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A Dictionary of Military Architecture
Fortification and Fieldworks from the Iron Age to the Eighteenth Century
By Stephen Francis Wyley
Drawings by Steven Lowe

Notes on use



Updates: Casemate (28/5/2002) Clavicula (29/11/04), Foss (29/11/04)


22/03/04 Albarrana, Almenara, Anbar, Baliqs, Bashura, Buheradas, Burj, Caravaserai, Castellae, Castron, Chatris, Cheng, Cholli Castle, Cawd, Fasil, Hisn, Intervallum, Jayb, Kastron, Kremlin, Kuklos, Kushk, Lavra, Manzil, Marsad, Obos, Ordu, Paraportia, Pashtib, Qalca, Qasabah, Qubba, Rutba, Shurrafa, Tabica, Taif, Talcaya, Ukeks, Utum, Yang-ma-Ch'eng, Zahafah, Zaqaziq, Zariba.

20/07/04 Trous-de-loup

29/11/04 Ascensi valli, Ballistarium, Cippi, Fossa fastigata, Fossa punica, Latera praetorii, Lilia, Numerus, Spina, Tituli, Titulum, Via sagularis, Via vicinariae.

14/01/05 Casatorri (Family Towers), Curtes regia, Curticula, Egyption merlons, Guardinghi, Hilani edifices, SpeculaRandhausburgen, Torri saracinesche, Voldsteder.


In this dictionary I have attempted to provide a text which explains many of terms associated with fortifications which were used between the Iron Age and the 18th century. There are a great number of texts on the subject of castles and other fortifications of the period stated but few, if any, modern texts to my knowledge which specifically explain the terminology used to describe them.

With this book I have not sought to provide a preferred definition but to present how the terms have been used in the past, and how they are used today. The objective of this book is for helpful reference for study or discussion concerning the development and the historical significance of military architecture, and therefore all words and meanings pertaining to the subject qualify for inclusion.

Not everyone is likely to agree completely with my selection of terms, likewise, there will be disagreements over some of the definitions, particularly where I had to be arbitrary in my selection between conflicting authorities. Nevertheless, I accept responsibility for all errors and omissions, and would welcome notice of them.

Stephen Francis Wyley
24th August 1990

I would like to thank the following people for their support, encouragement, impertus, and contributions to this work:

Leigh Campbell, Elizabeth Cowling, Michelle Holian,  Jim Kaufmann
Steven Lowe, John Slone.

Notes on use

The entries are in strict alphabetical order, ignoring all punctuation and word breaks. Reversed phases are listed only when the natural order might be hard to find.

The representation of some of the Arabic and Spanish words into English have been hampered by the composing software used.


In general, where the origin of the entries can be traced with some certainty, the language is indicated at the end of the entry. The statement of the origin is written as follows;

(Fr.   basse,  court )
1.      2.      3.

1. The language of origin.

2. The actual form of the word itself or its chief element in that language.

3. The literal meaning in that language or a brief indication of the sense involved.

The abbreviations of the languages are as follows:

(Ar.) Arabic (H.) Hindustani
(Du.) Dutch (J.) Japanese
(E.) English (L.) Latin
(Fr.) French (N.) Norse 
(Gaelic) Gaelic (O.E) Old English 
(G.) German (O.Fr) Old French
(Gr.) Greek  (Sc.) Scottish
(Ir.) Irish (Sp.) Spanish 
(It.) Italian (Teut.) Teutonic 


Abatic, Abatis, Abattis: A field defence or rampart which was made of felled trees with the sharpened boughs facing outwards, towards the direction of attack. (O.Fr. enbatre, to thrust in).

Ascensi valli: The staircases or ramps used to reach the rampart walk of a Roman fort.

Adultrine castle: The unlicensed castles (probably of the ‘motte and bailey’ type) were constructed without royal permission by the Barons supporting Matilda in England during the reign of Stephen (1136-1152), and were demolished by Henry II after the treaty of 1153.

Advanced work: An outer defence of a fortification situated beyond the glacis but placed close enough to receive covering fire from the main works. See outwork, ravelin.

Agger: The rampart formed by heaping the excavated soil up on the inner side of ditch surrounding a Roman fortification.

Aile: A wing or flank of a fortification.

Alatorium: The Latin term for the wall walk behind the battlements of a fortification, which enables the defenders to protect their position from the tops of the walls. Also known as an allure or parapet walk. See allure.

Albarrana: (1) A bridge connecting separate towers of Andalusian fortifications.(Spanish) (2) A tower connected to the curtain wall by a bridge.
(Arabic, barranu = exterior)

Alcazabar: A stronghold built by the Saracens in Spain. The irregular walls of the enceinte followed the contours of a defensible hill, and the curtain was reinforced by square or polygonal towers. They were constructed chiefly of tapia, a mixture of cement and pebbles poured between boards, thus the material was not suitable for round towers, producing square and polygonal shapes.

Alcasar, Alcazar, Alkazar: When an alcazabar was rebuilt and enlarged in stone it became an alcazar, which was used as fortified palace of the regional military governor.

Allure, Alur, Alure: A passage or gallery behind a parapet at the top of a wall of a fortification. Also known as a bailey walk, parapet walk, wall walk and wall walkway. See alatorium. (O.E. alours).

Almenara (Atalaya): A small fort used as a watchtower on the Iberian peninsula. (Arabic)

Alternating staircase: A staircase which was used for communication between different floors of a tower or keep. The staircase reversed its turn from right-to-left to left-to-right from floor to floor. This design was used to break the flow of the enemy's advance once they had gained entry to the keep.

Anbar: A fortified barracks of the Sassanian empire. (Sassanian)

Angle: Angle of the centre of a polygon;

The angle of the centre of a polygon obtained by drawing tworadii to the ends of the same side.

Angle of the flank: The angle of the flank is the angle between the curtain and the adjacent flank, also known as the; curtain flank and the flanking angle.

Angle of the polygon: The angle of the polygon is formed by the junction of the two adjacent sides of a polygon.

Antemural: A breastwork or a strong wall provided with towers which project from an outwork, also called a barbican.

Antesture: A small trench or work formed of palisades.

Approaches: The trenches which were dug towards a fortress running from the parallel trenches of a besieging force, the trenches were dug in a zigzag pattern so that the occupants were not exposed to enfilade fire from the guns of those besieged in the fortress. (Fr.) See sap, zig zag.

Apron: (1) The portion of the superior slope of a parapet. (2) The interior slope of a pit designed to protect the rampart against blast. (3) The sloping plinth or batter of a fortifications walls and/or towers. See batter, plinth, talus.

Apsidal keep: A Welsh keep built on a rectangular plan but with one of its sides rounded. Also known as a ‘D’ shaped keep.

Arch machicolation: See machicolation, pointed arch machicolations.

Arc of fire: The scope or number of degrees of the field of fire a projectile weapon has when firing through an aperture in the wall of fortification, such as; an arrow slit, gun port, crenel or an embrasure.

Arrow: An outwork consisting of two parapets fronted by a ditch, situated at the salient angle of the glacis, and was connected to the covert-way by a caponier.

Arrow headed bastion: A bastion which was used in fortifications to provide flanking as well as covering fire while presenting the enemy with the smallest target possible by the virtue of its shape. Because of its characteristic arrow head shape it could be completely covered by two carefully placed guns in the neighbouring works, in return, a pair of guns in the flank of the bastion could efficiently sweep the straight wall on either side of at least 180 degrees to the front. A fortification employing such bastion in the before mentioned manner is said to have a 'bastioned trace'. See bastion, bastioned trace.

Arrow loop: A narrow opening in the wall of a tower, curtain wall or merlon, which was used by archers to shoot through at the enemy without, with a limited amount of exposure to enemy fire. The arrow loops were carefully spaced in walls to avoid the creation of weak areas which would suspect to damage by siege weapons. The arrow loop was of generally two types: (1) the single vertical slit; and (2) the cross slit, consisting of a vertical slit bisected by a short cross slit. See arrow slit, loop, oilet.

Arrow slit: A narrow rectangular opening in the wall of a castle which was used by archers to fire through at the enemy beyond the walls. The earliest form of arrow slit consisted of a plain slit formed by leaving a gap between two adjacent stones of a wall. See arrow loop, loop.

Artillery bastion: A bastion which was defended by cannon. See arrow headed bastion.

Artillery defences: Fortifications which were defended by artillery. See arrow headed bastion, gun platform, demilune, ravelin.

Artillery fortress: A fortress designed specially to be defended by artillery, for example the artillery forts of Henry VII of England.

Artillery outwork: See hornwork, ravelin.

Artillery platform, Artillery terrace: See gun platform.

Artillery tower: A tower provided with cannon, especially reinforced to take the weight and recoil of the cannon, which were normally situated on the roof, giving them a height advantage over the artillery of the besiegers.

Atalaya: A Spanish watch tower. See Almenara.

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Bail: (1) The outer line of a fortification. (2) The wall surrounding the outer courtyard of a castle, or the wall separating the courtyards of a castle. (3) The courtyard or bailey of a castle. See bailey.

Bailey: The enclosed space or court between the keep and the curtain wall or palisade surrounding it. In `motte and bailey ' castles, the bailey was used as a protective enclosure for the domestic and working buildings associated with the donjon. In later fortifications the bailey was kept clear so as to remove any cover for attackers crossing the bailey to the next line of defence. (Fr. baille, palisade, enclosure; from L. ballium).

Bailey walk: See allure, wall walk.

Bailey wall: See curtain wall.

Baliqs: Turkish small fortified towns.

Balistraria: A crossbow loophole consisting of a small cross in the wall of a fortification, used by crossbowman to defend their position. Also known as a arbalestina. See crosslet slit, loop.

Ballistarium: A platform used to support a onager or ballistae which were used to defend a Roman fort.

Banquette: The platform of earth within the parapet, high enough to enable defenders to fire over the crest of the parapet while standing. (Teut. bench).

Barbacan, Barbican: An outwork consisting of an outer bailey provided with flanking towers, which was used to defend the main gate of a; fortified town, castle or the approaches of a bridge situated before a fortification. Normally projecting from the main entrance, the shape of which was dictated by the site and the design used. One type consisted of two walls parallel to each other projecting from the main gateway with another gateway situated at the other end; the first gate was flanked by towers which were provided with battlements, arrow slits and machicolations. Also known as a forecourt. See forework. (O.Fr. barbacane).

Barbette, Barbe, Barbet, Barquette: An earthen terrace or platform situated inside the parapet or a rampart, upon which cannon were mounted so that they could be fired over a wall rather than through a gun port. A battery in this situation is called a 'battery en barbe ( or barbet). (L. barba, beard).

Barbkin, Barmkin: (1) A walled enclosure surrounding a pele tower. (2) The courtyard attached to a tower house. See peel tower, pele tower, tower house.

Barquette: See barbette.

Bartisan, Bartizan: A turret which projected at an angle from a tower, a parapet or near a gateway. Used as a watch tower or a defensive position by utilizing flanking fire. Bartizans were also used as strengthening buttresses or simply as decoration on later castles or castellated residences. See flanking turret, machicolated turret, machicoulis.

Bartizaned: Provided with bartizans.

Bascule bridge: A kind of drawbridge used to defend a gateway. The bridge was moved using a counterpoise system, where a counter weight was moved into a pit, thus bringing the bridge up to fill the gateway. See drawbridge. (Fr. bascule, see-saw).

Base: The line connecting the salient angles of a bastioned front. (L. bassus, short).

Bashura: The bent gates used in Bagdad in the 8th century. See bent entrance.

Bastide: (1) A type of small fort. (2) A fortified town which was common to the south-west of France, dating from the 12th and 13th centuries.

Bastille, Bastille: Originally, a kind of siege tower, later the term was used to refer to a tower which had the curtain walls and the flanking towers at the same height, permitting the rapid deployment of troops and cannon for the defence of any threatened sector. The lowering of the towers to the same height as the curtain wall was a development brought about by the effect of cannon fire on more lofty towers.

Bastion: A work projecting from the curtain wall of a fortification which commanded the foreground and the outworks. Designed to provide flanking fire to adjacent curtains and bastion. Bastion has been used to refer to the flanking towers of a castle as well as the arrow headed bastions of the Italian bastion trace. See arrow headed bastion, curtain tower, mural tower. (L. bastia, build).

Bastioned flank: The salient angle of a bastion and the opposite flank.

Bastioned trace: The geometrical system of arrow headed bastions and ramparts, which were used to defend fortifications dating from the 16th century. See arrow headed bastion, bastion.

Bastionet: A small type of bastion attached to the salient angle of a bastion, so as to increase the amount of flanking fire which could be used to flank the ditch. See bastion.

Bastle: A defensible stone farmstead unique to Britain, dating from the 16th to the early 17th century. Designed to defend the occupants and their livestock from raiders. It consisted of two storeys: the windowless ground floor was used to house the livestock, its entrance was secured from within by a heavily barred door and a trap door to the upper story; the upper story it self had its few small windows secured by iron bars, and its narrow door was situated high above ground level and was gained by a removable ladder. Bastles tended to be built in clusters for mutual support. (Fr. bastille).

Bastle house: A larger version of the bastle. See bastle.

Batardeau: A wall which traversed a ditch of a fortification, equipped with a sluice gate which was used to regulate the height of the water in the ditch, but was rended impassable because of its knife edge apex.

Batter, Battering: (1) A wall with a receding slope from the ground upwards, narrowing at the top, is said to be battered. See plinth, spur, talus. (2) To use a siege engine or artillery to batter or strike repeatedly against a fortifications wall or gate to make a breach. (L. batu, beat).

Battered base, Battered plinth: The projection at the base of a wall which sloped outwards. Also known as battering. See plinth, spur, talus.

Battered wall: A wall of a fortification provided with battering. See plinth, spur, talus.

Battering: See batter.

Battery: A work consisting of an epaulment or breastwork which was used to protect a gun or mortar emplacement, when used for guns embrasures were made in the parapet so that the guns could be fired through them.

Battlement: The upper part of a fortifications wall from which defenders defended their position. The battlement or parapet were usually provided with crenels and merlons, the crenels were the openings and the merlons were the solid uprights. This arrangement allowed the defenders to fire upon attackers through the crenels while obtaining some protection from the returned enemy fire behind the merlons. See parapet. (O.Fr. batailler, movable defences).

Battlemented: Provided with a battlement or parapet, which usually were divided at regular intervals by crenels and merlons. Also know as crenellated or embattled. See battlement.

Bay: A section of trench that lies between two adjacent traverses and was used as a passing place.

Bawn: (1) A fortification which was used in Ireland to defend a house, or a cattle enclosure, which consisted of a surrounding stone wall. (2) An Irish word used to refer to a curtain wall. (Ir. báhun, enclosure).

Bent entrance: An entrance of a fortification involving one or more sharp changes in direction. If an enemy force gained entry they had to then turn because of the shape of the entry and this exposed their unshielded side to the fire of the defenders. See clavicula, masugata mon.

Bergfried: (1) A single defensive tower characteristic of German speaking lands, the chief function of which was as a watch tower and as a final refuge, rarely were they used as permanent living quarters. The entrance was situated on the first floor. (2) A watch tower which was used to cover the main lines of approach to a castle, normally associated with a hohenburg.

Berm: A narrow path that runs between the ditch and the parapet, and when it is only made of turf its purpose is to prevent soil falling into the ditch.

Besiege: To invest, or to lay siege to a place or fortification. See mine, sap.

Blind gun port: A gun port consisting of a single round hole without a sighting slit, behind this was a much larger rectangular space widening towards the inside wall, big enough to operate the gun. The gun ports were designed to allow defenders to operate a small gun mounted on a stand, or clamped to a wooden bed, but the space soon filled up with smoke after a few firings because of the lack of ventilation. See gun loop, gun port, loop.

