Heyerdahl, Thor, 1914-2002.The Kon-Tiki Expedition (1947)world-renowned Norwegian explorer and archaeologist. Born in Larvik, Norway.
Green Cross International
from BBC (see also below)
Thor Heyerdahl Linkpage
Kon-Tiki Web Server
The First KonTiki
bio at Green Cross Intl (see also below)
bio from Who2.com
Thor Heyerdahl and the Expeditions of the Pacific Peoples
Thor Heyerdahl Expeditons (see also below)
Heyerdahl and his crews (see also below)
Thursday, 18 April, 2002, 18:40 GMT 19:40 UK
Explorer Thor Heyerdahl dies
Thor Heyerdahl: Intrepid Norwegian explorer
The renowned Norwegian explorer and archaeologist Thor Heyerdahl has died of cancer at the age of 87. He passed away in his family home at Colla Micheri, northern Italy, after a long illness.
Heyerdahl had undergone surgery last year, but it failed to halt his disease. He was admitted to hospital in March when the cancer spread to his brain.
We seem to believe the ocean is endless... we use it like a sewer ---
Heyerdahl will be forever remembered as the Kon-Tiki man. In 1947 he skippered the tiny balsawood raft on a 6,000 kilometre journey from Peru to Polynesia.
It proved, he said, that ancient cultures could have sailed to, and populated, the South Pacific.
Thor Heyerdahl was born in Southern Norway in 1914. After studying zoology and geography at university he married and, in 1936, travelled with his new wife to the Marquesan archipelago in Pacific.
He spent a year in the Marquesas, living off the land and studying the local flora and fauna of this remote island group, the population of which included a man whose father was a cannibal.
However, he soon became more interested in how Polynesia had been originally populated. He realised that the Pacific currents ran from east to west and that many local plants were identical to those of South America.
He served with the Free Norwegian Forces during the Second World War. During the World War II, he returned home to fight for the Free Norwegian Forces in his occupied homeland: highly dangerous work which saw him decorated for bravery.
The Kon-Tiki expedition caught the imagination of a world enduring post-war austerity. The film of the expedition won Thor Heyerdahl an Oscar for best documentary, the book sold 60 million copies worldwide.
He followed his epic journey with archaeological expeditions in the Pacific aimed at finding artefacts left by ancient South Americans.
In 1953 he travelled to the Galapagos Islands, 100 miles west of Ecuador. Here he found large quantities of ceramic pottery which could be traced to Indian cultures of Ecuador and Peru.
In 1955 and 1956, Thor Heyerdahl conducted the first co-ordinated excavations of Easter Island, the abandoned island whose many carved heads stand sentinel on the Pacific. Again, he found indications of early visitors from South America.
The Kon-Tiki crossing the Pacific, 1947
In 1970 he crossed the Atlantic in a papyrus craft, Ra II after the original Ra had disintegrated shortly after it set out. The journey, which ended in triumph in the West Indies turned the idea that Columbus was the first transatlantic navigator on its head.
Eight years he skippered another ship, the Tigris, on a journey from the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, down the Persian Gulf to Oman, Pakistan and, then, across the Indian Ocean to Djibouti on the Horn of Africa.
The five month journey was meant to show how the ancient Sumerians could have travelled widely.
When, in Djibouti, the Tigris was prevented from entering the Red Sea by local conflicts, Heyerdahl burned it in a poignant protest against war. A committed internationalist, he always travelled with a multinational crew and always flew the flag of the United Nations.
Thor Heyerdahl's expeditions fostered a close understanding of the global environment and he voiced his concern at the increasing problem of pollution which he had encountered even in the middle of the world's oceans .
Tigris burns: Djibouti 1978
"We seem to believe the ocean is endless," he said, "but we use it like a sewer."
Latterly, he had spent many years in South America, supervising the excavation of the largest complex of pyramids in South America at Tacume in Peru.
Critics claim that Thor Heyerdahl's views were wrong and that his archaeological and research methods left much to be desired. He countered that his many expeditions, backed up by the artefacts which he had found scattered throughout Polynesia, proved his case.
He said the world's oceans should be treated as one vast highway. That was how, he claimed, that ancient civilisations saw them. Modern people, he said, should be more ready to think in ancient terms.
