Chapter 14 StartóUnderstanding and Using Standardized Tests The first concept mentioned in the chapter is that of standardized tests, which all of us are familiar with I am sure. They are tests, which items are presented and scored in standard fashion and the results are reported with reference to standards. Some general characteristics of standardized tests are: ∑ Designed by people with specialized knowledge and training in test construction ∑ Every person who takes the test responds to the same items under the same conditions ∑ The answers are evaluated according to the same scoring standards ∑ Scores are interpreted through comparison to the scores obtained from a group (norm group) that took the same test under the same conditions or to a predetermined standard Can you think of any test that you have taken recently that would fall under this category???? What is the basic purpose of issuing standardized tests? Uses of the tests: These tests are used to identify strengths and weaknesses in the student, plan instruction and select students for certain programs. Do you think these students test scores should be the only variable used to decide whether or not they get into a gifted and talented program?? Reliability of the Tests: The tests of these students are fairly reliable. They believe you should be able to count on the test scores just as you would a reliable worker doing a consistent job time after time. What are the three types of reliability testing out there?? (hint pg. 474) Validity is another important characteristic of a test. This is used to make sure how accurate a test measures what users want it to measure. In other words, an exam over math should only cover math and nothing else. There are three types of validity evidence testing, which of the three do you feel is the best in measuring the validity of the test?? Norm groups are formed as the measure against which all other scores are compared. Why is this so important to the meaningfulness of a standardized test?? TYPES OF STANDARDIZED TESTS Achievement Test-will measure how much of a subject or skill has been learned. What are some examples of this type of test? What are some examples of this type of test, maybe you have heard of or have taken?? Non-Referenced Tests- are used to compare one students with others. Do you think these are a good idea?? Criterion Referenced Tests- indicate degree of mastery of objects. When would this type of test be most effective? The most widely used score for standardized test is the percentile rank, which is a percentage of scores at or below a given point. What is Standard Deviation and what are the z and T scores that accompany it???? Stanine curve was developed to reflect a studentís performance indicated with reference to a 9 point scale based on a normal curve. What war was this developed during? How can technology be used to enhance standardized testing?? What are the three types of reliability testing out there?? (Hint pg. 474) The Three types of reliability testing are test-retest, alternate-from and split-half. Test-retest administer the same test to the same people on two occasions and measure the extent to which the rankings change over time. Alternate-form reliability is to administer a single test to a group of students, create two scores by dividing the test in half, and measure the extent to which the ranking change for one half to the other. The last test is split-half reliability, which measures the internal consistency of a test. The test that I would use most in my classroom would be the alternate-form reliability. I would use this method over the others because this test seems to be fair to the students and their ability to succeed on tested material. It also does not allow them to cheat because of the forms; however, it allows to be tested over the same material. The two others seem unbalanced while the alternate-form gives each student the same material and allows them to receive the scores they deserve.