Blind machicolations: Machicolations which were built without openings which were used as decoration, machicoltions became defunct due to the introduction and perfection of artillery in siegecraft, dating from the late 14th century. See bracket, bracketing, false machicolation, mock machicolation.

Block house: A fortification used for seaward defence provided with; shot deflecting battlements, hand gun ports and a single embrasure for a long range cannon, used during the 16th century.

Blunt: To remove a salient angle by the construction of a parapet between two salient works. See pan coupé.

Body of the place: Either the buildings of a fortification or the works surrounding them, but generally when the body of the place is constructed it refers to fortifying the place by enclosing the fortification with curtains and bastions.

Boiling oil holes: See murder holes, meurtriéres.

Bonnet: A small triangular work consisting of two faces which was situated in front and parallel to the salient angle of a bastion or a ravelin, which provided additional defence against enfilade fire.

Borg: A term used to refer to a fortress. (N.).

Boroshiki tenshu: The earliest form of Japanese keep or tenshu, consisting of a multi-storied timber framed tower with a belvedere or observation tower set on top of the roof ridge. See tenshu.

Borough: See burh.

Boteras: A type of buttress.

Bottom: A round disk in which holes had been drilled or punched, rods were then inserted to form a basket called a gabion, these gabions when filled with earth were used in the construction of earthworks.

Box machicolation: A machicolation developed in the Middle East around the 12th century. Each machicolation was built out from the curtain wall separately from its neighbour, and was enclosed at the top, the top was below the level of the wall walk above. This type of machicolation were also at times provided with an arrow slit. See machicolation.

Boyau, Boyeaux: A trench used by a besieging force, also known as a zigzag, used for the purpose of communication in such situations as; a trench from the rear of a battery to the magazine, or a trench from the approaches towards a besieged place. See approaches, sap, zig zag.

Bracket, Bracketing: (1) A wooden or masonry projection near the top of a wall which was used to support a hoarding or a bretache. See console, corbel. (2) Machicolations became redundant due to the effect of artillery on castles, so the openings were closed but the brackets remained, later castellated residences used them as decoration. See blind, false, and mock machicolations.

Braie: A low defensive platform which was used to impede an enemies assault on the lower walls of a fortification. See bray, faussebraie.

Brattice, Brattish, Brettice: (1) A small stone gallery built out from a castles parapet or wall on corbels but lacking foot boards. Used to reduce the dead ground below at the base of the wall by allowing defenders to drop missiles through the hole onto the enemy below. A very similar construction was used as a latrine and was usually suspended of the moat, and was known as a garderobe. (2) A wooden gallery or balcony built out from a parapet of a castle, used to reduce the dead ground at the base of the walls by allowing the defenders to drop missiles through holes in the floor and fire arrows at the enemy attacking the walls. Later, such wooden galleries were replaced by stone machicolations because of their susceptibility to fire. See hoard. (O.Fr. breteshe, L. bretachia).

Brattice work: The brattice or hourding which was used to defend the area at the base of a castles walls. See brattice.

Bray: A low wall constructed in front of the ramparts, which was designed to keep the enemy at a distance from the ramparts. See braie.

Breach: A break made in a fortification's defences by an enemy's; artillery, mine or other siege technique or equipment.

Breast height: The inner slope of a rampart or parapet.

Breastwork: An earthwork thrown up to breast height which provided protection to defenders firing over the crest of the work while in a standing position.

Breteche, Brettice: See brattice:

Briton machicolation: A machicolation used during the 14th century which was developed in Brittany, built out on consoles which sharpened to a point to give defenders a wider field of fire than the machicolations built on the straight consoles. See machicolation.

Bridge (flying): See flying bridge, motte.

Bridge (fortified): A bridge provided with defences such as a tower or towers equipped with machicolations, arrow slits and a porticullis.

Bridge pit: A stone lined pit located before a gatehouse which was covered by the drawbridge when in the open position, and when the drawbridge was closed the pit was exposed and formed a impediment to attackers.

Brisure: (1) A rampart or parapet or part of either that does not follow the general direction of a work, of which it is a part. (2) Where the line of the curtain wall is broken to allow an expansion of the space for the guns in the flank of a bastion. (Fr. briser, to break).

Broch, Brogh, Brough: A dry stone circular tower of the late Iron Age, common in the north of Scotland, very rare in the south. The surrounding was built solid at the ground level, while higher up the wall it divided into a number of chambers and galleries. The small doorway through the base of the wall was easily defensible. The design of the broch showed a need to build upwards rather than outwards, so at to reduce the size of the perimeter so that fewer people were needed to defend it. (N. borg. fortress).

Buheradas: A balcony similar to a machicolation used in Andalusian fortifications. (Spanish)

Bulwark: (1) A fortification. (2) A considerable defence work of earth or some other material. (3) An earthwork in the form of a rampart, similar to a breastwork. Various forms exist and they are as follows: bulwerke, bullwork, bolwark, bulwarge, bulwarke, bullwark.

Burg: (1) A German castle. (2) A town or house with a fortified perimeter. (G. castle).

Burgen: See burgus.

Burgh: The Scottish word for borough.

Burgus: (1) A Roman watch-tower, which was the fore runner of the bergfried, which were erected on the Germanic border of the Roman Empire. (2) A walled suburb of a castle. See burg, burh.

Burh: A fortified Anglo-Saxon town which was usually surrounded by a ditch an earthen ramparts topped by a palisade. They were often built on former Roman or earlier fortifications, situated at the ends of estuaries or near fords and bridges crossing major waterways. Instigated by King Alfred the Great (871-899 A.D.) and carried on by his successors, were used to protect trade and culture from attacks, and as bases for launching assaults against Viking raiders.

Burj (Qubba or Qalca): A small tower in the mountains of the Iberian peninsula (also used by the Mamluks) with large storage facilities.

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Caislean: A Irish castle dating from the 12th century which was based on the Norman `motte and bailey' castle.

Cannon basket: See gabion.

Capital: The line bisecting the salient angle of a fortification. (L. caput, head).

Caponier: (1) A covered passage that traverses a dry ditch from the curtain to the ravelin or from the covert way to an arrow or detached redoubt, covered on either side by a parapet and equipped with gun ports, through which cannon and muskets were used to sweep the ditch of enemy forces. (2) A single parapet at the entrance of the ditch in front of a ravelin, equipped with a small cannon, which were used to dispute the passage of the ditch.

Cardo maximus: The line which bisects the decumanus maximus or the centre line of a Roman fortification.

Carrago: A field fortification formed by surrounding an army with armoured wagons. See gulaigorod,wagenburg.

Caravaserai: A fortified hostel along a trade route.

Casatorri (Family Towers): Italian slender towers, usually connected to the house by a drawbridge, with no ground floor entrance, which could be used as a refuge in times in strife.

Cascan: The entrance to a gallery which provided a vent for an enemy mine.

Casemate, Casement, Cazemate, Cazematte: (1) A chamber within a tower used to house artillery away from the elements such as catapults, Greek from the 4th century BC. (2) A gallery which was built at the base of a fortifications wall from which defenders could fire into the faces of surface miners and battering ram parties. (3) A well having a number of underground branches which can be extended to intercept enemy mines. (4) A magazine for storage of explosives. (5) A place for quartering troops. (F. casemate, fr. It. casamatta, prob. from casa house + matto, f. matta, mad, weak, feeble, dim. from the same source as E. -mate in checkmate).

Cashel: A Irish defensive enclosure consisting of a dry stone ring wall.

Cassaro: An Italian word meaning castle.

Castella: A flanking tower or redoubt attached to the vallum of a castra stativa, which was used to provide flanking fire at the gates, corners and at regular intervals along the ramparts, constructed of wood and earth or stone.

Castellae: A small Byzantine frontier castle.

Castellated: (1) A building constructed in the form of a castle. (2) A building provided with defences, such as battlements thus making it fortified. (3) An area provided with a castle.

Castellated manor house: A fortified manor house. See fortified manor.

Castellation: A fortification, usually a castle.

Castelle: The Norman word for castle.

Castello: (1) An Italian castle, which was mainly used as a fortified residence. (2) A term which generally refers to an Italian fortified village.

Castellum: A small Roman detached fort or fortlet which served as a watch tower or signal station.

Castle: A fortified building or set of fortified buildings used to provide both active and passive defence, as well as a residence for the castles lord and household. See fortification, keep, tower. (L. castrum, fortress).

Castra: An Italian fortified settlement dating from the 10th to the 13th century. Usually sited on a hill top or spur, defences consisted of a surrounding curtain wall and a separate tower.

Castra stativa: When a Roman encampment was reinforced by strengthening the ramparts with a wooden stockade or stone wall, it became more than just a temporary defence works, it became what is known as a `castra stativa'. The castra stativa served as a base from which actions could be launched into the surrounding area, and if necessary a place to fall back to if things did not go well. More elaborate castra stativa were provided with castellas or watch towers, which were used to flank the gates and at the corners and at regular intervals along the vallum. There were two types of castra stativa: the `aestiva', the usual tented encampment for use in the warmer seasons: and during the colder seasons, the `hiberna' consisting of wooden barracks insulted with hides and straw were used.

Castron: A small fortified outpost of the Byzantine empire.

Cavalier: A gun platform which is raised higher that the rest of the works, used to command the surrounding works, usually situated on a bastion or curtain but were also sited in the gorges of bastions. Cavaliers were also built by besiegers to gain a commanding position. See gun platform. (L. caballus, horse).

Cavalier battery: A cannon battery in which the gun platform was raised above the level of the bastion. See cavalier.

Cawd: A field fortification made of kneeling baggage animal (camels?). See kuklos. (Arabic)

Centre of the bastion: (1) The intersection made by two demigorges. (2) The point at which two adjacent curtains of a bastion intersect each other.

Cespites: The turves which were used to cover the outer face of the rampart of a Roman fortification, their purpose was to hold the ramparts in place. See gazion.

Chashi: A fortification dating from the late 6th to the 13th century, which consisted of a position surrounded by earthen ramparts and ditches. The ancestors of the Ainu, the ‘Ezo’ built the chashi to protect their region and the population centres from the depredations carried out by the armies of the Yamato court. These fortifications are found on the Japanese islands of Hokkaido and the north east of Honshu.

Chateau: (1) Originally, a French castle, also known as a chateau-fort. (2) A French country residence. (O.Fr. chastel; L. castrum, fortress).

Chateau-fort: A fortified French chateau.

Chatris: An India 14th century kiosk built over the main gate where the rule could see and be seen. (Indian)

Chemin de ronde: A sentry path or a passage around the revetment of a rampart which was provided with a small parapet. The position was used by musketeers keeping an eye on the glacis so as to prevent the placement of scaling ladders by the enemy. Later, it was generally discarded because of its susceptibility to artillery fire.

Chemise: The curtain wall, or the additional counterguard wall surrounding a keep or attached to it. (L. camisia, shirt).

Chemise foot bridge: A foot bridge connecting the curtain wall to the entrance of a Norman keep of the 11th and 12th centuries. See flying bridge (2).

Cheng. A Chinese fortress.

Cholli castle: A medieval Korean defensive wall built by the Koryo dynasty from the Yalu river to the east coast.

Church (fortified): (1) A fortified church provided with defences such as battlements and arrow slits. (2) A church which was used as part of, or as a fortification.

Cippi: An obstacle consisting of sharpened branches set in a trench used to defend a Roman fort.

Circumvallate, Circumvallation (lines of): (1) A siege works constructed by a besieging army to protect their camp from sorties by the besieged garrison, consisting of encircling earthen ramparts and entrenchments. From the line of circumvallation attacks against the besieged position could be launched and further advancement of the earthworks could be constructed. In conjunction with the line of contravallation, these fortifications enable the besieging army to stop the flow of information, supplies and reinforcements reaching the besieged. (2) The process of carrying out the construction of lines of circumvallation. See circumvallatio, contravallation, counter vallation. (L. circum, round; vallum, rampart).

Circumvallatio: The ditch and rampart which was constructed by a besieging Roman army, which encircled a besieged city fortress, situated between the city and the Roman positions. See circumvallate.

Citadel: A fortress in or near a city which was used to control the city and its inhabitants; providing a strong defensive position, and once the outer defences had fallen it could be used as a final refuge. (L. civis, citizen).

Clavicula: The external or internal right angled extension of the rampart at the gateway of a Roman fort, which made the assailants turn to their left thus exposing their unshielded right side to the fire of the defenders on the ramparts and the castella.

Cliff castle, Cliff fort: A fort which was situated on a spit of high ground and was protected on three sides by sheer cliffs, leaving only one line of approach which was defended by a rampart and ditch across the narrowest neck of the peninsula. If suitable headlands were not available, straight lines of cliff edges could be used by raising ‘L’ or ‘V’ shaped ramparts. Also known as a promontory fort, the majority occur on Britains western seaboard. Some can also be found on heights above rivers further inland. They were easily constructed and could be defended by only a small force, however, they had one major flaw, if an enemy did manage to break in it would have been impossible to escape.

Clover leaf keep: See quatrefoil keep.

Coffer: (1) A trench in the bottom of a dry ditch which was used for drainage.(2) A work similar to a caponier which traverses a dry ditch, provided with a parapet with embrasures, used by the besieged to dispute the passage of the ditch by the enemy. See caponier.

Coffer dam: A fortified dam retaining the water of a moat.

Command: When any work is constructed higher than another the work overlooking the other is said to command it.

Communication: A passage which runs between works, generally covered by a parapet on either side, providing for the safer movement of troops. See caponier.

Concentric castle: The castle introduced into Europe in the late 12th century which consisted of two or more complete rings of bastioned curtain wall within one another, each increasing in height towards the keep in the centre. A variation on this design was were the gatehouse doubled as the keep. The aim of the design was to present the enemy with sides of equal strength at the time allowing a faster response to attack by the garrison. And with each ring of defence increasing in height towards the centre the defenders on the higher walls and towers could fire at the enemy over the lower defences, so that the amount of missile fire was increased compared to contemporary designs. If the outer defences fell to the enemy, they would be confronted by yet another line of defence; and each set of walls had to be taken completely before the attackers could move on to the next, thus increasing the losses to the besieging force as the siege continued. Also known as a multiple castle.

Console: See corbel.

Continuous wall walk: An uninterrupted wall walk around a curtain or tower wall, allowing the fast movement of equipment and troops to any quarter under attack. See bastille.

Contour fort: A hill fort which was constructed by reinforcing the natural defences of the position by digging a bank and ditch along the contour line surrounding a hill. See hill fort.

Contravallatio: A series of field work consisting of earthen ramparts and ditches excavated parallel to the circumvallatio but facing outwards, which were used to protect the Roman encampments against the attack of a relieving army; and in conjunction with the circumvallatio, prevented supplies and reinforcements reaching the besieged city. See circumvallate, circumvallatio, contravallation.

Contravallation (Lines of): A chain of redoubts and breastworks constructed by a besieging army which encircled a fortification, situated parallel to the circumvallation but facing the opposite direction. This set of works was used to protect the besiegers camp and positions from assault by a relieving army. See circumvallate, counter vallation.

Cop: A term used to refer to a merlon.

Corbel: A projecting structure made of stone of wood located near the top of a wall, which were used to support such structures as; breteches, hourdings and machicolations. See bracket. (L. corvus, crow).

Corbelled bartizan: A bartizan built out on corbels, which was used to provide flanking fire thus reducing dead ground. See bartizan.

Cordon, Cordone: (1) A row of stones along the line of a rampart. (2) A continuous rounded coping at the top of a masonry revetment. (3) A chain of military posts.