Thor Heyerdahl's controversial beliefs on human migration may have cut across the conventional wisdom of his time, but his pioneering spirit and continuing quest for understanding endeared him to millions.
from Green Cross International
Thor Heyerdahl is a world-renowned explorer and archaeologist. He was born in 1914, in Larvik, Norway. From his earliest days, he was an enthusiatic nature lover, and he was inspired by his mother (who was head of the local museum) to take an interest in zoology and nature. While still in primary school, he ran a one-room zoological museum from his home. Mr. Heyerdahl later enrolled at the University of Oslo, where he specialized in zoology and geography until leaving on his first expedition to Polynesia in 1937-1938
The First Expeditions to Polynesia (1937-38) and Northwest America (1940-41)
Arriving in Polynesia, the young student Heyerdahl and his bride Liv were adopted by the supreme Polynesian Chief of Tahiti, Teriieroo in 1937. After training in the Polynesian way of life and customs, the Heyerdahls settled for one year on the isolated island of Fatuhiva in the Marquesas Group. While doing research on the transoceanic origins of the island's animal life, the naturalist lived an otherwise traditional Polynesian life. During this time, he began to contemplate the existing theories of how the South Pacific inhabitants reached the islands. Stuggling with the eternal easterly winds and currents whenever he and his Polynesian friends ventured into the sea to fish, he lost faith in textbook claims that these islands had been discovered and settled by as yet unidentified stone-age voyagers from Southeast Asia who had sailed and paddled against the currents for ten thousand miles. Instead Heyerdahl became convinced that human settlers had come with the ocean currents from the west just as the flora and fauna had done.
Abandoning his study of zoology, Heyerdahl began an intensive study of testing his theory on the origins of the Polynesian race and culture. He suggested that migration to Polynesia had followed the natural North Pacific conveyor, therefore turning his search for origins to the coasts of British Columbia and Peru. While working at the Museum of British Columbia, Heyerdahl first published his theory (International Science, New York, 1941) that Polynesia had been reached by two successive waves of immigrants. His theory suggested that the first wave had reached Polynesia via Peru and Easter Island on balsa rafts. Centuries later, a second ethnic group reached Hawaii in large double-canoes from British Columbia. The results of Heyerdahl's research were later published in his 800-page volume, American Indians in the Pacific (Stockholm, London, Chicago, 1952).
Interupted by the outbreak of the Second World War, Heyerdahl returned to Norway to volunteer for the Free Norwegian Forces, eventually serving in a Nowegian parachute unit in Finnmark.
The Kon-Tiki Expedition (1947)
After the war, Heyerdahl continued his research, only to meet a wall of resistance to his theories amongst comtemporary scholars. To add weight to his arguments, Heyerdahl decided to build a replica of the aboriginal balsa raft (named the "Kon-Tiki") to test his theories. In 1947, Heyerdahl and five companions left Callio, Peru and crossed 8000 km (4300 miles) in 101 days to reach Polynesia (Raroia atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago). Despite skepticisim, the seaworthiness of the aboriginal raft was thus proven and showed that the ancient Peruvians could have reached Polynesia in this manner.
he Galapagos Expedition (1952)
Following the success of the Kon-Tiki Expedition, Heyerdahl organized and led the Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to the Galapagos Islands. The group investigated the pre-Columbian habitation sites, locating an Inca flute and shards from more than 130 pieces of ceramics which were later identified as pre-Incan. The Galapagos Islands are located about 1000 km off the coast of Ecuador and thus South American archaeology was extended for the first time in to the open Pacific Ocean. Parallel to this expedition, Heyerdahl worked with experts in rediscovering the lost art of the guara, a kind of aboriginal center-board used by the indians of Peru and Ecuador for navigation. From this tool, not used on the Kon-Tiki voyage, it become clear that ancient South American voyagers had the means to navigate as well as travel great distances in the Pacific.
The Easter Island Expedition (1955-56)
Following his successful work, Heyerdahl was encouraged to direct a major archaeological expedition to the Pacific's most isolated island: Easter Island. An expedition of 23 persons reached the island and began the first sub-surface archaeological excavation every attempted. They soon discovered that Easter Island had once been wooded until deforested by its original inhabitants, who also planted water-reeds and other South American plants.
