never be cut off at a dead end at the demise of that particular bishop. Needless to say this results in an exponential rise in number.

They in response elected Reverend Frederick Samuel Willoughby, a former anglican priest who was duly consecrated as recorded in the apostolic tables. His connection to the Old Catholic Church in Great Britain was formally terminated on May 19, 1915 by eventually submitting to the pressures of Rome for reunion.

Archbishop Mathew died on December 20, 1919 at which time this movement became known as the Old Roman Catholic Church in Great Britain. This line not only comes through Willoughby to others one way but also through Mar Georgius (Huges George de Wilmott Newman) a second time. The Glastonbury line is through this Newman connection also and because he perpetuated all 16 or 17 lines in himself, we benefit from numerous alternate lines in our succession heritage.



The Canterbury line at the top of the page is in the Anglican Communion also is well as in ours.

Descending from the earliest churches in Great Britain and Ireland, the advent of Saint Augustine with its controversy over a fully united English Church became an issue.

Later on, the issues of the divines came up, and in more modern times the issues graduated to those of the Oxford Movement, resulting in drawing closer to the Roman church and a higher church practice.
Newman who was involved in the movement eventually reconciled with Rome becoming a Cardinal of the church and others of course followed in his example.

This Anglican line is the same line which descends through Laud, Seabury, and others and becomes the founding lines of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, as well as a secondary line coming through the Free Protestant Movement. Today the church is breaking down further due to serious issues all revolving around reform and change.

these same changes also have wreaked havoc in the Roman Church too with Vatican Council II. Our faith and practice continues by a return to earlier forms and a strict adherence to the apostolic faith which is our rudder.