Corner buttress turret: A corner turret projecting only a small distance beyond the walls of a Norman rectangular keep; the turret had little if any military value as far as flanking ability was concerned. See square keep.

Corner flanker: A flanking tower projecting from the corner of a keep, which was used to flank the wall between the towers, and to protect the vulnerable corners from sapping by miners and battering rams.

Counter approach: A temporary work usually consisting of entrenchments built by the besieged forward of permanent fortifications, to check the approach of an enemy army.

Counter arch: An arch connecting two counterforts.

Counterfort: An inner buttress used to strengthen the masonry of a ramparts revetment.

Counterguard: An outwork, triangular in shape, open at the rear, situated before the face of a bastion, ravelin or redan, used to protect these works from enemy cannon fire.

Counter mine: A mine dug to intercept the mine of a besieging force, so that a counter attack could be launched, the objective of which was to collapse the mine of the besiegers.

Countermure: (1) A strengthening wall built in front of another wall. (2) A wall which was built behind that of another as a reserve defence. (Fr. contremur).

Counterscarp: The outer side of a ditch of a fortification, in some permanent fortifications it was faced with stone to make entering and retreating from the ditch more hazardous.

Counterscarp gallery: A gallery which located in the counterscarp of the salients, used to flank the ditch of a fortification.

Counter salient: A salient in the opposite direction.

Counter trench: A trench which was excavated by the besieged in opposition to those of the besiegers. The parapet was turned against the enemy's approaches, and was flanked by artillery providing enfilade fire so that if the enemy took the trench it would be rendered useless.

Counter vallation, Contrevallation (Lines of): The lines of earthworks thrown up by besiegers to protect their camp and positions from attack from a relieving army, used in conjunction with the lines of circumvallation during a siege of a fortification. See circumvallation, contravallation.

Counter work: Any type of work which was used to oppose those of an enemy; an opposing work.

Coupure: (1) An entrenchment made by the besieged behind a breach in the defences. (2) A passage through the glacis to allow the defenders to sally forth to attack an approaching enemy force. (Fr. couper, to cut).

Coursiéries: Mobile wooden parapets attached to the inside walls, which were used in France around the 11th century.

Court: A space enclosed by walls or buildings. See bail, bailey, barbkin.

Courtyard castle: A castle where the domestic buildings were integrated into the curtain walls and arranged around a central courtyard. See keepless castle, quadrangular castle, quadrilateral castle.

Covered way: A pathway or road running along the top of the counterscarp, provided with a protective enbankment which formed the crest of the glacis. The enbankment gave the soldiers standing in the covered way some protection from enemy fire, being high enough to obstruct the besiegers view. Also known as the covert way.

Covert way: A pathway in front of the ditch protected by a parapet which formed the crest of the glacis. The covert way was used by soldiers who's job it was to break up the general line of assault. See covered way.

Crannog: An Irish fort or lake dwelling dating from the Bronze Age and used up to the 16th century which was located on islet, often an artificial one which was built up in a lake or marsh. (Ir. crann, tree).

Cremaille: (1) A zig-zag line of a fortification. (2) A sawtooth pattern on the inside line of a parapet. (Fr. pot hook).

Crenaux: A small loophole in the wall of a fortification, constructed with a widening aperture on the inside to allow the defenders a larger field of fire, but also allowing for the protection of the defenders. See loop.

Crenel, Crenelle: The part of a parapet which is indented alternating with the solid uprights called merlons, which allowed the defenders to fire at the enemy while gaining protection from the merlons against the returned fire. See battlement, embrasure, reveal. (L. crena, a notch).

Crenallate: To fortify or embattle.

Crenellated: Fortified or provided with crenels. See battlemented, embattled.

Crenellation: A parapet consisting of merlons and crenels. The ‘Licence to Crenellate’ was a royal licence giving permission to holder to build a fortification or to fortify a present building. See crenel, merlon, parapet.

Crenel shutter: A wooden shutter which covered a crenel and was used to defend a crenel, hinged at the top it enabled the defender to open the shutter to fire at the enemy, while gaining protection from the shutter in the closed position. See crenel.

Crest: The apex of the glacis, either formed by the parapet of the covered way, or where the glacis meets the top of the counterscarp. Also known as a ridge.

Cross and orb gun loop: A gun loop provided with a cruciform sighting slit above the circular aperture for the cannon. The design came from adapting the cruciform arrow slit shape for the sighting slit, it provided effective sighting and a vent for the gases produced by cannon fire. See gun loop, gun port.

Crosslet slit: (1) An opening in the wall of a castle in the form of a cross for firing crossbows at an enemy without. (2) A cruciform aperture in the wall of a castle which was designed for the use of both bows and crossbows. Also known as a croslet arrow loop. See balistraria, loop.

Cross slitted gun port: See cross and orb gun loop, gun port.

Cross wall: (1) A strong wall which divided a keep in half, the wall provided additional strength to the structure. (2) The wards between the walls of a type of concentric fortification were sectioned off by cross wall which ran between the outer and inner walls. If the enemy broke through the outer defences they were more easily disposed of (in a virtual killing ground).

Crotchet: A pathway around a traverse in the covered way.

Crown: To construct a work on the apex of the glacis or the top of a breach.

Crownwork: An outwork consisting of two long flanks and a front with a bastion and two demibastions, thus forming the shape of a crown.

Cruciform arrow slit: An arrow slit provided with a horizontal slit, which was used to increase the available field of fire, dating form the end of the 12th century. See arrow loop, arrow slit.

Crusader castle: A castle erected or modified by the 'Crusaders' to occupy and control their territorial gains in the Holy Land.

Cunette: A trench or drainage ditch sunk into the floor of a main ditch. (It. lacuna, ditch).

Curtain: See curtain wall.

Curtain angle: The angle made by a flank (a work such as a bastion) with a curtain.

Curtain tower: A tower which was a part of a curtain wall, from which defenders could provide flanking fire to the curtain wall since they usually projected further into the field. See bastion, mural tower, wall tower.

Curtain wall: (1) A fortified wall which enclosed a bailey or ward. (2) The fortified wall which ran between two towers. (3) The rampart which ran between two bastions. See chemise, rampart.

Curtes, Curtis: A Frankish fortification of the 8th century constructed on a rectangular ground plan, using ditches and earthen ramparts topped by palisades.

Curtes regia: A fortified residence of a Carolingian king.

Curticula: A forward element of a Frankish fortification.

Curved merlon: The design of merlons underwent a change due to the fact that they were one of the most vulnerable parts of a fortification to artillery fire. The merlons were thickened and curved backwards, and the actual number of crenels was reduced. Also known as shot deflecting battlements. See merlon.

Curvilinear wall: A wall consisting of round bastion which were built so close together that only a small portion of each protruded.

Cuvette: See cunette.

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Danske: The sewage tower of a castle constructed by the Teutonic Knights, which was detached from the main body of the castle, and was only accessible by a gallery supported by five large arches.

Dead angle: The angle between the top of a fortification wall and where the defenders on the top of the wall ceased to be able to be able to bring their fire to bear upon the enemy approaching the walls. See dead ground.

Dead end corridor: A corridor which was situated on the inside of a fortifications gateway, which ended in dead ends, thus when an enemy force broke through the main gate and entered the corridor they were confused and trapped in a specialized killing ground.

Dead ground: Any area of a fortification where the enemy could not be attacked by the defenders, which was due to either the design or the siting of the work. Dead ground could be reduced by the use of hoardings, flanking towers or some other flanking defences. See dead angle, flanking.

Deblai: The ditch which was excavated when constructing the earthen ramparts of a work, the earth from the ditch was thrown inwards to form the rampart. See remblai.

Declivity: The open slope from the covered way to the country surrounding a fortification, on which an assaulting force was completely exposed to the fire of the defenders. Also known as the glacis.

Decumanus maximus: The centre line of a Roman fortification.

Defence, Defense: The fortifications that provide cover for the opposite flanks, parapet, casements, etc.

Defence (Lines of): A series of fortified outposts. See lines of defence (3).

Defencework: Literally, a fortification; a work which was used to defend a position. See works.

Defilade: To secure a work or part of against enfilade fire. See enfilade, traverse (1).

Dehor: Any work (eg. crownwork, hornwork, halfmoon, ravelin, etc.) which was used to increase the defensibility of a fortification.

Demi-bastion: A half bastion consisting of one face and one flank. See bastion.

Demi-caponier: A caponier which was only protected on one side. See caponier.

Demi-gorge: (1) A half a gorge; the area between the curtain angle and the centre of the bastion. See gorge. (2) The rear entrance of a bastion.

Demi-lune: A work in the shape of a halfmoon which was used to defend the entrance of a fortification. Later, the demilune developed into a detached work called a ravelin which was situated within the line of the main ditch and was formed by two faces meeting in an outward angle, its purpose was mainly to cover the curtain it fronted and to prevent the flanks from being attacked from the side. Also known as a halfmoon. (L. Luna, moon).

Demi-revetment: The partial facing of a rampart with concrete or masonry when it was raised only as the cover in front. See revetment.

Descents: (1) The cavities and mines made by members of a besieging force, which undermined the ground under the walls of the fortification being besieged. (2) Saps excavated in the counter scarp beneath the covered way, made by the besiegers to enable them to cross the ditch.

Detached bastion: (1) A bastion isolated from the main works by a ditch. See bastion. (2) Counterguards provided with flanks are also called detached bastions.

Detached redout: A small work sited beyond the glacis but within musket shot of the covert way, similar to a ravelin with flanks. See redout:

Detached scarp: A wall in a ditch which was separated from the glacis of the parapet by a pathway.

Detached work: An outwork which was separated from the main works, such as a ravelin. See forework, outwork, ravelin, works.

Deterrence effect: The effect of strong appearing military architecture which psychologically deters an enemy from attaching, especially used on gateways.

Dike, dyke: A work consisting of a ditch and rampart. See ditch, dyke, rampart. (O.N. dik, dam).

Diminished angle: The angle formed by the front and the exterior side of a bastion.

Ditch: A wide trench excavated along the outer perimeter of a fortification, which was utilised to impede the approach of an enemy force towards the walls. The ditch was either filled with water or left dry. And if the ramparts were earthen the soil removed from the ditch was used to raise the ramparts. See moat. (O.E. dic, dike).

Dodecagon: A fortification of twelve sides.

Dobei: A wall made by daubing clay over a reed or bamboo framework and topped by a small tiled roof. This type of wall were used in two different parts of a Japanese castle: 1) they were built along the top of the ishigaki (or the main walls) linking the corner and connecting towers, providing protection to the defenders within; 2) the dobei were also raised on both sides of the castles major ways, effectively screening the rest of the compounds from enemy eyes, and they formed a maze which hindered the enemy greatly if the gained entry.

Donjon: The main defensible building of a fortification (the main tower or citadel), which was used as the Lords residence or as the last refuge if the outer defences fell to the attackers. The word is derived from the Latin word for lord `dominus'. The term was later corrupted to dungeon, as prisoners were often kept in the lower levels of the tower. Also known as the keep or great tower. See keep, mote.
12th Century13th Century

Door beam: A beam for securing the doors of a fortification. The beam usually fitted into sockets on either side of the entrance and into brackets on the door itself.

Dôshinén: One of the three major types of Japanese castles which date from around 1600 A.D., which was constructed using a plan of three fortified compounds arranged in concentric pattern; the honmaru in the centre was surrounded by the ninomaru which in turn was surrounded by the sannomaru, variations on this occurred depending on the site.

Dôzo-zukuri: Since most of the buildings of a Japanese castle were mainly constructed of wood there was the necessity of reducing the risk of fire. This was accomplished by the technique of covering the walls and timbers with a thick layers of plaster, which is known as ‘dôzo-zukuri’. The plastering was used as a protection against domestic fires as well as those caused by the incendiary missiles of an enemy.

Double cross gun loop: Similar to the 'cross and orb gun loop' but the vertical slit rose approximately twice the height and was provided with cross slits, one at the top, and the second a third of the way down. See cross and orb gun loop, gun loop.

Draw bolted doors: Doors which were used to defend an entrance of a fortification which were secured by draw bolts, such as those of a forebuilding of a keep.

Drawbridge: A bridge which was used to provide access to a fortification, and when in the raised position it closed the entrance. Generally, a drawbridge was hinged at the bottom and free at the top, and could be drawn up to prevent and enemy gaining entry. The drawbridge usually spanned a ditch or moat, or the part of a ditch or moat between the fortification and a causeway. Its simplest form it consisted of a movable plank; others were pulled up by chains worked by pulleys or a windlass. A later development was the ‘hinged platform’; which could be raised by pulling up chains attached to the outer corners, these chains passed through slots above the entrance and were attached to a windlass in the chamber above the entrance. The most elaborate type worked on a counterpoise system; the chains were suspended from beams which, when the bridge was drawn up, fitted into recesses provided above the entrance. Another type worked on the pivot principle, where the inner part of the bridge was moved into a pit while the outer part rose to completely cover the entry, also known as a turning bridge (L. pontem torneicuim). See bascule bridge, hinged bridge.

Drop box: A feature in gatehouses and barbicans, consisting of holes through the floor of the structure over the entry, that were used to drop missiles and other offensive materials on the enemy below. See meurtriéres, murder holes.

Drum tower: A squat round tower which was used as a flanking tower for curtain walls, gatehouses and barbicans. See flanking tower.

‘D’ shaped flankers: A flanking tower which was used to defend the corners of a keep, consisting of a cylindrical tower with the interior side cut square, producing the ‘D’ shape. See flanking tower.

Dump: See glacis, rampart.

Dun, Dún, Dúin, Dhúin: A fort dating from the late Iron Age, which are found in the west and the south-west of Scotland. It provided protection for a family or a small group. Similar in construction to a broch, a dun had a diameter of about 18 metres, and a narrow doorway angled through the dry stone wall, the walls were up to 4.5 metres thick. Usually circular or `D' shaped, they were frequently built on coastal headlands. The dun was different from hill forts mainly because of their smaller size and the complexity of their internal lodgings. See broch, hill fort. (Gaelic. dún, fortress).

Dwingel: A bent barbican dating from the 14th century. See barbican.

Dyke: A defensive earthworks which covered long distances, consisting of ditches and ramparts. (O.N. dik, dam).

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Earthwork: A fortification which was made chiefly of earth; either for temporary or permanent use, for either defensive or offensive purposes, constructed by excavating and embanking earth. See rampart.

Echaugnette: (1) A watch tower or bartizan. See bartizan, machicolated turret. (2) A round sentry box sited at the angle of a bastion, which was corbelled out so as to facilitate observation of the surrounding terrain.

Ecoute: A small gallery situated in the foreground of the glacis, connected to a main gallery running parallel to the covert way, where a miner would listen for the noises made by enemy miners, thus enabling countermines to be dug to intercept them. Also known as catacoustics.

Edwardian castle: The castles which were raised by Edward the 1st, to control the newly acquired territories in Wales, these castles are amongst the finest examples of concentric fortifications of the period.

Egyption merlons: Half circle merlons used on Egyptian fortifications (ie Medinet Habu, the palace of Rameses III, about 1200 B.C.). See merlon.

Embattled: See battlemented, crenellated.

Embrasure, Embrazure: (1) An opening in the parapet or the wall of a work for firing guns through at an enemy. The embrasure was internally splayed to allow the gun to be swung through a greater arc, thus increasing its field of fire. (2) The splayed interior of a gun loop, gun port, arrow loop or slit. (3) A crenel or a reveal. (Fr. braser, to splay).

Empty bastion: When the level area within a bastion is lower than the ramparts the bastion is said to be empty.