Carbon dating showed that the Island had been occupied from about 380 A.D., about one thousand years earlier than scientists previously believed. Excavations indicated that some ancient stone carvings on the Island were similar to ancient traditions in Peru. Some Easter Islanders claimed that according to their legends, they orginally arrived from the far away lands to the East. The results of Heyerdahl's work were widely discussed and presented at the Tenth Pacific Science Congress in Honolulu (1961) where they were supported by the unanimous statement: "Southeast Asia and the islands adjacent constitute one major source area of the peoples and cultures of the Pacific Islands and South America". Thus, Heyerdahl's eastern migration theory had gained considerable influence.
The RA Expeditions (1969-70)
Thor Heyerdahl continued his research on ancienct navigation and turned his attention to the ancient reed-boats made of papyrus. These boats were deemed insufficient to cross the Atlantic as the reeds were believed to become water-logged after less than two weeks on open water. Heyerdahl believed that contemporary science underestimated the the ancient vessels and undertook to prove this by experiment. In 1969, he bought 12 tons of papyrus and worked with experts to construct an ancient-style vessel. The result was a 15 m boat which was launched at the old Phoenician port of Safi, Morocco. In the spirit of cooperation, Heyerdahl embarked under the UN flag with a crew of seven men from seven countries. The papyrus craft, Ra, sailed 5000 km (2700 nautical miles) in 56 days until storms and deficiencies in the construction caused the team to abandon their target only one week short of Barbados.
Ten months later, Heyerdahl tried the same voyage with the smaller (12 meter) Ra II. This vessel crossed the widest part of the Atlantic 6100 km (3270 nautical miles) in 57 days, from Safi to Barbados. Once again, this voyage showed that modern science under-estimated long-forgotten aboriginal technologies. The theory that Mediterranean vessels built prior to Columbus could not have crossed the Atlantic was thrown on its head.
In subsequent years, Heyerdahl continued on many other expeditions, including the Tigris river (1977) and the Maldives Islands (1982, 83 and 84). Now in his eighties, Heyerdahl remains an active participant in archaeological expeditions, as well as an international promoter of cooperation and understanding between peoples across the globe.
Awards and Honors
Thor Heyerdahl is the recipient of numerous medals, awards and honours. In 1999, he received the norvegian Peer Gynt Prize He has been a regular member of various scientific congresses, notably the International Congress of Americanists, the Pacific Science Congress, and the International Congress of Anthropology and Ethnology.
Paa jakt efter Paradiset. Oslo (1938)
The Kon-Tiki Expedition. (translated into 64 languages), Oslo (1948)
American Indians in the Pacific, The Theory Behind the Kon-Tiki Expedition. Stockholm, London, Chicago (1952)
Archeological Evidence of Pre-Spanish Visits to the Galpagos Islands. (With A. Skjoldsvold). Memoir of the Soc. for American Archeology, N. 12. Salt Lake City (1956)
AKU-AKU. The Secret of Easter Island. (translated into numerous languages). Oslo (1957)
Reports of the Norwegian Archeological Expedition to Easter Island and the East Pacific. (With co-editor: E.N. Ferdon, Jr.). Vol. I: Archeology of Easter Island. Vol. II: Miscellaneous Papers. Monograph of American School of Research, the Musem of New Mexico and the Kon-Tiki Museum. Santa Fe, London, Chicago, Oslo (1961)
Vanished Civilizations. (co-author chapter: Navel of the World). London (Thames Hudson) (1963)
Sea Routes to Polynesia. London, Chicago (1967), (various translations from the original: Indianer und Alt-Asiaten im Pazifik. Vienna 1965)
The Ra Expeditions. (numerous translations), Oslo (1967)
Quest for America. (co-author, chapters: Isolationist and Diffusionist and The Bearded Gods Speak). Pall Mall Press Lts., London (1971)
Note: (Heyerdahl's English language publishers are Allen Unwin Ltd., London, Rand Mc Nally Company, Chicago, and Doubleday Co. Inc., New York).
Thor Heyerdahl and his crews
18th of April 2002, 7 PM, Norwegian summer time: Thor Heyerdahl died peacefully surrounded by his closest family in his Colla Micheri home, Italy.
