Formerly the 12th Volunteers, completed it’s organization near Raleigh, North Carolina, in July, 1861. The men were recruited in the counties of Caldwell, McDowell, Surry, Ashe, Guilford, Alleghany, Caswell, Stokes, and Randolph. With nearly 1,000 men, the unit was ordered to Virginia and assigned to the Aquia District in the Department of Northern Virginia. Later it was brigaded under Generals Pettigrew, Pender, and Scales. It fought with the army from Seven Pines to Cold Harbor, took its place in the Petersburg trenches south of the James River, and ended the war at Appomattox. In April, 1862, this regiment contained 752 men, reported 161 casualties during the Seven days' Battles’, had 6 killed and 57 wounded at Second Manassas and 1 killed and 44 wounded at Fredericksburg. It lost 30 killed and 139 wounded at Chancellorsville and of the 321 engaged at Gettysburg, over fifty percent were disabled. On April 9, 1865, it surrendered with 13 officers and 97 men. The field officers were Colonels James Conner, Thomas S. Galloway, Jr., Charles E. Lightfoot, and James J.. Pettigrew; Lieutenant Colonels Christopher C. Cole, R. H. Gray, John O. Long, and William L. Mitchell; and Majors Laban Odell and W. Lee Russell.
(from: Units of the Confederate States Army; Joseph H. Crute, Jr.)
Losses to Penders Division at Gettysburg were 2,356.
A native North Carolinian, James Johnston Pettigrew was the true Southern Renaissance man. Born July 4, 1828, to wealth and station at the family plantation, Bonarva, he entered the University of North Carolina at the age of 14 and graduated as Valedictorian of his class in 1843. The 18 year old graduate was then appointed to a professorship at the U. S. Naval Observatory. However, he soon left to study in Europe, which included law and military studies and becoming an accomplished pianist. Returning to the United States and Charleston, South Carolina, he turned to the practice of law with his uncle, newspaper editing, and writing magazine articles. Elected to the South Carolina Legislature, he was voted out of office after he exposed his anti-slavery sentiments by introducing legislation to abolish slavery.
Yet, convinced that war with the North over economic and social issues was inevitable, Pettigrew became active in the South Carolina Militia, rising to be its Adjutant General by 1856. When South Carolina seceded in 1860, he was elected Colonel of the First Regiment of Rifles and served during the siege of Fort Sumter. After Fort Sumter, he offered his services to his native North Carolina and became Colonel of the 22nd North Carolina Regiment. It was here that he established those leadership practices of close attention to the feeding, shelter, and health of his troops that so distinguished him as a soldier and leader. As a matter of personal honor, he ate the same food and shared the same privations as his troops, denying himself what he could not share.
He was promoted to brigadier general over his own objections and appointed to a brigade command of North Carolina, Arkansas, Georgia, and Virginia troops.
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Fine web page on the 22nd North Carolina in the Gettysburg Campaign
Major's Corner, another 22d page
22nd NC Infantry
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