En bec: A tower which is described as being 'en bec' is a tower which has a beaked projection pointing towards the most likely direction of attack by an enemy's siege equipment.

Enceinte: (1) The body of a fortification, a fortified enclosure, generally the whole area which was enclosed by the main wall or rampart. (2) A fortified perimeter. (Fr. enceindre, to surround).

Enfilade: Defensive artillery was fired from the flank of a work and directed along or across another, for example; from the salient of a bastion across the faces of an adjoining bastions or the curtain wall in between. This type of defence produces a better form of defence because it is more effective against advancing infantry than direct fire. (L. flium, thread).

Enneagon: A nine sided fortification.

Entrench: To fortify with a trench and parapet.

Entrenchment: A defensive earthwork consisting of trenches and parapets.

Envelope: A small rampart built in a ditch or in front of it, which was used to cover a weak point in the works.

Épaule: An earthwork sited where the flank and the face of a bastion join to  form the shoulder of the bastion, which was used as a cover from flanking fire. (Fr. épaule, shoulder).

Epaulement: A side work of a battery or earthwork which was used to protect it from flanking fire.

Episcopal castle: A castle which was governed by a bishop. (Gk. episkopos, overseer).

Eptagon: A fortification which has seven sides.

Escaraguaita: A Spanish hexagonal shaped bartizan of the 14th century. See bartizan.

Escarp: (1) The side of a ditch which was next to the rampart. (2) To make into a scarp or sudden slope. See scarp.

Escarpment: The foreground of a fortification, which was excavated precipitously to hinder an enemy's approach.

Esplanade: The space between a citadel and the surrounding houses of a fortified city, which was purposely kept clear so as to eliminate any cover for an enemy force attempting to erect breaching batteries or making approaches.

Estacade: (1) A barrier or dike constructed of wooden piles driven into the sea or river bed, to obstruct an enemy's advance. (2) A form of defence made of stakes, such as a stockade. (3) A raft fasted together with chains, which was used to render a channel or harbour mouth impassable. (Sp. estaca, stake).

Etoile: A small star shaped fort or redoubt which had four, five, six or more points, also known as a star redoubt. (Fr. étoile, star).

Exagon: A fortification which has six sides.

Exterior crest: The line of intersection of the superior and exterior slopes.

Exterior side: The side connecting the exterior crest and the beam.

Exterior side of a fortification: The exterior side of a fortification is the distance or the line between one bastion and the next.

External polygon: The line connecting the point of an arrow headed bastion to the adjacent rampart, making a 45 degree angle with the centre of the bastion. See arrow headed bastion, internal polygon.

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Face: (1) The front between two neighbouring bastions or any other type of salient work. (2) The part of a work formed by one side of a salient angle. (3) The outer surface of any work projecting forwards which meet to form a salient angle.

Face of a bastion: The exterior face of a bastion between the salient point and the flank. See face.

Fall trap: A form of gateway defence. See drop box, meurtiéres.

False machicolations: Brackets serving a purely decorative function. See blind machicolations, bracket, mock machicolations.

Fascines: Bundles of brushwood were used to; fill in ditches, in the construction of field works, strengthening earthworks and to prevent erosion. (L. fascis, bundle).

Fasil: A low third wall outside the double walled defences of a town. Similar to Constinople’s Theodosian land walls. (Arabic)

Fastness: A major fortification; a stronghold or fortress. (O.E. fads).

Fausse braie, Fausse braye, Fausse bray: A low rampart provided with a parapet built forward, parallel and below the main rampart, forming an outer enceinte, used in the 16th and 17th century by engineers as a covered way. Later the work was abandoned because when under bombardment the fragments from the rear wall wounded the defenders present, forming what came to be known as a ‘shot trap’. M.Vauban continued to use these types of works placing them before curtains, they were then called tenailles.

Fer a cheval: A work with a parapet in the shape of a horseshoe.

Field gate: A gate in the curtain wall leading out to the country  surrounding a castle. See postern.

Field work: A temporary work constructed by an army in the field, used to cover an attack on a fortification, or as protection against another enemy army, especially a relieving force.

Firing gallery: A gallery which was set into the walls or towers of a castle below the level of the battlements. A firing galley was provided with slits for firing arrows and bolts at an enemy. With the introduction of the galleries the fire power of a castles defences was increased. See mural gallery.

Firing loop, Firing slit: Apertures in the walls of a castle which were used by defenders to discharge arrows and bolts though at the enemy. See arrow loop, arrow slit, loop.

Flank: (1) The flank or side of a work, such as that of a bastion from the salient point to the curtain wall, used to provided a position for flanking fire. (2) To provide defensive flanking fire which defends another work along the length of the work. (Fr. flanc).

Flank (concave): The flank which is made in an arc of a circle.

Flank (direct or grasing): The flank which is perpendicular to the opposite face produced, and oblique when the flank makes an acute angle with that face.

Flank (retired): The flank which is built behind the line of the face of the bastion and the curtain. See retired flank.

Flank (second): The flank which is made when the face of the bastion does not extend to the curtain but joins it at some other point, then the part of the curtain between that point and the flank is called the second flank.

Flanked angle: The angle formed by a curtain wall and a flank of a bastion.

Flanker: (1) A work which commanded the flank of an assailing force. See flanking, flanking tower. (2) A battery in the flank of a bastion, which was used to flank the adjacent rampart.

Flanking: The use of fortifications designed to provide flanking fire, for example; the approaches to a tower were covered by the neighbouring curtain walls. Flanking reduced the amount of dead ground surrounding a fortification thus improving its defencibility. See deadground, flank, flanking tower.

Flanking angle: The angle formed by a flank of a bastion or other work with a curtain wall. Also known as a curtain flank. See curtain angle.

Flanking effect: The effect of flanking fire on an enemy or their position. See maximum flanking effect.

Flanking tower: A tower which was built not only beside the entrance but also at strategic points on the curtain wall, usually at the angles, which were used to provide flanking fire.

Flanking turret: A turret situated at the corner of a castle which was used to provide flanking fire. See bartizan, machicoulis.

Flanking wall: A curtain wall flanking a tower or bastion or some other work.

Flank of the bastion: The section of the bastion between the face and the curtain, from which the ditch in front of the adjacent curtain and the face of the neighbouring bastions were defended. See enfilade, flank, flanking.

Fléche: An arrow shaped outwork consisting of two faces with a parapet and an open gorge, which formed a salient angle at the base of a glacis, smaller in size than a redan or a lunette. (Fr. fléche, arrow).

Flying bridge: (1) A narrow wooden bridge which was used for the purpose of communication between the motte and the bailey of a ‘motte and bailey castle’. The flying bridge was usually supported on wooden piles, the bridge could be then demolished by the defenders if the enemy took the bailey. See motte. (2) A small bridge which was used for the purpose of intercommunication between the different parts of a fortification (eg. between outer and inner defences). They could be withdrawn, thrown down or destroyed if necessary, depending on the situation. See chemise foot bridge.

Forebuilding: (1) A subsidiary tower projecting in front of a castles main entrance. See barbican, gatehouse, small keep. (2) A small tower which covered the first floor entrance of a keep. See small keep.

Forecourt: The court formed by the walls of a barbican, or the barbican as a whole. See outer bailey.

Foreland: The ground between the wall of a fortification and the moat.

Forework: An outwork or forebuilding. See barbican. (L. fortis, strong).

Fortalice: A small fort or outwork of a fortification.

Fortification: (1) The act or art of fortifying a military position by means of defensive and/or offensive works. (2) A work or structure, used as a military position; a fortified place or position. (L. fortis, strong; Fr. facere, to make).

Fortified church: From the earliest periods the use of a church as a place of refuge in times of strife was common, in some cases the church was provided with features of military architecture to increase its defensibility. See church (fortified).

Fortified dock, Fortified harbour: (1) The fortified waterside part of a `wasserburg' or German water castle, the purpose of the castle was to control the traffic on the water way it fronted and to extract dues from the shipping. (2) A dock or harbour which was provided with defences.

Fortified manor, Fortified manor house: During the late 14th and the 15th centuries the necessity of fully defensible castles was on the decline, so that the number of fortified manors increased and developed into the undefended mansions of the Elizabethan and following periods. The plans of the fortified manors varied because of the addition of piece-meal defences to existing halls and manor houses. The most common design was of quadrangular plan, and were often surrounded by a wet moat. Also known as a defensible house or just a manor house.

Fortlet: A small fort, which was used as a watch tower of as a signal station.

Fortress: A strong permanent fortification which may include a town. (O.Fr. fortresse).

Foss, Fossa, Fossae, Fosse: (1) A ditch, moat, canal or pit, which were used to impede the advance of an enemy force. See ditch. (2) The ditch or a set of ditches which surrounded a Roman fortification, the excavated soil was used to construct the vallum or rampart. (L. folio, dig).

Fossa fastigata: A type of Roman ditch described by Hyginus that was ‘V’ shaped in cross section. These ditches could be provided with a narrow channel in the bottom. See Foss.

Fossa punica: A type of Roman ditch described by Hyginus that had a much steeper outer scarp, and was used in the outermost ditch. See Foss.

Four-leaf keep: A keep consisting of four round towers which mutually intersected, dating from the 12th century. See quatrefoil keep.

Fraise: A horizontal or inclining palisade which was placed on the outward slope of a rampart or the berm of a earthwork, to prevent the work from being taken by surprise and to impede an enemy's advance.

Front of a bastion: The distance which lies between to adjacent bastions.

Full bastion: When the terrain within a bastion is at the same height as the rampart with only the parapet rising up to protect the soldiers behind, the bastion is said to be full. Fukugôshiki tenshu: See teiritsushiki tenshu.

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Gabion: A wickerwork basket which was filled with earth and used to build field works, such as revetments and parapets, also used by sappers as cover from musket shot, as they advanced their trench the gabion was rolled before them.

Gabionade: A field work which was constructed using gabions.

Gallery: A passage connecting the inner and exterior works of a fortification, which was either built of masonry or an underground passage. See caponier, traverse (2).

Gallery of the counterscarp: A defensive position situated in the counterscarp or the outer side of the ditch of a fortification, which was used to flank the ditch, also known as a ‘counterscarp gallery’.

Ganerbenburg: A German castle under the multiple ownership by different parts of the same family. Separate homes were set up in different parts of the castle. See hauser.

Gatehouse: The structure which was used to guard the principal entrance of a fortification. A gatehouse usually consisted of the following: a single archway or passage; a stout gate or drawbridge; and the option of a porticullis either at the front of the entrance, or two porticullises one at either end. The vaulted ceiling of the entryway was provided with murder holes, the entrance was generally flanked by projecting towers which were pierced by arrow slits, and the upper parts of the towers terminated with machicolations and battlements. See barbican, forebuilding, great gatehouse.

Gate tower: A tower which guarded a gateway, usually two such towers were used to flank the gateway, one on either side. See gatehouse, great gatehouse.

Gazion: A piece of turf which was cut into a wedge and used with others to line the outside of earthworks such as parapets and the traverses of galleries, to hold them in place. See cespites, revetment. (Fr. gazon, grass).

Glacis: (1) The area outside the ditch which was scarped into a gentle slope running downwards from the covered way towards the open country, which was kept deliberately free of any form of cover. The glacis brought an approaching assailing force into clear view from the parapet of a fortification under attack. See declivity. (2) The masonry sloped scarp of a curtain wall, a design which was developed to offset the effect of artillery fire. See talus. (L. glucies, ice).

Gorge: (1) The interior side or entrance of a bastion or other outwork, which is usually the interval between the two flanks of the work. (2) The rear or any part of a work which is next to the body of the place at the counterscarp of the ditch where there is no rampart.

Gorod: Russian fortified settlement

Gran bugue: A Spanish fortress dating from the 15th century, which was built in the shape of a great battle ship. The enceinte provided with mural towers formed the bow and the stern while the keep formed the bridge, normally situated on hill tops. The term literally means ‘great ship’.

Great gatehouse: The gateway of a castle was always a major weak spot in the defences, which later developed into the strongest part of a fortifications perimeter. The development in gatehouse design known as the ‘great gatehouse’ has been compared in strength to the keeps of earlier castles. Using the same principles as in the gatehouse, the great gatehouse was provided with a pair of large flanking towers projecting forward from the line of the curtain wall, while two smaller flanking towers projected into the inner ward. The gatehouse was provided with a number of defences such as; machicolations, slits and battlements, the passage way itself was defended by a porticullis at each end and murder holes in the vaulted roof above. The chambers above the passage way were used to house the machinery for raising and lowering the porticullises and the drawbridge if one was provided, the rest of the remaining area was used as accommodation for the garrison or sometimes as residential appartments for the Lord or castellan of the castle. See keep gatehouse.

Great tower: See keep.

Grody: A Slavic fortress.

Guardinghi: Italian turreted buildings used as watch towers by the Langobards.

Guard wall: See curtain wall.

Guelph merlon: A merlon provided with a ‘V’ shaped apex, common around the 14th century. See merlon.

Guerite:A sentry box situated on a bastion or curtain; also known as an echaugette.

Guichet: A small opening in a wall, or a small door in the gate of a fortification. See wicket.

Gulaigorod: A combination of a camp and a field work used in 15th century Russia, the term means ‘moving train’. Wagons were fitted with large shields provided with loop holes, and when they camped or attacked the wagons were drawn into a circle, thus presenting a fortified perimeter. See carrago.

Gun loop, Gun port: An aperture through the wall of a fortification for firing guns through at an enemy. Their purpose was the same as an arrow loop, which was to provided covering and flanking fire. They took many forms but the main types were: the blind gun port, consisting of a simple circular opening; the circular hole with a vertical sighting slit above the opening; also other types had different variations of the sighting slit. Gun ports were built into the walls and battlements were the guns could be directed in relative safety against attacker. The placement of gun ports were usually at the weakest part of the fortification, which was generally the gate. See blind gun loop, cross and orb gun loop, key hole gun port, loop, port.

Gun platform: An unroofed platform which was specially built to provided an area for the cannons of a fortification. The gun platform was a much better solution to artillery defence than gun ports because the noise and fumes of gun fire in the confined space made it very uncomfortable to fire more than a few rounds. See cavalier.

Gurry: A fort which was constructed of mud, and the walls were flanked by towers, and sometimes ditches surrounded the fort, used in India. (H. garh, hill fort).

Gusuku: An Okinawan word for castle, this type of castle differs basically from those of mainland Japan, dating from the 15th century, they were built extensively of stone, lacking the timber superstructures which were typical of the mainland castles.

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Half bastion: The half of a bastion made when bisected at the capital, consisting of one flank and one face. See bastion, demibastion.

Half merlon: The merlon at the end of a parapet. See merlon.

Half moon: See demilune, moon, ravelin.

Half moon barbican: A outer defence in the form of a semi-circular barbican. See barbican.

Hall keep: Originally a type of rectangular keep, which later developed into a round design with more than one storey, including a main hall and apartments. See keep.

Hand gun loop: A gun loop which was especially designed for the use of hand guns. See gun loop.

Hauser: The part of a German ‘Ganerbenburg’, which was occupied by a branch of the family to whom the castle belonged. (G. house).

Herisson: A long iron spiked wooden beam set on a pivot. When rotated, it always presented a front of spikes, its purpose was to block passages and approaches.

Herse: A door stuck with protruding iron spikes. The door was hinged at the top and suspended in the open position by a rope. This rope was cut or released to effect a surprise blockage of the gateway or passage where it was situated.

Hersillon: A beam stuck full of protruding iron spikes which was thrown into a breach to render it impassable.

Hilani edifices: Turreted defences of the Hittites (ie. the fortress of Sinjerli (10th to 8th centuries B.C.).