Thor Heyerdahl, born in Larvik, Norway, in 1914 originally a zoology student, travelled with his first wife, Liv, to Fatuhiva (Marquesas Islands) in order to study wildlife in this part of the Pacific. However, he soon found himself involved with other projects: How were the islands originally populated? The consensus was that Polynesia had been populated from the west, but Heyerdahl noticed that the provailing winds and currents ran from east to west so its people could have travelled across the sea from South America. In 1947 he mounted the Kon-Tiki expedition to prove that this was possible, using a copy of the balsawood rafts used by the South American Indians in ancient times. This adventure was followed by many more expeditions: trips to the Galapagos Islands and Easter Island; voyages in the Ra I, Ra II and Tigris, and trips to the Maldives, Easter Island again and then Peru (Túcume).
The Kon-Tiki expedition
The balsawood raft Kon-Tiki was built in Peru in 1947 using logs from Ecuador. A crew of six (five Norwegians and one Swede) sailed her from Callao in Peru to the reef of Raroia in Polynesia. In 101 days the Kon-Tiki put behind her around 5 000 miles of the Pacific Ocean. The expedition proved that Polynesia was indeed within the range of balsawood rafts from South America. A documentary of the voyage won two Academy Awards (Oscars) in 1951, and the book about the expedition has hitherto been translated into 66 languages.
The Ra expeditions
With reliefs and wall paintings of papyrus vessels in ancient Egyptian tombs as their guide, boat-builders from Chad were commisioned to build a 45 foot long copy at the foot of the pyramides. Named after the ancient sun god Ra, the vessel was transported to Safi, Morocco from where it set sail for Barbados. After around 3 000 miles there were problems with the designs of the stern which could not take the strain, and so the trip had to be abandoned -- just a week from Barbados. Ten months later four Aymara Indians from Bolivia who still mastered the traditional art of building reed boats built the Ra II, which went on to complete a successfull transatlantic crossing, covering 4 000 miles to Barbados in just 57 days.
In order to prove that there could have been contact and crossfertilisation between the great cultures of Mesopotamia, the Indus valley and Egypt across the seas, in 1977 the Indians behind the Ra II built another boat, this time in Iraq using the local berdi reeds. At over 50 foot long and with a crew of 11, the Tigris was the largest reed craft Thor Heyerdahl had built. The expedition headed down the river Tigris through the Persian Gulf and into the Indian Ocean before the voyage came to a sudden end in Djibouti, at the entrance to the Read Sea. Here Thor Heyerdahl set light to the boat in protest at the wars raging all around at the time.
In 1955 Thor Heyerdahl travelled to Easter Island and Eastern Polynesia on a trip which was self-financed but patronised by King Olav V of Norway. Heyerdahl's archaeological excavations found that the famous Moai stone heads were in fact huge statues buried in soil and quarry waste. Carved into one of these stones was a depiction of a large papyrus boat with mast and sails. The expedition also discovered some previously unknown types of statue reminiscent of those found in South America. The members of the expedition also visited secret family tombs where they found skeletons and small stone sculptures.
Between 1988 and 1994 Thor Heyerdahl led archaeological excavations in Túcume, Northern Peru. The area is home to 26 pyramid-like adobe structures and a range of other ceremonial sites. Perhaps the most important find was a temple mound where the walls were adorned with friezes in high relief which included depistions of sea-going papyrus boats surrounded by birdman images of the same kind as found on Easter Island.
In the 80's the Kon-Tiki Museum returned to Easter Island. Alongside an attempt to find out how the giant Moai statues were moved came excavation work focusing on the island's oldest habitation and the famous Ahu temple platforms. The Kon-Tiki Museum has ongoing research interests in the Pacific.
The Kon-Tiki Museum
The Kon-Tiki Museum (Oslo, Norway) houses a range of boats and artifacts from Thor Heyerdahl's expeditions. Here you can see the original Kon-Tiki raft (1947) with a 30 foot whale shark underneath, statues and a secret family tomb from Easter Island (1956), the papyrus boat Ra (1970) and an exciting collection of archaeological finds from Peru, Polynesia and Easter Island. There is also a new touch screen video system and a cinema with continous showings. The Kon-Tiki Museum is open all year round and is one of Norway's best visited museums (300 000--400 000 visitors a year).
The Kon-Tiki crew
Thor Heyerdahl died peacefully surrounded by his closest family on the 18th of April 2002 in his Colla Micheri home, Italy.
Knut Haugland, who played an important part in building up the Kon-Tiki Museum, is also fit for his age. He still gives lectures about the expedition from time to time, and visits the museum quite often.
Erik Hesselberg wrote the bestseller Kon-Tiki and I, an amusing children's book illustrated with own drawings. The Kon-Tiki god that decorates the sail of the raft is also his work. He died in 1972.
Torstein Raaby died in 1964, 44 years old.
Herman Watzinger died in 1986, nearly 70 years old.
Bengt Danielsson, the only Swede on board, wrote lots of books about the Pacific area and lived for many years down there. He died 4th of July 1997.
The Ra II crew
Thor Heyerdahl (Norway)
Norman Baker (USA)
Yuri Senkevitch (Russia)
Carlo Mauri (Italy)
Georges Sourial (Egypt)
Santiago Genovés (Mexico)
Madaui Ait Ouhauvei (Morocco)
Kei Ohara (Japan)
The Tigris crew
Thor Heyerdahl (Norway)
Germán Carrasco (Mexico)
Carlo Mauri (Italia)
Norman Baker (USA)
Yuri Senkevitch (Russia)
Hans Peter Bøhn (Norway)
Asbjørn Damhus (Denmark)
Rashad Salim (Iraque)
Toru Suzuki (Japan)
Detlef Zoltzek (Germany)
Below is found information regarding the research and writings of Thor Heyerdahl including a bibliography of scientific and popular works.
BIOGRAPHIES OF THOR HEYERDAHL:
Arnold Jacoby, 1968, Senor Kon-Tiki. Allen and Unwin, London.
Christopher Ralling, 1990, Kon-Tiki Man. BBC Books, London.
Snorre Evensberget, 1994, Thor Heyerdahl: The Explorer. J.M. Stenersens, Oslo. Berndt Schulz, 1998, Thor Heyerdahl: Wissenschaft als Abenteur. Rasch und Röhring, Hamburg.
BBC-TV Television Series: The Kon-Tiki Man.
Organized and led the expedition by the balsa raft Kon-Tiki from Peru to Polynesia in 1947 to demonstrate the possibility of aboriginal South American voyages to the Oceanic islands. Organized and led Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to the Galapagos Islands revealing evidence of prehistoric camp sites, and experimented with aboriginal tacking principles of balsa rafts in Ecuador, 1952-53. Led Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to Easter Island and the East Pacific discovering distinct cultural layers with South American correspondences, 1955-56. Continued research and publications on Polynesian culture and migration, 1957-68. Began experiments with the seaworthiness of reed ships in 1969 (the Ra Expeditions) and sailing the papyrus ship Ra II with an international crew from Safi in Morocco to Barbados in 1970. Continued research on pre-European navigation, sailing the Sumerian-type reed ship
Tigris with an international crew of eleven, from Qurna in Iraq by way of the Indus Valley to Djibouti in Africa 1977-78. Organized and led the Kon-Tiki Museum Archaeological Expeditions to the Maldive Islands.
excavations at Tucume, Peru, 1988-94, discovering rich evidence of a pre-Inca maritime culture. Since 1990, establishing a orwegian-Spanish archeological projectin the Canary Islands, protecting as national heritage the newly identified step-pyramids in Guimar on Tenerife, and chairing the Scientific Committee of the new international research foundation, FERCO (Foundation for Exploration and Research on Cultural Origins).
Since 1950, lecturer at numerous scientific academies and universities with a wide range of publications on aboriginal migration routes into the East Pacific from Southeast Asia and South America.
Lecturer, International. Congress of Americanists from 1952- and Pacific Science Congress from 1961, published in the Congress Proceedings. The ocean pollution observed from the reed ship Ra I was reported
to the United Nations and thus began an active involvement in environmental protection. Since 1966, Vice President World Association of World Federalists; Trustee, International Board, World Wildlife Fund for Nature 1977; International Patron, United World Colleges 1980-; Vice-Pres., Worldview International; Hon. Director, Explorers Club N.Y.; International Advisor, Green Cross International 1993.
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR WORKS BY THOR HEYERDAHL.
(Note: The listing below is nearly, but not quite, complete. Several of the books have been printed by multiple publishers in different countries and in different languages.)