Hill fort: A fort which normally covered an entire hill top, sometimes as much as an area of several acres, and was enclosed by either a dry stone wall or earthen ramparts. A protective ditch was on either the inside or outside of the surrounding wall. See multivallate hill fort.

Hinged drawbridge: A drawbridge introduced during the 14th century. The far end of the drawbridge was attached by ropes or chains to long beams of wood which were fitted with counter balances on their inner ends. See bascule bridge, drawbridge.

Hirajiro: A Japanese castle which was developed after the necessity of the ‘yamajiro’ fortification declined with the cessation of civil war in the 17th century. These castles were built on the plains and served as administration centres of the surrounding area. See hirayamajiro, yamajiro. (J. flatland castle).

Hirayamajiro: A Japanese castle which was constructed on a hill on a plain, thus taking the positional advantage of the surrounding area. See hirajiro, yamajiro. (J. flatland hill castle).

Hisn: Fortress. (Arabic)

Hoard, Hoarding, Hourd: A covered wooden gallery built out from the parapet of a tower or curtain wall supported on corbels, providing for vertical defence of the area below thus reducing the amount of dead ground. The hoardings had a major disadvantage since they were made of timber they were prone to firing, so they were eventually replaced by stone machicolations. In times of peace the hoardings could be removed. See brattice (2).

Hochschloss: A type of German castle.

Hohenburg: A German castle built on a naturally strong site, usually a hill, all the defences were constructed on the lines of approach and the entrances. Also known as a German hill castle. See schildmauer. (G. hohen, hill; burg, castle).

Hollow bastion: A bastion where the ramparts extend only along the flanks and the faces. See bastion.

Honmaru: The main or inner fortified compound of a Japanese castle dating from the 16th century. See dôshinén, renketsukei, teikakukei. (J. main circle).

Hori: A Japanese term meaning ditch or moat.

Hornwork: (1) An outwork consisting of two long curtains extending from the main works and was fronted by two demibastions connected by a short curtain, forming an outer bailey, it was smaller than a crownwork but serving the same purpose. (2) An earth spur provided with banks and ditches.

Horse shoe: A small outwork, round or oval in shape, provided with a parapet.

Hourd, Hourding: See hoard.

Hurdica: See hoard.

Hurdle: A basket used to hold earth, woven of willow; used in the building of defensive earthworks. See gabion.

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Inaki: A fortification used as a defence against an enemy's archers, consisting of a defensive palisade made of bundles of rice plants piled together, dating from the 6th century. This type of fortification was used by the Mononobe clan (who were against the introduction of Buddhism) against the Soga clan (who were advocates of Buddhism). (J. rice plant fort).

Independent curtain walls: Each wallwalk was only accessible by the doorways in each flanking tower which punctuated the length of the curtain wall, while these were weaker than the main gates they were strong enough to withstand anything the attackers could bring up the scaling ladders. If an attacking force gained control of a wall walkway between two flanking towers there was a little that could be done to improve there position if each curtain wall was separate from each other as well as from the adjacent towers. During their effects to gain entry to the flanking towers or the inner defences they would be under fire from the defenders of the inner fortification as well as those of the flanking towers flanking the section of curtain wall they occupied, a most difficult position indeed. See concentric castle.

Inner bailey: The bailey surrounding a keep; also known as the inner ward. See bailey, ward.

Inner curtain wall: The inner curtain of a fortification surrounding the inner bailey. See concentric castle, curtain.

Inskonce: An earthwork consisting of a ditch and rampart stretching the length of a frontier, which was intersperse by bastioned and fortified villages.

Interior crest: The line formed by the meeting of the interior and superior slopes of a parapet or rampart.

Interior flanking angle: The angle formed by the junction of the line of defence and the curtain.

Interior side: The line from the centre of one bastion to the centre of its neighbouring bastion.

Interior slope: The earthen slope on the inside of a rampart or parapet.

Internal polygon: The line followed by the curtain which runs from the gorge to the base of a bastion, and is parallel to the external polygon.

Intervallum: The space between the wagons used in the form a wagenburg and the infantry and cavalry stationed in the centre of the field defencework.

Irish battlement: A battlement typified by the used of stepped merlons, where a smaller merlon rises out of a larger main merlon. See stepped merlon, venetian battlements.

Ishigaki: A dry stone wall used in the construction of a Japanese castle. The ishigaki was introduced into Japanese military architecture because of the increase in the frequency of conflict, and the earthworks were no longer a form of effective defence. The technique of construction involved embedding stones into an earthen embankment and locking them in place with smaller stones. This allowed the whole wall to shake and thus dissipate the effect of earthquakes, which are a normal occurrence for the country. The ishigaki were used as a foundation for such structures as; tenshus, corner towers, parapets and connecting towers.

Ishi-otoshi mado: A structure which was used for the vertical defence of the walls of a Japanese castle, consisting of a section of the wooden or plastered wall of a; tenshu, tower, connecting tower or other structures, which was built out over the stone walls at strategic locations. The structures enabled the defenders to shoot arrows as well as throw stones at attackers attempting to scale the walls. The aperture could be closed for protection if necessary by a panel of thick wood which was strengthened by iron bars. (J. stone dropping window).

Italian machicolation: A machicolation which was corbelled out on a long brick projection descending down a third of the tower height forming ribs around the upper sections of towers and curtains, and joined at the top by semicircular arches. See machicolation.

Italian merlon: A merlon provided with a curved indentation at its apex. Also known as a notched merlon. See merlon.

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Jambs: The wings attached to a tower house of the English/Scottish border region, which were used to increase the flanking ability. The design developed into what is known as a ‘Z-plan towerhouse’. (Fr. jambe, leg).

Jayb:. An underground cistern in a fortress. (Arabic)

Jô: The proper noun suffix in Japanese for the word ‘castle’. The term comes from the Chinese character for city and wall (shiro or jô). Later, the meaning changed from city to castle; for in Japanese a ‘walled enclosure’ means a castle rather than a city.

Jôkamachi: The town or city which developed about a Japanese castle, which was carefully set out in designated zones according to rank; the samurai residences were situated nearest to the castle, then came those of the merchants and then those of the artisans. Thus the jôkamachi became centres of trade and growth, centred around the defensive works of the castle. (J. town below the castle).

Juliet: A type of circular donjon.

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Kaiserburg: The German imperial castle of the 12th and 13th centuries. (G. kaiser, emperor; burg, castle).

Kastron: A late Byzantine fortified town.

Keel: The pointed base of a fortifications walls. See battered base, plinth, spur, talus.

Keep: The English term for a donjon; the inner tower of a castle, usually the strongest, used by the besieged as the last refuge tower. By the 12th century it was used as more of a residence for the lord or castellan. See hall keep, shell keep, keep house, tower keep.

Keep & bailey castle: The castle which was developed from the ‘motte & bailey castle’ of the Normans, dating from the late 12th and early 13th centuries. Consisting of a stone keep surrounded by a walled enclosure, the keep either incorporated or replaced the motte. Two types of keeps were used and they were; the shell keep and the square keep. This kind of castle however did not present a co-ordinated defensive system and thus had a noticeable military weakness. Once the bailey was taken by an enemy, the next part of the operation was to take the keep. The operation was made easier by the fact that the two components did not support each other; once the bailey fell to the enemy, all the enemy's forces could then be concentrated on the keep. See bailey, keep, motte, shell keep, square keep.

Keep gatehouse: A forework designed to act as the defensive kernel of a concentric fortress, as opposed to a keep. It was strong enough to hold out independently when all else had fallen. Typical of the Edwardian concentric castles. See great gatehouse.

Keep house: A keep containing all the living quarters as well as being a serviceable defensive fortification. See keep.

Keepless castle: A castle introduced by the Crusaders, which consisted of a strong curtain wall provided with powerful flanking towers, a well defended entrance, and no actual keep. See quadrangular keep.

Kernmotte: A transitional motte, where a motte was added to a already existing ringwork, the ringwork became the bailey. See motte.

Keyhole gun port: A gun port shaped like an inverted keyhole, with a round hole for the gun at its base, and above it was a slit used for sighting and as a vent for the gases produced from the firing the cannon. See gun loop, gun port, loop, port.

Ki: An early form of Japanese fortification.

Killing ground: An area surrounding or part of a fortification, which was deliberately kept clear to deprive an enemy of any cover, thus exposing the enemy to a greater amount of fire. See glacis, independent curtain walls.

Klinkett: A small gate in the palisade enclosing a fortification.

Kôgo-ishi: An early Japanese fortification, dating from the 4th to the 6th century, consisting of rows of stones encircling a hilltop periodically interspersed with gateways and sluices, these defences reinforced the natural defences of the site.

Kôrai mon: The smaller initial gate of a masugata mon or barbican gatehouse complex of a Japanese castle, consisting of a three roofed structure (a central roof was flanked by another two roofs). This gate restricted access to the courtyard beyond, and if the enemy did gain entry to the courtyard they would be confined within that space and would be exposed to the fire of the defenders. See masugata mon.

Kremlin: The citadel of a Russian town made of earth and timber, such as Novgorod or Moscow.

Kuklos. A field fortification made of kneeling baggage animal (camels?). See cawd. (Greek)

Kurawa: A general term meaning a Japanese castles compound or enclosure. See honmaru, ninomaru, sannomaru.

Kushk: A fortified rural villa of the Sugd.

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Latera praetorii: The central area between the via principalis and via quintana, where the head quarters (principia), the commanding officers house (praetorium), the granary (horreum) and sometimes the hospital (valetudiunarium).

Lavra: Byzantine monastic retreat, sometimes fortified.

Licence to crenellate: A warrant of royal permission to build a castle or to fortify an existing structure such as a manor house.

Lilia: Circular pits provided with sharpened stakes at the bottom in addition to the defences of a Roman fort. An example was found at the Antonine wall fort at Rough Castle.

Limes, limites: The frontier barriers of the Roman Empire, using natural barriers where possible and series of castra stativa linked by ramparts topped by palisades.

Line: A work raised by an army extending from one position or post to another, the army encamped behind the work and used it to guard the territory the work traversed.

Lines cremaillere: Lines of defence consisting of alternating short and long faces at right angles to one another. See cremaillere.

Line of approach: A trench dug at right angles from the covert way by the besieged garrison so to enfilade an enemy's position.

Lines of bastions: A succession of lines of defence consisting of bastioned curtain walls (eg. those of a concentric castle).

Line of circumvallation: Earthworks consisting of a parapet with a ditch in front, punctuated by redans which flank the parapet, built in conjunction with lines of contravallation, and used to defend a besiegers camp and positions against a relieving army.

Lines of contravallation: See contrevallation, counter vallation.

Lines of Defence: (1) Any artificial, semi-natural or natural obstacle which can be used to impede an enemy's approach (eg. fortification, ditch, terrain, etc.). (2) The distance between a bastions salient angle and the opposing flank; the bastion flank. (3) A series of fortified outposts.

Lines of Tenailles: A series of salient and re-entering angles formed by parapets.

Lis, Liss: (1) A form of defence similar to a palisade consisting of upright stakes tied together by vines and twigs. (2) An Irish fortification consisting of a circular mound surrounded by a ditch, used as protection for a village.

Lisiére, Liziere: The berm or walkway along a parapet. See foreland.

Lists: An area set aside for jousting, which was incorrectly applied in the 19th century to the spaces between two lines of curtain wall or a bailey in the mistaken belief that joust took place there. (Teut.).

Lodgement: A work made by besiegers in the part of a fortification taken by their actions, and used to hold it against counter attack.

Loop, loophole, loup: (1) A narrow opening in the wall or merlon of a fortification, through which missiles were discharged at the enemy, positioned to command the approaches, as well as protecting the weak spots. Designed to provide the maximum amount of protection for the defenders as well as give a reasonable field of fire. See arrow loop, gun loop(2) The circle at the end or at the centre of an arrow slit which was used to increase the field of fire. Also known as an oilet. See arrow loop, arrow slit.

Lorica: The palisade made from ‘villi’ or the sharpened stakes lashed together and rammed into the top of the ramparts forming the parapet surrounding a Roman encampment.

Low artillery outwork: See hornwork, ravelin.

Lunette: (1) A small work generally situated before the curtain, in a ditch full of water, consisting of two faces forming a re-entering angle, and was used to enfilade the ditch. (2) A field work consisting of two faces forming a salient angle and to flanks parallel to the capital. (3) A work situated on either side of ravelin, and the other face is perpendicular to half or two thirds of the faces of the ravelin, and the other face is nearly so to the faces of the bastion. (4) A work sited forward of the second ditch, opposite to the places of arms, the same as a ravelin except for its situation. (Fr. lunette, dim. of Lune, moon).

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Machicolated: Provided with machicolations.

Machicolated battlements: Battlements provided with machicolations.

Machicolated corner gallery: A wall gallery situated at the corner of a fortification; usually provided with arrow slits, which added to the defensive capacity of the wall.

Machicolated gallery: A gallery provided with machicolations, situated at the top of a curtain wall or just below the level of the wall walk, dating from the 14th century.

Machicolated gatehouse: A gatehouse provided with machicolations. See gatehouse.

Machicolated turret: A turret which was built out on consoles, the holes between the consoles were used as machicolations. Also known as a bartizan or machicoulis. See flanking turret.

Machicolated wall walk: See machicolated battlements.

Machicolation: A series of openings provided by: building the parapet out on consoles, projecting beyond the face of the wall, the space between the consoles providing the openings for the machicolations; or by leaving gaps between a recessed wall and the buttressed arch standing before it. Projectiles and liquids could be thrown onto the enemy at the base of the walls, thus reducing the dead ground. The term is usually reserved for the stone constructions which in many countries superseded the wooden hoardings used for the same purpose about the middle of the 14th century. They were used to defend the walls and towers of a castle, by were used specifically for the defence of gateways and other entrances, which were the weakest part of a fortification. By the 15th century, the arch supporting the machicolation was replaced by a plain lintel. See Briton machicolation, Italian machicolation, machicoulis. (Fr. macher. to crush).

Machicoulis: (1) A single or a small number of machicolations, which was positioned over a gate, doorway or some other vulnerable angle of the defences. Developed as a substitute for the hourd as did the machicolation but served to provide particular defence of a position, an example is the box machicolation. See box machicolation. (2) Machicoulis were also used built around the angles of towers and curtain walls, often semi-circular in shape, known as bartizans, which were used to defend the area below as well as flanking the neighbouring positions. See bartizan, flanking turret. (3) A square aperture in the floor of the room above an entry, which was used to attack the enemy from above, usually covered by a trap door, and was known as a murder hole. (4) Machicoulis has also been used to refer to machicolation is some texts.

Magistral line: The main line of defence or the crest of the scarp of a fortification. In drawings of fortifications it is usually drawn in a thicker line than the other lines.

Main guard: The strongest building of a fortification, usually the keep.

Main work, Major work: The chief work of a fortification, as opposed to the outworks.

Malvoisin: (1) A type of siege tower. (2) An earthwork fort or mound designed to be used to blockade the approaches to a fortification under siege.

Manor house: See fortified manor.

Mantlet wall: The outer wall of a late medieval castle that was situated between the main curtain and the moat. (L. mantellum, cloak).

Manzil: A fortified hostel on the Iberian peninsula.

Marsad (Rutba): Small isolated fortification along the main roads for military traffic of Andalusia.

Mastio: An Italian term meaning donjon or keep.

Masugata mon: The barbican gatehouse used to defend the main access route of a Japanese castle, positioned at either the crossings of the inner, middle, or outer moats, or at the main entrance to the castle. The barbican gatehouse consisted of a walled square or rectangular courtyard provided with two gateways: the initial entrance was defended by a ‘Kôria mon’ (a small gate provided with a central roof flanked by two smaller ones; the second gateway was a ‘Watari yagura mon’, a large two story gatehouse). The two gateways were set at right angles to each other forming a walled courtyard, so if any enemy force gained entry to the courtyard they would be confined within that space, and have to turn to attack the formidable watari yagura mon, whilst under attack from the castle defenders. The small size of the kôria mon restricted the number of enemy soldiers entering the courtyard, thus the defenders had a greater chance of defending the masugata mon. (J. measuring box gateway).

Maximum flanking effect: The much sought after ideal amount of flanking effect, which increases a fortifications defencibility.

Merlon: (1) The portion of a battlemented parapet that rises up from a wall (eg. the solid part of a parapet between the crenels). (2) The part of a parapet between two embrasures. See battlement, crenel, embrasure, guelph merlon, half merlon, irish battlement, parapet, stepped merlon, venetian battlement. (I. merlone, battlement).

Merlon arrow slit: An arrow slit which was situated in the centre of a merlon, the addition of the arrow slit added to the potential fire power of the wall head defences. They also provided better protection to the archers than firing through the crenels. See arrow slit, merlon.

Meurtriéres: (1) Small loops through which the enemy could be attacked, usually situated in the gatehouse. Also known as murder holes and spy holes. See drop box, fall trap. (2) Small gun loops through which muskets could be fired at the enemy. See musket port.

Middle bailey: A bailey which was situated between the outer and the inner bailey's of a castle. See bailey, concentric castle.

Mile castle: A Roman fort which was used to defend a part of a fortified perimeter (eg. Hadrian's Wall) situated every Roman mile along the length of the perimeter, (approximately every 1.5 kilometres). A mile castle was constructed on a rectangular plan covering 300 to 400 square metres, provided with a barrack-room, a store, an oven and a latrine. There were two gates; the inner leading to civilized lands while the outer was provided with turrets, and opened to the barbarian lands. Also known as a castellum.

Mine: (1) The works excavated by the besiegers to attack a fortifications defences by making a breach. The early method was to fill the excavated cavity under a wall with combustibles, set it a light, once the upright timbers burnt through the chamber collapsed bringing down the wall above, thus making a breach. The later method of using a mine to make a breach involved using gun powder, the gun powder was exploded in the excavated chamber under the walls, the resulting effects producing a breach. (2) Mines were made by besiegers while countermines were made by the besieged. See ecoutes.

Minor work: A lesser work which was used to defend a position or a major work. See outwork, main work.

Mizuki: A Japanese fortification consisting of a large earthen enbankment which was used as a dam to create a water defence against an attacking force. (J. water fort).

Moat: A water filled ditch which surrounded a castle, or just forming a line of defence, which was artificial or partly natural in origin. Just as ‘donjon’ signified the highest part of a motte and bailey castle and was later changed to ‘dungeon’, so moat was derived from ‘motte’ or the mound to the ditch from which it was excavated. In some cases the word moat is used to refer to a dry ditch. (Fr. motte, mound).

Moated: Provided with a moat.

Moat pier: A pier of rock set amid a moat or ditch which was used to support a wooden bridge or drawbridge. Common in the Middle East because of the lack of strong enough timber to span the whole moat. Some piers were left standing when the moat was hewn out of the solid rock. Also known as drawbridge pier.

Mock machicolation: See blind machicolation, bracket, false machicolation.

Moineau, Moyeneau: A small flat bastion, usually situated in the middle of a overlong curtain, from which musketeers defended the neighbouring bastions with small shot flanking fire, otherwise the bastions would be inadequately defended due to their distance apart. (Fr. moineau, sparrow).

Mon: A gateway of a Japanese castle, which was of two main types; the gateway which was constructed of timber similar in style to a tenshu, and the other gateway was simpler and made into the stone walls or the ishigaki of a castle. See kôrai mon, uzume mon, watari yagura mon, yagura mon. (J. gate).

Moon: An outwork constructed in the form of a crescent. See demilune, ravelin.

Moorish merlon: A merlon which was typical of the fortified ‘mudéjar’ architecture, characterized by a pointed apex.

Mote, Motte: A natural, partly natural or artificial earthen mound surmounted by a wooden donjon surrounded by a palisade, and in turn surrounded by palisaded bailey or the bailey was placed to one side; the motte was usually surrounded by a ditch which was also surrounded the palisaded bailey. The motte and bailey were connected by a flying bridge. The ‘motte and bailey castle’ was common in France and wasintroduced to England by the Normans, who used them to consolidate their territorial gains. See kernmotte.

Motte & bailey castle: See bailey, motte.

Mudéjar merlon: A merlon which was built with a pointed apex, typical of mudéjar fortified architecture. See moorish merlon, pointed merlon.

Multiple lines: A number lines of detached walls which were used to defend a position. See concentric castle, lines of defence (1).

Multivallate hillfort: A hillfort which was surrounded by a number of ditches and ramparts, which were either built originally as a multivallate hillfort or had a number of ditches and ramparts added, thus a univallate or a bivallate hillfort could develop into a multivallate hillfort. This development in hillfort design was made necessary by the importation of the sling to Britain, the sling which had a longer range compared to that of the throwing spear. This made it necessary to keep the enemy further away from the principle defences, this was achieved by extending the outworks. This however, does not suggest that all univallate hillforts pre-date all multivallate hillforts. See hillforts.

Mural gallery: A gallery constructed within the thickness of the wall below the parapet, which was provided with arrow slits. See firing gallery.

Mural tower: A tower attached to the curtain wall which was used for flanking the curtain wall. See bastion, curtain tower, wall tower. (L. murus, wall).

Murderes: The square gun ports which were used in coastal artillery forts of the late 15th and early 16th century England.

Murderess: The gap of a machicolation, which was used to attack the enemy at the base of the wall below. See machicolation, murder hole.

Murder hole: (1) An opening in the floor of the room of a gatehouse situated above the entry passage or in other important places, which was used to attack the enemy below. See drop box, meurtriéres. (2) The gaps of the machicolations which were used to attack the enemy at the base of a castles walls. See machicolation, murderess.

Musket port: A port which was designed for the use of muskets, dating from the 16th century. Also called musket embrasures. See gun port.

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Nawabari: The format of defences of a Japanese castle; the castle's plan. See dôshinén, renketsukei, teikakukei. (J. stretched rope).

Ninomaru: The second defensive compound of a Japanese castle, which either surrounded or was adjacent to the honmaru or the main compound. See dôshinén, renketsukei, teikakukei. (J. second circle).

Notched merlon: See Italian merlon, merlon.

Numerus: A Roman fort used to house irregular troop units call numeri (such as the numeri Brittonum). An example is the numerus fort at Hesselbach in Germany.

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Obos: Prefabricated wooden palisade. (Russian)

Octogon: An eight sided fortification.

Ogi no kôbai: The ishigaki or stone wall of a Japanese castle that were concave in traverse section, forming a parabolic shape. As the stone walls of a castle were made higher, the slope had to be changed to accommodate the increased stresses incurred. The concave shape also avoided the creation of dead ground at the base of the wall. (J. folding fan shape).

Ogival bastion: A bastion provided with a ‘V’ shaped ogival point which was situated facing the most likely direction of attack, the ogival point added to the structural strength of the bastion, thus it was better able to resist battering by siege engine or artillery.

Ogival point: The sharp angled masonry projection of a tower which were used to eliminate dead ground at the base of the tower and add to its structural strength. See ogival bastion.

Oilet, Oillet: The circular part of an arrow slit situated at the ends, the middle, the bottom or all of the above mentioned, which was used to give archers a greater field of fire. Also known as a loop or spy-hole. See loop (2).

Ondecagon: A fortification which has eleven sides.

Open Flank: The portion of a flank covered by the orillion.

Ordu: A Turkish/Mongolian capital/palace which could be fortified, some consisted of concentric walls with towers.

Orillion, Orillon: A semi-circular projection at the shoulder of a bastion, projecting past the normal flank of a rampart and parapet; the curve of the orillion is convex to the ditch. Used to protect a flanking battery and defenders on the flank.

Oubliette: A dungeon with only one opening which was situated in its vault, usually covered by a trapdoor; a secret pit in floor of a dungeon into which a prisoner could be thrown. (Fr. oublier, to forget).

Outer bailey: The bailey situated between the middle bailey or inner defences and the surrounding country; the defence which includes the main entrance, also known as the outer ward. See barbican, concentric castle.

Outer curtain wall: The curtain wall surrounding the outer bailey. See concentric castle.

Outwork: (1) The surrounding outer wall of a fortification. (2) Defences constructed beyond the line of the main works, designed: to keep the enemy at a distance because of the effect of the enemy's projectile weapons (eg. siege equipment or artillery); to break up the line of an assault; to cover the approaches to the other outworks; and when taken by an enemy force, leave them totally open to fire from the main works. See barbican, multivallate hillfort, ravelin.

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Palisade: (1) A Defensive fence or wall of wooden stakes arranged vertically or obliquely in a row. See valli. (2) To surround or defend with a palisade. (L. palûs, a stake).

Pan: The part of a work forming one side of a salient angle.

Pan coupé: When a salient angle is replaced by the straight line of a parapet, a pan coupé is formed.

Parados: An earthwork parapet situated behind an infantry or gun position, protecting the rear from attack. (Fr. parare, to prepare; L. dorsum, back).

Parallel: A siege trench dug parallel to the front of a fortress.

Parapet: (1) The top of a wall of either a fortification or fieldwork, either plain or battlemented. Used to provide protection to the defenders behind the wall. See battlement, crenel, embrasure, merlon, reveal. (2) A breastwork or wall used to protect the defenders on the ramparts of a fortification, either plain or provided with embrasures.

Parapet walk: See allure.

Paraportia: Gates in Byzantine field fortifications (See the Strategikon for more details).

Parol: A wooden frame with sharp stakes projection horizontally from it, which was used to deter besiegers from scaling the parapets.

Pas de sours: Steps leading into the ditch of a permanent fortification.

Pashtib: A raised platform of sandbags used to fill a defensive ditch. (Indian)

Passage: An opening in the parapet of the covered way.

Paté: An outwork in the shape of a horseshoe, used to cover the gate of a fortification. See demilune, halfmoon, horseshoe, moon.

Pele, Pele tower, Pile tower: A castle almost unique to the Scotish/English border region, usually consisting of just a small tower, or fortified dwelling, suitable for defence against raiding parties rather than any type of real siege. Dating from 1100-1700 A.D., they are also found in Ireland, used both as a refuge and a stronghold. Some were provided with a surrounding or adjoining bailey which was called a barbkin or barmkin, which was used for the protection to the tenants and their livestock during raids. (L. palus, stake).

Penstock: A wooden dam, the water of which was used by the defenders of a fortification to destroy enemy positions in the ditch by opening the sluice of the dam and flooding the ditch.

Pentagonal sconce: An earthwork fort of the 17th century, based on the bastioned trace plan, protected by; pitfalls and a palisade beyond the ditch surrounding the sconce, and horizontal storm poles on the top of the interior slope of the ramparts, as well as a wooden revetted breastwork which extended along the top of the ramparts. See bastion trace, sconce.

Perimeter wall: See bailey wall, curtain wall, enceinte.

Perpendicular fortification: A fortification introduced by Montalembert in 1776 A.D., consisting of four different lines of defence which were; firstly a tenaille trace, followed by two lines of counterguards, and finally a two storied circular multi-gun tower. Thus four consecutive breaches were needed to be made to subdue this type of fortification.

Piazza bassa: A casemate set in a flank of a work from which artillery was used to enfilade the curtain and to cover the ditch.

Pictish tower: A round tower dating from the early Iron Age which was attributed to the picts. Chiefly found in the Shetlands, Orkneys and Northern Scotland.

Picts house: An earthen house ascribed to the Picts.

Pieced rampart: A rampart which was modified by replacing the crenels with embrasures so that cannons could be fired through the parapet. See embrasure.

Piéce maitress: The French phrase for the architecturally dominant feature of a castle, which in most castles was the keep or donjon, or can be applied to the great gatehouse which took the position of the keep.

Pile tower: See pele.

Place: A word used in military architecture when referring to a fortification or a fortified town.

Place des armes, Place of arms: An enlargement of the covered way where troops could assemble for sorties, and were used as command posts; if the work was salient it was situated at the outer point of the covered way, while if the work was re-entrant it was situated at the inner point.

Plinth: The original purpose of the plinth was to increase the effect of the machicolations, and was not so much to counter the endeavours of sappers as to deflect projectiles thrown down from the walls above. The upper section of the plinth was concave and the lower oblique; the effect of this shape deflects projectiles thrown from above in a fan-shaped trajectory. See batter, spur, talus.

Pointed arch machicolation: A machicolation dating from the 14th to the 15th century, which was supported on buttresses which extended down to the foundations. The type of machicolation had two distinct advantages: that larger projectiles could be cast down through them onto rams and sappers below; and should the sappers succeed in making a breach in the wall, the buttresses and arches would localize the effects of the damage. See machicolation.

Pointed merlon: A merlon typical of the mudéjar military architecture, having a pointed apex. See merlon, moorish merlon, mudéjar merlon.

Polygonal fortification: A fortification designed by Montalembert in 1777 A.D. which consisted of faces with salient angles of little depth, and powerful caponiers armed with; 27 cannons in casements and a large number of infantry loopholes.

Polygonal keep: A keep which was built on a polygonal plan and was designed to overcome the problems associated with square and rectangular keeps, whose corners were vulnerable to battering, and their cubic shape created dead ground by their reduced field of fire, and they were also more susceptible to attack by undermining. See keep, transitional keep.

Pomerium, Pomoerium: A street like open space which runs parallel to the inside base of the fortified wall of a city.

Port: A slit or aperture in the walls of a fortification through which guns could be fired at an enemy force, used to provided flanking and covering fire. See gun loop, gun port, loop. (L. porta, gate).

Porta decumana: The rear gate of a Roman fortification, situated in the wall opposite the main gate (porta preatoria) usually situated in one of the shorter walls.

Porta praetoria: The main gate of a Roman fortification, normally situated in one of the shorter walls opposite the porta decumana or rear gate.

Porta principalis: The name given to the two gates on either of long sides of a Roman fortification which was connected by the via principalis.

Porticullis: A heavy grating of iron or iron reinforced wooden bars, suspended on chains which were worked by winches; used to cover an entrance to a castle. The porticullis could by dropped quickly down vertical grooves in entryway called ‘coulisses’, or at any other important entrance in the event of attack. Some castles had the machinery for raising and lowering the porticullis, usually a windlass, was accommodated above the entry, in a chamber situated between the flanker towers and was only accessible through one of them. This chamber was often put to domestic use despite the obstruction of the windlass and often the machinery for moving the drawbridge as well. Some gateways were provided with a succession of porticullises, at some distance apart. See gatehouse, successive porticullis. (L. porta, gate; coulisse, gutter).

Postern, Postern gate: A small secondary entrance, sometimes concealed, and usually at the rear of a castle. Used as a sally port for sorties, and as a route of escape. See sally port.

Postern bridge: A bridge crossing a moat or ditch from the postern gate. See postern.

Postern tower: A tower which was used to defend as well as sometimes incorporating the postern gate. See postern.

Precinct: The space enclosed by fortified walls. See bailey, enceinte.

Presidio: The Spanish term for a place of defence such as; a fort, garrison or garrison town, or just a guard house. (L. praesidium, garrison).

Priest cap: A fortification; so named because of its similarity to the shape of priest's cap, also known as a 'swallow tail'.

Principia: The headquarters of a Roman fortress or auxiliary fort which was situated at the junction of the via praetoria and via principia.