1938 Pa Jakt efter paradiset. [Searching for Paradise.]
1941 "Did Polynesian Culture Originate in America?" International Science 1 (May) 15-26
1941 "Turning back time in the South Seas." National Geographic Magazine 79(1):109-136.
1947 "Le Kon-Tiki a ` Papeete." [The Kon-Tiki to Papeete.]
Bulletin de la societe d'etudes ocieniennes 7345-355
1950 "The Voyage of the Raft Kon-Tiki: An Argument for American-Polynesian Diffusion."
Geographical Journal 11520-41
1950 "Far-kolumbisk sjafart i Peru: den praktiske mulighet for diffusjon til Polynesien."[Pre-Columbian Voyaging in Peru; The Practical Means for Diffusion to Polynesia] Ymer 2108-137
1950 Kon-Tiki: Across the Pacific by Raft. Rand McNally New York
1951-1952 "Some Problems of Aboriginal Migration in the Pacific."
Archiv fur Vdlkerkunde 6/7, Beiheft 1
1952 American Indians in the Pacific: The Theory behind the Kon-Tiki Expedition. George Allen and Unwin, London
1953 "Aboriginal Navigation in Peru."
Proceedings of the30th International Congress of Americanists (Cambridge, England, 1952), 72-76
1953 "Objects and Results of the Kon-Tiki Expedition."
Proceedings of the 30th International Congress of Americanists (Cambridge, England, 1952), 76-81
1953 "Some Basic Problems in Polynesian Anthropology."
Proceedings of the 30th International Congress of Americanists (Cambridge, England, 1952), 81-85
1955 "The Balsa Raft in Aboriginal Navigation off Peru and Ecuador."
Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 11251-264
1955 "Preliminary Report on the Discovery of Archaeology in the Galapagos Islands." Proceedings of the 31st International Congress of Americanists (Sao Paulo, 1954), 2685-697.
1957 "Guara Navigation: Indigenous Sailing off the Andean Coast."
Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 13:34-143
1958 Aku-Aku: The Secret of Easter Island. Allen and Unwin, London .
1959 "Guara Sailing Technique Indigenous to South America."
Proceedings of the 33rd International Congress of Americanists (San Josi, Costa Rica, 1958), 1333-340
1962 "The objectives of the expedition." Reports of the Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to Easter Island and the East Pacific, vol. 1, Archaeology of Easter Island. Monograph of the School of American Research and the Museum of New Mexico, no. 24, part 1, Allen and Unwin, London
1962 "An introduction to Easter Island." Reports of the Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to Easter Island and the East Pacific, vol. 1, Archaeology of Easter Island. Monograph of the School American Research and the Museum of New Mexico, no. 24, part 1, Allen and Unwin, London
1962 "Surface artifacts." Reports of the Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to Easter Island and the East Pacific, vol. 1, Archaeology of Easter Island. Monograph of the School of American Research and the Museum of New Mexico, no. 24, part 1, Allen and Unwin, London
1962 "General discussion." Reports of the Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to Easter Island and the East Pacific, vol. 1, Archaeology of Easter Island. Monograph of the School of American Research and the Museum of New Mexico, no. 24, part 1, Allen and Unwin, London
1962 "Merrill's Reappraisal of Ethnobotanical Evidence for Prehistoric Contact between South America and Polynesia." Proceedings of the 34th International Congress of Americanists (Vienna, 1960), 789-795
1963 "Prehistoric Voyages as Agencies for Melanesian and South American Plant and Animal Dispersal to Polynesia." Plants and the Migrations of Pacific Peoples, A Symposium Held at the TenthPacific
Sciences Congress.(Honolulu, 1961), edited by Jacques Barrau (Bernice P. Bishop Museum Press Honolulu), 23-35
1963 "Feasible Ocean Routes to and from the Americas in Pre-Columbian Times." American Antiquity 28482-488
1963 "Archaeology in the Galapagos Islands." Galapagos Islands A Unique Area for Scientific Investigations; A Symposium Presented at the Tenth Pacific Science Congress (Honolulu, 1961), Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences (San Francisco), 4445-51
1964 "Plant Evidence for Contacts with America before Columbus." Antiquity 38/150120-133
1964 "Feasible Ocean Routes to and from the Americas in Pre-Columbian Times." Proceedings of the 35th International Congress of Americanists (Mexico, 1962), 1133-142
1965 "The Concept of Rongo-Rongo among the Historic Population of Easter Island." Reports of the Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to Easter Island and the East Pacific, vol.2 Miscellaneous Papers, edited by Thor Heyerdahl and Edwin N. Ferdon, Jr., pages 368-383, Monograph of the School of American Research and the Kon-Tiki Museum, no. 24, part 2
1965 "The Statues of the Oipona Me4ae, with a Comparative Analysis of Possibly Related Stone Monuments." Reports of the Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to Easter Island and the East Pacific, vol. 2 Miscellaneous Papers, edited by Thor Heyerdahl and Edwin N. Ferdon, Jr., pages 123-151, Monograph of the School of American Research and the Kon-Tiki Museum, no. 24, part 2
1965 "Notes on the Pre-European Coconut Groves on Cocos Island."