Promontory fort: See cliff fort.

Pulley drawbridge: A drawbridge raised and lowered by ropes or chains via a pulley system. See drawbridge.

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Qalca (Burj or Qubba): A small tower in the mountains of the Iberian peninsula with large storage facilities.

Qasabah, Qasr: A governor’s fortified residence and garrison. (Arabic) See Alcazabar.

Quadrangular castle: A castle dating from the 14th century, which consisted of four wings surrounding a central courtyard. The outer face was reasonably defensible, the corner towers were substantial, while the interior faces were almost totally domestic in character. The quadrangular castle combined display, comfort and security and was the dominant form of English fortified dwelling from the middle 14th century until the time they merged with the great undefended quadrangular houses of Queen Elizabeth 1st's reign. See courtyard castle.

Quadrant castle: A castle on a site formed by constructing a line of defences between principal natural obstacles and secondary obstacles, such as a tributary or lateral ravine.

Quadrilateral castle: See quadrangular castle.

Quatrefoil keep: A shell keep which was usually situated on an artificial motte and consisted of four overlapping circular bastions. The blind angles a the joins of the bastions were covered by bartizans supported on corbels, providing flanking fire rather than vertical defence. The design was derived from a type of French keep, which provided and all round field of fire, and a similar design was later adopted for the artillery forts of the Tudors. Also known as a clover-leaf keep or a four-leafed flower keep.

Qubba (Burj or Qalca): A small tower in the mountains of the Iberian peninsula with large storage facilities.

Quinaincial disposed arrow slits: Arrows slits placed in a pattern of five to avoid weakening the masonry and to increase the field of fire. See staggered arrow loops.

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Ramp:(1) An inclined plane joining two levels of an earthwork or wall. (2) To construct a ramp.

Rampart: An enbankment of earth which was used for the purpose of defence, excavated from the ditch, and either raised on the inside or outside of the ditch. A number of different types of ramparts have been employed, generally they surrounded a fortification and were usually topped by a parapet. Dump or Glacis rampart; was the simplest method of constructing a rampart, by excavating a ditch and casting the soil inwards to form a `dump'. Often reinforced by a wall or palisade along the top. Revetted earthen rampart: the first of this type was made by piling the earth excavated from the ditch behind a wooden palisade, giving the rampart a steep vertical face; the second of this type were the earthen ramparts of the 17th and 18th century fortresses which were revetted with stone, masonry, concrete or faggots, the ramparts were erected to offset the effect of artillery by absorbing the impact of the cannon balls. The revetment was used to hold the earth in place. Timber laced rampart; the rampart was reinforced by filling the spaces between the upright logs with horizontal ones, and the gaps were faced with dry stone wall, adding to the ramparts strength. Turf rampart: was a rampart made of uniform bricks of turf stacked to form a vertical wall which was invulnerable to both fire and battering ram. (O.Fr. rempar, to defend).

Rams horns: A low work constructed in the ditch in the shape of circular arc, invented by M. Belidor, which were used instead of tenailles.

Randhausburgen (Surrounding-house-castle): A German castle with the parts of the castle built around a court (ie. Eltz, Germany, 12th – 16th century).

Rath: An Irish earthwork fortification dating from the Iron Age.

Ravelin: A detached outwork developed from the demilune, consisting of a triangular work with two embankments raised before the counterscarp, the work itself was isolated in the ditch of moat. One purpose of the ravelin was to shield the entrance to a fortification from direct bombardment. The ravelin was accessible either by a drawbridge if it formed a part of the road system of a fortification, or if only part of the defence works access was by a tunnel or timber bridge from the inner works. See demilune. (It. ravellino).

Rectangular buttress turret: The rectangular shaped flanking turret which only projected a small distance from the four corners of a Norman rectangular or square keep. See corner buttress turret.

Redan, Reden: (1) A field work consisting of two faces and an open gorge. (2) A triangular work situated forward of the main fortification, consisting of two faces and an open gorge, like but larger than a fléche. Used to fortify walls when the necessity and expense of constructing bastions wasrequired. A system of fortifications using redans produced a series of serrations, the distance between the redans should not exceed the length of musket shot, so that fire from the faces of a redan will be able to the salients of the neighbouring redans. (Re + L. den, tooth).

Redoubt, Redout, Reduit: (1) A small work placed beyond the glacis, but within musket shot of the covert way, made in various forms, known as a detached redoubt. (2) A small work built in a bastion or ravelin of a permanent fortification. (3) An outwork or fieldwork, square or polygonal in shape without bastion or other flanking defences, sited at a  distance from the main fortification, used to guard a pass or to impede the approach of an enemy force.

Re-entrant: An inward facing angle, opposite to a salient.

Re-entering angle: An angle formed by a line of fortification with its apex turned away from the besiegers and towards the centre of the place.

Re-entering place of arms: An assembly area for troops and munitions in the space left by the re-entrant angle of the counterscarp of the ditch, used to break up an enemy's initial attack or for a sorty against the enemy's lines. Dating form the late 16th century. See place of arms.

Relais: An area at the base of a rampart and the top of the ditch, which was used to collect any earth which eroded from the face of the rampart.

Relieving arches: A 13th century development in the masonry of curtain walls, consisting of wide relieving arches which were keyed into the towers on either side. The arches were intended to counteract the effect of sapping, for even if the base of the wall was destroyed, the wall itself would still be supported by the relieving arches.

Remblai: The earth which was used to construct a parapet, rampart, etc., of a fortification, which was taken from the ditch when it was excavated. (Fr. remblayer, embank).

Reirata: A temporary earthen rampart, which was raised behind a breach in a main wall, used to seal a breach.

Renketsukei: A Japanese castle dating from around 1600 A.D., which was formed of three defensive compounds arranged in series along as axis, and connected by gateways. The three compounds were known as; the honmaru, the ninomaru and the sannomaru. See dôshinén, teikakukei.

Renketsushiki tenshu: The most ornate and complex type of tenshu or principal tower of a Japanese castle, the tenshu was connected to smaller towers by parapets a the corners of the rectangular stone base. See tenshu.

Renritsushiki tenshu: A principal tenshu or tower of a Japanese castle which was attached to a secondary tower by a connecting parapet. See tenshu.

Retiracle: A re-trenchment consisting of two faces which form a re-entering angle.

Retirade: An alteration to the face of a long bastion large enough to enable a few troops to fire on an enemy trying to gain the re-entrant angle of the ditch.

Retirata: (1) A work built behind a bastion so as to its strength. (2) An earthwork rampart, raised behind a breach, to enable the garrison to defend the position against storming. See retrenchment.

Retired flank: A flank set back or turned inwards to the rear of a work, such as a bastion where the shoulder or orillion protects the guns situated in the flank which were used to enfilade along the curtain. See flank.

Retrench: To construct an inner line of defence, usually consisting of a trench and a parapet.

Retrenchment: (1) An inner line of defence, often built behind a breach. See retirata (2). (2) An inner trench and parapet provided against the loss of the outer defences.

Reveal: An opening in a parapet which has the same purpose as a crenel. See crenel, embrasure.

Revet: To provide revetment.

Revetment: (1) A strong retaining wall constructed on the outside of a fortification's earthwork rampart and parapet, so as to prevent it falling into the ditch. (2) The covering of an earthen rampart to prevent it form deteriorating, using such materials as; stones, masonry, concrete or faggots. See demi-revetment, gazion, rampart.

Ridge: The crest of the glacis.

Ring wall: A stone wall which replaced the timber palisade surrounding the summit of a motte of a ‘motte and bailey castle’. Also known as a shell keep.

Ringwork: An earthen defensive enclosure, regardless of period, size or function.

Risban: A fortification used for the defence of a port or harbour.

Rocco: An Italian castle or fort which served primarily a military purpose. See castello.

Role top merlon: A merlon which was designed originally to stop arrows and other missiles glancing of the merlon and passing over the parapet. The design was later used to decorate castellated buildings of the 19th century. See merlon.

Round bastion: A wide diameter low lying round bastion which was used in the Tudor artillery forts, provided with gun ports and hand gun embrasures, but dead ground was a problem in front of each bastion. See artillery fortress.

Round gun turret: An outwork built on a circular plan and provided with embrasures, situated in the ditch or moat, dating from the 15th century.

Rutba (Marsad): Small isolated fortification along the main roads for military traffic of Andalusia

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Saku: A small palisaded fortification which was used by the Yamamoto Court of Japan, in their attempts to pacify the ‘Ezo’, the saku were used in conjunction with the more substantial ‘Ki’ or stockade in the subjugation of the territory gained. The saku were easily erected and served as bases for further incursions into the Ezo's territory, dating from the 7th to the 9th century.

Saliant, Salient: The forward projecting point of a bastion or other projecting work.

Salient angle: The angle facing away from the centre of the place.

Salient work: A work incorporating salient angles. See bastion trace, redoubt, sconce.

Sally port: A small, heavily fortified gateway or gate, from the inner works to the outer works of a fortification: which was used by defenders to launch sorties to take the besiegers off guard and thus gain an advantage; once the objective of the operation had been accomplished or when things were going ill for the sallying force, the defenders could fall back through the sally port before the enemy could take the advantage. Also known as a postern. Another purpose occurred when the sally port or postern was situated in the main gate itself, this gate allowed pedestrian traffic to pass through while keeping the main gate closed. See guichet, postern, wicket.

Sannomaru: The tertiary defensive courtyard of a Japanese castle, depending on the design, the sannomaru either, surrounded the ninomaru or was sited adjacent to it. See dôshinén, honmaru, ninomaru, renketsukei, teikakukei.

Sap: (1) A siege trench. (2) To construct trenches which were used by besiegers to approach a fortification while under cover. (3) To undermine; to destabilize or open a breach in a wall, rampart or tower of a fortification by undermining their  foundations.

Saxon shore fort: A part of the Roman coastal defence system consisting of a chain of Roman auxiliary forts sited on strategic points such as harbours and river mouths, built on both sides of the English channel to guard the coastlines, providing both safe anchorages for the defending fleet and acting as a deterrent to raiders. Another theory for their existence is that Carausius, a Roman naval officer rebelled against the Emperor, and he raised the forts to protect his territory.

Scarp: The side of the ditch next to the parapet; also known as the escarp.

Scarped round bastion: A sloping rounded bastion provided with embrasures, dating from the 15th century.

Scarped wall: A wall of a fortification dating from the 14th century, which was developed to offset the effect the artillery on normal walls. Walls were also thickened as well as heavily scarped, in the hope that the shot would be deflected off the oblique angle that the wall presented.

Scarping: Scarping involves the increase on the angle of a slope by excavating a ditch and throwing the material downwards.

Schildmauer: The especially strong wall provided with galleries and arrow slits, built across the only line of approach of a castle built on a mountain or spur; normally associated with German speaking countries. See hohenburg. (G. shield wall).

Schloss: A German word for castle.

Sconce: (1) A small fort located some distance from the main fortification. Either rectangular or polygonal in shape and bastioned at each corner, so that the faces between were covered by fire from flanks, giving the maximum field of fire all round defence. See pentagonal sconce. (2) Small arches or projecting courses of stone formed across the angles of a tower. Also known as a squinch. (Du. shans, brushwood).

Screen wall: A curtain wall or schildmauer.

Semibastion: A half bastion, or half of a bastion, obtained by dividing the bastion in two at the salient angle. See bastion, demibastion.

Shell keep: The ‘motte and bailey castles’ of the Normans served their  purpose well in the subjugation of England but wood does burns and rots, and stone last much longer. So the use of stone in their constructions was gradually introduced, starting with chapel, or the gate which was a chief source of concern. By the beginning of the 12th century, wooden palisades surrounding the top of the motte had started to be replaced by a stone wall, thus making what is known as a shell keep. The surrounding wall was provided with a sentry walk around its perimeter, and the domestic buildings normally housed in the donjon were attached to the inside of this wall, leaving space for a courtyard in the centre. See keep, motte, ring wall.

Shiro: A Japanese castle or fortification. See .

Shot deflecting battlement: A battlement were the merlons have a sloping apex which inclines inwards, designed to deflect cannon balls. See curved merlon, merlon.

Shoulder of the bastion: The angled part of a bastion between its face and its flank; the shoulder was sometimes supported by the orillion.

Shurrafa: Arabic crenallations. See crenal.

Siege: A military operation carried out by an armed force whose purpose it was to gain entry and control of a position or fortification. (L. sedes, seat).

Siege castle: A castle erected by a besieging force close to an invested fortress, to cover a gate or postern. The siege castle was used to prevent the defenders: launching sorties, receiving revenues and the produce from the surrounding area; and also preventing relieving forces and communications reaching the besieged. From the siege castle the attackers could launch raids, dominate the roads and surrounding area. A castle survives off its surrounding lands and trade, deny these and the occupants of the castle have to live on what they have stored.

Siege train: A wagon train carrying the siege equipment, provisions and other supplies for conducting a siege operation.

Siege works: The works erected by besiegers for either offence or defence. See facines, field work, gabion, line of circumvallation, malvoisin, parallel, and sap.

Slight: To damage a fortification or part of, so as to make it indefensible.

Small keep: A small adjoining tower incorporating a staircase leading to the first floor entrance of a 10th or 11th century Norman castle. The staircase was entirely unprotected, so defenders could easily deny their use to any attackers who might try to gain entrance to the keep. See forebuilding, forework.

Specula: Roman square watch towers guarding the German Limes (defensive frontier), with walls 12 or 15 feet thick.

Spina: The central partition of a double gate of a Roman fort.

Splayed base, Splayed talus: A wall or tower were in some cases supplied with splayed talus or base and this was for a number of reasons, such as; to deflect projectiles dropped by defenders from the walls above to attack besiegers below, and to counter sapping and the effects of artillery. See plinth, spur, talus.

Splayed embrasure: An embrasure which was splayed to enable a cannon to be traversed in a greater arc than with a conventional embrasure, giving the cannon a wider field of fire and the ability to train the fire on a moving target. Used in forts, especially those used for coastal defence.

Spur: (1) An angular projection of masonry applied to the base of a tower. The spur design had the double advantage of fending off projectiles from siege engines, and of increasing the difficulty of sapping. Such protruding spurs or prows became quite common on keeps and towers of the late 12th century. See batter, plinth, talus. (2) A wall joining a rampart to an inner wall. (3) A tower or blockhouse used to form a salient angle in the outworks.

Spur buttress: A sloping support for a wall or tower. See spur (1).

Spy hole: See oilet.

Square flanking tower: (1) A tower situated at the corner of either a rectangular or square keep, flanking the keeps walls. See flanking tower. (2) A square tower used to flank a curtain wall. See flanking tower.

Square keep: A keep which was built on a square plan, possessing advantages over the wooden donjon design which proceeded it, such as; they could not be fired, they could be built to a greater height, and because of their height they did not need the same concentration of defenders as was needed for the defence of the lower earth and timber walls. Their disadvantages were that their square corners could easily be attacked with a bore or by undermining, and the square shape also limited the field of fire. The development of the polygonal and round keeps offset most of these faults. See keep, polygonal keep.

Squinch: See sconce (2).

Staggered arrow loops: Arrow loops which were constructed in a staggered pattern to avoid excess strain on any part if a wall or creation of any weak areas. See quinaincial disposed arrow slits.

Staircase turret: A turret at the angle of a tower or keep which contained a staircase used to gain the parapet and was provided arrow slits which were used for flanking the defences.

Stanchion: A vertical iron bar securing a window light.

Star fort: A field work constructed in the shape of a star, by using four or more salients and no curtains.

Stepped merlon: A merlon which rose to its apex in two or more steps. A variation was where the top of the steps was sloped towards the exterior of the parapet. See Irish battlements, Venetian battlements.