Reports of the Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to Easter Island and the East Pacific, vol.2, Miscellaneous Papers, edited by Thor Heyerdahl and Edwin N. Ferdon, Jr., pages 461-467, Monograph of the School of American Research and the Kon-Tiki Museum, no. 24, part 2, n.p.
1966 "Discussions of Transoceanic Contact: Isolationism, Diffusionism, or a Middle Course?" Anthropos 61689-707
1966 "The Inca Inspiration behind the Spanish Discoveries of Polynesia and Melanesia." Proceedings of the 36th International Congress of Americanists (Barcelona and Seville, 1964), 193-104
1966 Indianer und Alt-Asiaten im Pazifik: Das Abenteuer einer Theorie. [Indians and Ancient Asians in the Pacific The Adventure of a Theory] Wollzeilen, Vienna
1968 Sea Routes to Polynesia. Rand McNally, Chicago.
1968 "An Introduction to Discussions of Transoceanic Contacts: Isolationism, Diffusionism, or a Middle Course?" Proceedings of the 37th International Congress of Americanists (Mar del Plata, Argentina,(1966), 467-88.
1968 "The Prehistoric Culture of Easter Island." Prehistoric Culture in Oceania A Symposium, edited by I. Yawata and Y. H. Sinoto, Eleventh Pacific Science Congress, Tokyo, 1967 (Bishop Museum Press Honolulu), 133- 140
1970 The Ra Expeditions. (Doubleday, New York, 1971).
1971 "Yoyage of Ra II." National Geographic 139/144-71
1971 "Ra II erreicht das Ziel mit einem Papyrus boot von Afrika nach Amerika." [Ra II Reaches Its Goal On a Papyrus Boat from Africa to America.] Westermann Monatshefte 244-53
1971 "The Bearded God Speaks." The Quest for America., edited by Geoffrey Ashe (Praeger New York), 199-238
1971 "Isolationist or Diffusionist?" The Quest for America., edited by Geoffrey Ashe (Praeger New York), 115-154
1972 "Epilogue." Viking America; the Norse Crossings and Their Legacy., by James Enterline (Doubleday Garden City, New York), 165-182
1974 Fatu Hiva. Doubleday, New York.
1975 The Art of Easter Island. Doubleday Garden City, New York
1976 "Review of Das Achte Land." [The Eighth Continent], by Thomas S. Barthel Journal of the Polynesian Society 85399-405
1976 "Primitive Navigation." Mankind's Future in the Pacific, 13th Pacific Science Congress, 1975, edited by Robert Scogel and William S. Hoar (University of British Columbia Press Vancouver), 172-196
1978 Early Man and the Ocean: The Beginnings of Navigation and Seaborne Civilizations. Allen and Unwin, London.
1979 "The heterogeneity of small sculptures on Easter Island before 1886. Asian Perspectives 22(1):9-31.
1981 The Tigris Expedition. Doubleday, New York.
1981 "With Stars and Waves in the Pacific." Archaeoastronomy 432-38
1986 The Maldive Mystery. Allen and Unwin, London.
1989 Easter Island The Mystery Solved. Random House New York
1996 La navegacion maritima en el antiguo Peru. [Seafaring in Early Peru.] Instituto de Estudios Historico-Maritimos de Peru, Lima.
1996 Green was the Earth on the seventh day. Random House, New York.
1996 Hablan los vencidos. [Let the conquered speak.] Angulo Basombrio, Lima.
1997 "A reapraisal of Alfred Metraux's search for extra-island parallels to Easter Island. Rapa Nui Journal 11(1):12-23.
1998 I Adams fotspor. J.M. Stenersens, Oslo. English version (2000): In the footsteps of Adam. Little, Brown and Co., London.
Heyerdahl, Thor, and Arne Skjolsvold
1956 Archaeological Evidence of Pre-Spanish Visits to the Galapagos Islands. Memoirs 12, Society for American Archaeology, Salt Lake City.
Supplement to American Antiquity 22, no. 2, part 3
Heyerdahl, Thor, Soren Richter, and H. J. Riiser-Larsen
1956 Great Norwegian Expeditions. Dreyers Forlag Oslo
Heyerdahl, Thor, and Edwin N. Ferdon, Jr., editors
1962 Reports of the Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to Easter Island and the East Pacific, vol. 1 Archaeology of Easter Island. Monograph of the School of American Research and the Museum of
New Mexico, no. 24, part 1, Allen and Unwin, London
Heyerdahl, Thor, and Edwin N. Ferdon, Jr., editors
1965 Reports of the Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to Easter Island and the East Pacific, vol. 2 Miscellaneous Papers. Monograph of the School of American Research and the Kon-Tiki Museum,
no. 24, part 2
Heyerdahl, Thor, Daniel H. Sandweiss, and Alfredo Narvaez
1995 Pyramids of Tucume The Quest for Peru's Forgotten City. Thames and Hudson New York
Heyerdahl, Thor, Daniel H. Sandweiss, Alfredo Narvaez, Luis Millones
1996 Tucume. Banco de Credito, Lima.
Heyerdahl, Thor and Per Lillieström
2000 Ingen Grenser. (No Boundaries) J.M. Stenersens, Oslo.
Heyerdahl, Thor and Per Lillieström
2001 Jakten på Odin. (The Hunt for Odin.) J.M. Stenersens, Oslo.
The Kon-Tiki Expedition (Oscar Award, National Academy of Motion Pictures Arts & Science, 1951); Galapagos Expedition,1953; Aku-Aku,1957; The Ra Expeditions (Oscar nominated,1971); The Tigris Expedition,1979; The Maldives Mystery, 1986.
SCIENTIFIC HONORS AND AWARDS INCLUDE::
Retzius Medal, Royal Swedish Society for Anthropology and
Geography, 1950; Mungo Park Medal, Royal Scottish Society for Geography, 1951; Bonaparte-Wyse Gold Medal, Societe de Geographie de Paris,1951; Bush Kent Kane Gold Medal, Geographical. Society of
Philadelphia,1952; Honorary Member, Geographical Societies of Norway, 1953, Peru, 1953, Brazil 1954. Elected Member Norwegian Academy of Sciences, 1958; Fellow, New York Academy of Science, 1960; Doctor Honoris Causa, OsloUniversity, Norway, 1961; Vega Gold Medal, Swedish Society for Anthropology and Gcography, 1962; Lomonosov Medal, Moscow University, 1962; Royal Geographical Society, Gold Medal London,1964; Distinguished Service Award, Pacific Lutheran University, 1966; Member American Anthropological Association, 1966; Kiril i Metodi Award, Geographical Society, Bulgaria, 1972; Honorary Professor, Institute Politecnica, Universidad Nacional, Mexico, 1972; International Pahlavi Environment Prize, United Nations 1978; Doctor Honoris Causa, USSR Academy of Science, 1980; Bradford Washburn Award, Boston Museum of Science, USA, 1982; Doctor Honoris Causa, University of San Martin, Lima, Peru, 1991; Doctor Honoris Causa, University of Havana, Cuba 1992; Doctor Honoris Causa University of Kiev, Ukraine, 1993; President's Medal, Pacific Lutheran University, 1996.
Commander of the Order of St Olav, Norway, 1951, and with Star, 1970; Officer of El Orden por Meritos Distinguidos, Peru, 1953; Grand Officer Orden Al Merito della Republica Italiana, 1968; Commander, American Knights of Malta, 1970; Order of Merit, Egypt, 1971; Grand Officer, Royal Alaouites Order, Morocco, 1971; Order of Golden Ark, Netherlands, 1980; Officer, La Orden El Sol del Peru, 1975.