Stockade: (1) To fortify with a breastwork. (2) A defensive enclosure made of upright stakes.

Storm poles: Wooden pointed stakes which were projected horizontally from the top of the interior slope of the ramparts of a field work. Used to impede the enemy scaling the ramparts. See pentagonal sconce.

Stormproof work: A defended position were an approaching enemy force is destroyed as soon as they are within range, thus inassailible.

Strigae: The various rectangular spaces marked out for the erection of the tents of a Roman encampment.

Stronghold: A fortress, or a fortified or defensible place.

Successive porticullis: Two or more successive porticullises defending the entry of a gatehouse or barbican; each was raised by separate machinery, placed on different floors without communication between them so that if a traitor could get one open he was not able to open the others. The enemy could also be trapped between the porticullises if the gate was forced. See porticullis.

Sumi yagura: A wall tower situated at the corners of the stone walls of a Japanese castle, which was used to defend the castle walls. The height of the sumi yagura ranged from one to three stories, some actually took on the exterior of a tenshu. See yagura.

Superior slope: The surface of the parapet near the crest.

Swivel pins: The hinges used in certain types of drawbridges.

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Tabica, tabby: The concrete used in fortifications. (Arabic)

Taif: A 6th century Arabian fortification consisting of a large walled enclosure. (Arabic)

Talcaya: See atalaya. (Arabic)

Talus: The sloping or scarped face at the base of a fortifications wall. The talus reduced the effectiveness of scaling ladders in the following fashion; if the ladders were placed on the ground they would either be to short or inclined as such an oblique angle the structural strength was severely reduced. The talus was also used by defenders to deflect stones thrown from above at the enemy below, the stones on hitting the talus splintered and ricocheted with a shrapnel effect. See batter, plinth, spur.

Tamon yagura: A continuous covered gallery or wall tower which ran along the top of the stone walls between the corner towers of a Japanese castle, which provided protection to the castle's defenders. See yagura. (J. many listener tower).

Teikakukei: A Japanese castle design dating from around 1600 A.D., consisting of two defensive compounds; the inner or honmaru was set to one side of the encircling secondary compound or ninomaru. This positioning of the honmaru was to remove it from the most likely line of assault, thus gaining extra protection. See honmaru, ninomaru.

Teiritsushiki tenshu: A Japanese tenshu which consisted of the principal tower attached directly to a secondary tower, also known as a fukugôshiki tenshu. See tenshu.

Tenaille: A small low work situated in the ditch between bastions, used to provide extra covering fire for the curtain wall, there were three types: the first had faces like a bastion but were much lower; the second had faces, flanks and curtains; and the third had only faces. See redan.

Tenaille trace: A trace formed of redans joining at right angles to form a serrated front. See redan (2).

Tenaillon: A work raised on either side of a ravelin, used to add strength and cover to the shoulder of the bastion.

Tenshu: The main tower of a Japanese castle, constructed mainly of timber on a base consisting of ishigaki or earth revetted with dry stone walling, serving a number of purposes such as; ceremonial, residential and military. The early tenshu were simple residential buildings with belvedres perched on their roof tops, later they developed into the larger multi-leveled towers.

Teppôsama: A musket port set into the plastered wall or tower of a Japanese castle. In section a port was funnel shaped, the larger part on the inside gave a greater field of fire to the defenders, while the narrower aperture on the exterior provided protection to the defenders from incoming fire. The teppôsama came in a number of shapes; rectangular, triangular and circular. The ports of the plastered walls onthe ishigaki were left open while those of a wall tower were often provided with shutters, since they were put to other uses other than defence (eg. storehouses or residences).

Terrace: Any type of earthworks which were built up above the normal ground level. See artillery terrace.

Terreplain: (1) The open country surrounding a field work. (2) The rear talus of a rampart. (3) The gun position on the top of a rampart located behind a parapet.

Three-quarter round tower: A cylindrical flanking tower projecting only three quarters of the way from the body of a castle. The rear of the flanking tower was either circular or straight. See ‘D’ shaped flanker, flanking tower.

Tituli: Additional ditches dug forward of a Roman fort gateway.

Titulum: A short length of ditch and rampart set in front of a gate and parallel to the ramparts of a Roman fort.

Torre de homenaje: A Spanish keep provided with a single entrance on the second floor for reasons of security. The parapet was provided with pointed merlons. (Sp. tower of homage).

Torri saracinesche: Italian towers built in coastal areas to protect from the attack of the Saracens.

Tourelle: A turret projecting from a tower, acting as either a watch tower if provided with machicolations for vertical defence, or just for decoration. See turret.

Touret: See turret.

Tower: A tall structure constructed of either timber or stone and used for the purpose of defence, which varied in design depending on the defensive system used, the available materials and skilled labour. The tower was employed singularly or as a part of a fortification, especially at the angles and the entrances; the gateway was commonly flanked by towers provided with numerous form of defence, such as arrow slits, parapets and machicolations. See flanking tower, pele. (L. turris, tower).

Tower house: (1) The residential defensible tower of the 14th to the 16th century. See z-plan tower house. (2) A fortification which was developed in the Scottish/English border region, which consisted of a simple, strong rectangular tower. They were no intended to meet the threat of a major siege but were more suited to the border warfare which was waged in the region. See pele.

Tower houses: Clay tower - a cheap but effective type of Scottish square tower made with clay walls supported by an internal framework of interwoven wattles. L-plan - a tower house built on a ‘L’ shaped plan.

Tower keep: A term which has been used to refer to a number of different types of keeps from different periods. See polygonal keep, square keep, transitional keep.

Town (fortified): See burg, burgus, burh.

Trace: The ground plan of a fortification. See bastion trace, tenaille trace.

Transitional keep: The polygonal or round keep of the 12th century, which was designed to overcome the problems associated with square and rectangular keep. The purpose of the circular and polygonal forms employed was to avoid giving an enemy any cover around the base of the keep, known as dead ground, from where the enemy could launch attacks as well as undermine or batter the walls. The rounded and polygonal edges also offer a greater resistance to battering. See polygonal keep.

Traverse: (1) A mound or earth situated at intervals along a work such as a covered way, the traveres were aligned at right angles to the work and prevented it from being swept by flanking fire should part of the work be taken by the enemy, or observed from higher ground by the enemy. (2) A work similar to a caponier, consisting of a gun looped passage way which traversed a dry ditch of a fortification, and was used to sweep the ditch of the enemy as they tried to cross the ditch. See caponier. (3) A parapet crossing the covert-way, situated opposite the salient angle of the works and near to the places of arms, used to prevent enfilade fire.(4) Traverses were also built in a caponier, and were known as tambours.

Tread: The part of a banquette where a soldier stood to fire over the parapet. See banquette.

Trench: A ditch dug in the ground; the earth from the trench was thrown up to form a parapet, used as defensive or offensive position. See sap.

Trous-de-loup: An infantry obstacle in front of the glacis of a fortification, consisting of a hole in the ground measuring about two metres deep and in diameter, with a sharpened wooden stake at the bottom.

Tsuchido: The plastered window shutters which were used to cover the loop holes of a Japanese castle, which provided protection to the defenders within from incoming fire, the plastering reduced the risk of fire.

Tsuzuki yagura: A wall tower of a Japanese castle which was usually only a single story in height, which functioned as a connecting tower or gallery running along the top of the ishigaki, from which the defenders protected the walls. See yagura.

Turret, Turette, Touret: A small tower or bartizan, which was often placed at the angles of a castle, to increase the flanking ability, some only serving as corner buttresses. (L. turris, tower).

Turreted: Provided with turrets.

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Ukeks: An 11th century flanking tower of a Turkish ‘Baliqs’ or small fortified town.

Usume mon: A gateway which was used to defend the gate of a Japanese castle, the gateway was a simple opening made in the ishigaki and defended in much the same way as other such gateways. (J. embedded gate).

Utum: An Arabian tower or refuge at an oasis. (Arabic)

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Valli: The sharpened stakes which were lashed together and rammed into the top of the rampart surrounding a Roman encampment.

Vallum: (1) A single stake of the palisade topping the rampart surrounding a Roman encampment. (2) The palisaded rampart or the rampart itself surrounding a Roman fortification.

Vawnmewre: An earthen rampart used as a defence against artillery.

Via decumana: The road leading to the rear gate (porta decumana) from a ‘T’ intersection with the via quintana.

Via quintana: The road running parallel to the via principalis, forming a ‘T’ intersection with the via decumana.

Via praetoria: The road leading from the main gate (porta praetoria) to the headquarters (principia) at the intersection with the via principalis.

Via principalis: The pathway which followed the two intersecting lines bisecting a Roman encampment, which were approximately thirtymetres wide.

Via sagularis: Th street running around the interior of the intervallum of a Roman fort.

Via vicinariae: The ancillary streets between the tents or buildings of a Roman fort.

Venetian battlement: A battlement provided with stepped merlons. See Irish battlement, stepped merlon.

Voldsteder: Danish mottes of the 12th century. See motte.

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Wagenburg. A field work made from wagons. See carrago, gulaigorod.

Wall head: The apex of a curtain wall or rampart.

Wall head defences: Defences which were used to defend a fortification from the top of the walls. See brattice, crenel, hoard, machicolation, merlon, parapet and turret.

Wall tower: A tower projecting from the curtain wall of a castle, which provided both neighbouring wall towers and curtain wall with flanking fire. See curtain tower, flanking tower, mural tower.

Wall walk: (1) A walk way along the top of an enbankment of a rampart. Also known as a bailey walk. (2) A walk way situated behind a parapet. See bailey walk.

Ward: A courtyard of a castle, or the space between the lines of bastioned curtain walls. See bailey. (O.E. weard, guard).

Wasserburg: A German term for a castle built on a bank or island of a river, making use of the water way in their defence. Their main purpose was to extract tolls from the trade being shipped on the water way. See water castle. (G. wasser, water; burg, castle).

Watari yagura: A connecting tower or crossing wall tower of a Japanese castle, which ran along the ishigaki and was used by the defenders to protect the walls against assault. See yagura.

Watari yagura mon: The largest kind of Japanese castle gateway, which consisted two story timber frame structure, where the lower story incorporated the entrance, and the upper story formed the connecting tower (from were the gateway derives its name).The style of the connecting tower is typical of a yagura but the lower story's timber is left unplastered, and the actual gate and surrounding timbers were often covered with strips or sheets of iron which improved their protection against battering and firing. See yagura mon.

Watch turret: A watch tower or bartizan.

Water castle: A castle which used water defences of natural or artificial origin, or both. See wasserburg.

Water defences: See lines of defence, moat.

Water gate: A defensible gate which connected a castle to open water or a water way, which was used to supply a castle with stores, reinforcements and communications, especially useful in times siege.

Way of the rounds: A narrow covered way between the rampart and the wall of a fortification.

Wehrgang: A covered gallery provided with machicolations which ran around the perimeter of a castle of the Teutonic Knights, which was accessible from the chapel, the chapter-house, and the dormitories by staircases in the walls, from which the castle was defended. (Gr. wehr, defence; gang, passage).

Wicket: A small door in the main gate of a fortification, which could be used without having to open the gate. See guighet, postern, sally port. (Fr. guichet).

Wings: See jambs.

Works: Fortifications. See breastwork, crownwork, detached work, earthwork, forework, hornwork, low artillery outworks, mainworks, outwork, salient work and siege works.

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Yagura: A wall tower built a top the ishigaki which were used by defenders to protect the walls of a Japanese castle. There were four main types and they are as follows: the tamon yarura, a continuous covered gallery; the sumi yagura, a corner tower; the tsuzuki yagura, a connecting tower; and the watari yagura, a crossing wall tower. The yagura not only functioned as a military defence but were also used as storehouses and residences. (J. ya, arrow; kura, storehouse).

Yagura mon: A two story gatehouse of a Japanese castle. The gateway passed through the first floor, while the second story housed the guard room and the defensive positions used by defenders to protect the gateway. This type of gatehouse was usually constituted a part of a masugata mon, forming one side of a barbican, adjacent to the kôrai mon. See mon, yagura.

Yamajiro: A Japanese castle which was usually built on a mountain top or some other elevated position, constructed using walls of rocks and earth to reinforce the natural defences of the site, a moat was optional. This form of castle was the favoured form prior to the latter half of the 16th century, were the lessening of civil strife began to show an effect. See hirijiro, hirayamajiro. (J. mountain castle).

Yang-ma-ch’eng: The outermost walls of a Chinese fortification of the Sung dynasty. (Chinese. Walls for sheep and horses)

Yasama: An arrow slit common to Japanese castles, consisting of a narrow opening set in a defensive position in a tower or a plastered wall. The slit was splayed on the inside and narrow at the exterior, to allow the defenders a larger field of fire and to protect them from incoming fire. See teppôsama.

Yett: An open-work iron grill suspended on hinges, placed on the inside of the wooden door of a main entrance to a tower; used as a secondary defence of the entrance.

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Zahafah: Probably a fixed wooden tower for archers. (Arabic)

Zaqaziq: A spiked hurdle used in field fortifications (Mamluk). (Arabic)

Zariba: 1) An Abbasid encampment surrounded by ditches and brushwood. 2) An Abbasid woven field defencework for protecting archers. (Abbasid)

Zig Zag: A trench excavated by besiegers and running towards the besieged position from the parallel trench in a zig zag pattern, to reduce the amount of exposure to defensive fire from the besieged. See approaches.

Z-plan tower house: A tower house consisting of a rectangular block with towers protruding at the two diagonally opposite corners, a number of gun ports covered every part of the buildings exterior walls, designed for the close quarters defence by musket and pistol. See tower house.

Zwinger: An outworks consisting of an outer courtyard surrounded by curtain walls provided with flanking towers, forming part of a concentric fortification. (G. keep).

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Allen Brown, R., English Medieval Castles, London, 1954.

Allen Brown, R., Castles - A History and Guide, Dorset, 1985.

Anderson, W., Castles of Europe, Hertfordshire, 1984.

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Brice, M.H., Forts and Fortresses, London, 1990.

Brice, M.H., Stronghold: A History of Military Architecture, London, 1984.

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Edwards, R.W., The Fortifications of Armenian Cilica, Washington D.C., 1987.

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Hogg, I., The History of Fortification, London, 1981.

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Johnson, A., Roman Forts of the 1st and 2nd centuries AD in Britain and German Provinces, London, 1983.

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Kennedy, H., Crusader Castles, Cambridge, 1995.

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Toy, S., A History of Fortifications from 3000 BC to AD 1700, London, 1955.

Tsangadas, B.C.P., The Fortifications and Defense of Constantinople, New York, 1980.

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Weissmüller, A.A., Castles From the Heart of Spain, London, 1967.

Wyley, S.F., Dictionary of Military Architecture, 1996.

Wyley, S.F., What is a Castle?, 1998.

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Castle Glossary

Castles on the Web

Castle Terminology

Definition of A Castle as compiled for the Castles of Wales by Jerome Morris

Notes on the Classification for Field Fortifications

 Site O is a group of people from around the world that share an interest in fortifications and artillery. Some are authors on the subject, some are connected with Universities and teach it and others are simply fascinated with it.

Other web pages on fortifications by the Author.

A Dictionary of Military Architecture
An Aerial View of Masada
Anglo-Saxon Burhs
Bibliography of Military Architecture
David's Tower, Jerusalem
Drawings of Aspects of Military Architecture
Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives
More Pictures of the Theodosian Land Walls
Siege Warfare, The Art of Offence and Defence
Shiro, A Japanese Castle
The Walls of Ankara
The Defences of Constantinople
The Town Walls of Conwy
What is a Castle?

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